2022/11/01 更新

写真a

サワダ コズエ
沢田 こずえ
SAWADA Kozue
所属
大学院生命農学研究科 植物生産科学専攻 植物生産科学 特任助教
職名
特任助教

学位 1

  1. 博士(農学) ( 2010年3月 ) 

委員歴 1

  1. 日本土壌肥料学会   欧文誌(Soil Science and Plant Nutrition誌)編集委員  

    2014年10月 - 2016年9月   

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    団体区分:学協会

 

論文 18

  1. Comparison of the Structure and Diversity of Root-Associated and Soil Microbial Communities Between Acacia Plantations and Native Tropical Mountain Forests. 査読有り

    Sawada K, Watanabe S, Nguyen HL, Sugihara S, Seki M, Kobayashi H, Toyota K, Funakawa S

    Frontiers in microbiology   12 巻   頁: 735121   2021年9月

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    担当区分:筆頭著者, 責任著者   記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.735121

    PubMed

  2. Impacts of conversion from natural forest to cedar plantation on the structure and diversity of root-associated and soil microbial communities. 査読有り

    Sawada Kozue, Inagaki Yoshiyuki, Sugihara Soh, Funakawa Shinya, Karl Ritz, Toyota Koki

    Applied Soil Ecology, 167, 104027   167 巻   頁: 104027 - 104027   2021年

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Elsevier BV  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.apsoil.2021.104027

  3. 「ミニマム・ロスの農業」の規範となる自然生態系および伝統的農業生態系土壌における炭素・養分循環の解明 査読有り

    沢田こずえ, 渡邉哲弘, 舟川晋也

    土と微生物     2021年

  4. Priming effects induced by C and N additions in relation to microbial biomass turnover in Japanese forest soils. 査読有り

    Sawada Kozue, Inagaki Yoshiyuki, Toyota Koki

    Applied Soil Ecology   162 巻   頁: 103884 - 103884   2021年

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    掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:Elsevier BV  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.apsoil.2021.103884

  5. Immediate and subsequent effects of drying and rewetting on microbial biomass in a paddy soil 査読有り

    Kozue Sawada, Shinya Funakawa, Takashi Kosaki

    Soil Science and Plant Nutrition     2019年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

  6. Effects of 3-year cultivation on the soil nutrient status in a tropical forest and savanna of Central Africa, as determined by the microbial responses to substrate addition 査読有り

    Soh Sugihara, Yoko Fujimori, Makoto Shibata, Kozue Sawada, Haruo Tanaka, Antoine D, Mvondo Ze, Shigeru Araki, Takashi Kosaki, Shinya Funakawa

    Soil Science and Plant Nutrition     2018年

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    記述言語:日本語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

  7. Effect of repeated drying-rewetting cycles on microbial biomass carbon in soils with different climatic histories 査読有り

    Kozue Sawada, Shinya Funakawa, Takashi Kosaki

    APPLIED SOIL ECOLOGY   120 巻   頁: 1 - 7   2017年11月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV  

    There are contrasting results regarding the effect of repeated drying-rewetting (DRW) cycles on microbial biomass carbon (MBC), and two fundamentally different mechanisms have been postulated. The first is a microbial stress mechanism which will reduce MBC as stress-sensitive microbes die, and the second is a substrate supply mechanism which will increase MBC through the release of a microbial substrate from non-biomass soil organic carbon (C). However, the balance of these two mechanisms has not been fully examined for various soils with different climatic histories, especially for soils from humid areas. We hypothesized that soils subjected to fewer DRW events would be largely affected by the stress mechanism. Therefore, the effect of repeated DRW cycles on MBC and C dynamics was investigated and compared to that of a moist control treatment for four soils with different DRW histories. The first DRW significantly reduced the MBC for soils with less DRW but not for soils with more DRW. However, when comparing the sizes of MBC after 28 days of four DRW cycles and the moist treatment, the result was not related to the microbial resistance of each DRW. Cumulative respired CO2-C over a 4-day moist period after each DRW was always significantly greater than that in the moist treatment even when the MBC was not reduced by the DRW. The results with no change in MBC suggested that the substrate supply mechanism rather than the stress mechanism would be essential for the effect of repeated DRW cycles on MBC and C dynamics.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.apsoil.2017.07.023

    Web of Science

  8. Substrate-induced respiration responses to nitrogen and/or phosphorus additions in soils from different climatic and land use conditions 査読有り

    Kozue Sawada, Yoshiyuki Inagaki, Koki Toyota, Takashi Kosaki, Shinya Funakawa

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL BIOLOGY   83 巻   頁: 27 - 33   2017年11月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:ELSEVIER FRANCE-EDITIONS SCIENTIFIQUES MEDICALES ELSEVIER  

    The fates of carbon (C) input to soils widely vary under different nutrient availability. In this study, both initial substrate-induced respiration (SIR) rates and substrate-induced growth responses to nitrogen (N) and/or phosphorus (P) additions were investigated together because the two approaches had been assessed separately in previous studies. A wide range of Japanese, Thai and Kazakh soils with different land uses were used, including acidic Japanese forest soils with low N availability, which has not been fully examined. We hypothesized that microbes in Japanese forest soils would mainly respond to N addition. The results showed that N addition decreased initial SIR rates to 75-87% for the acidic Japanese and Thai forest soils probably due to the increases in substrate C use efficiencies, but had no effect for other soils. P addition tended to increase initial SIR rates. In addition, P but not N addition resulted in the increases of specific microbial growth rates for all tested soils. In conclusion, soil microbes responded to P addition with enhanced their growth rates and initial SIR rates, whereas they responded to N addition with reduced initial SIR rates probably through efficient use of C only for the Japanese and Thai forest soils. Therefore, nitrogen availability will have a crucial role in microbial use of substrate C especially for acidic forest soils with low N availability.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.ejsobi.2017.10.002

    Web of Science

  9. Short-term respiration responses to drying-rewetting in soils from different climatic and land use conditions 査読有り

    Kozue Sawada, Shinya Funakawa, Takashi Kosaki

    APPLIED SOIL ECOLOGY   103 巻   頁: 13 - 21   2016年7月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV  

    Many surface soils, including those that have rarely experienced dry conditions, may experience more frequent and/or intense drying-rewetting (DRW) events in the future. Such DRW events are likely to induce large and sudden CO2 pulses derived from increased substrate availability owing to their release from non-biomass soil organic C (SOC) and microbial biomass C (MBC); however, few studies have investigated respiration rates following DRW at high time resolutions (e.g., 1 h) or in soils from humid areas. In this study, DRW effects on the dynamics of respiration rates at hourly intervals for 12 h and substrate-induced respiration (SIR) rates were investigated. Soils previously subjected to different DRW frequencies were collected from forest and arable or grassland sites in Japan (humid), Thailand (semi-humid) and Kazakhstan (semi-arid). The relatively humid Japanese and Thai soils were further subjected to five DRW cycles in the laboratory to compare the effects of the first and fifth DRW. Respiration rates after the first and fifth DRW and first DRW to the Japanese and Thai forest soil, respectively, were not fitted by models employing exponentially-decaying functions, and were initially similar to SIR rates. In such cases, C-saturated conditions for surviving microbes would occur probably because of increased substrate availability following release from dead MBC, suggesting the importance of incorporating microbial parameters into SOC models. Respiration rates after DRW to other samples decreased exponentially to a constant rate. In such cases, when increases in the labile and stable C pools by DRW were estimated by the respiration kinetics, the labile C pool would be primarily derived from dead MBC. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.apsoil.2016.02.010

    Web of Science

  10. Potential nitrogen immobilization as influenced by available carbon in Japanese arable and forest soils 査読有り

    Kozue Sawada, Shinya Funakawa, Koki Toyota, Takashi Kosaki

    SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT NUTRITION   61 巻 ( 6 ) 頁: 917 - 926   2015年11月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD  

    Microbial nitrogen (N) immobilization following the addition of organic materials to soils regulates soil N availability, which affects plant growth and N leaching from soils. In this study, the potential for microbial N immobilization was evaluated by short-term incubation experiments following the addition of available carbon (C) under non-limiting conditions of N and phosphorus (P) to seven Japanese arable and forest soils. Glucose was added as a model substrate at concentrations close to microbial biomass C. The forest soils had lower pH and smaller increases in respiration rates after the glucose addition, and higher organic and biomass C compared to the arable soils. Microbial N immobilization, estimated by net decreases in extractable N, was significantly correlated with the concentrations of added glucose and was on average 43mgNg(-1) glucose C during 3- and 7-day incubation for all soils. Net increases in biomass N measured by the chloroform fumigation-extraction method using the common conversion factor of 0.54 at 3 and 7days after the glucose addition were lower than the microbial N immobilization for all soils, and the biomass N accounted for a smaller portion of immobilized N in the arable soils than in the forest soils. Therefore, the present study suggests that microbial N immobilization would be dependent on the concentrations of available C in organic materials and higher than the increases in biomass N, especially for arable soils when organic materials are added to soils under non-limiting conditions of N and P.

    DOI: 10.1080/00380768.2015.1075364

    Web of Science

  11. In situ short-term dynamics of CO2 flux and microbial biomass after simulated rainfall in dry croplands in four tropical and continental ecosystems 査読有り

    Soh Sugihara, Shinya Funakawa, Atsunobu Kadono, Yusuke Takata, Kozue Sawada, Kazumichi Fujii, Takashi Kosaki

    SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT NUTRITION   61 巻 ( 3 ) 頁: 392 - 403   2015年5月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD  

    The wet-dry cycles of soil primarily drive carbon (C) dynamics in dry croplands that mainly experience sporadic rainfall events. We evaluated the in situ short-term (hourly) dynamics of soil carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux and microbial biomass, to compare the significance of a single rainfall event with/without C substrate to reveal the effects of a single rainfall on the soil C dynamics in clayey dry croplands in four different climates and ecosystems. The experiments were conducted on four clayey dry croplands as follows: Thailand (TH) and Tanzania (TZ) in tropical climates, and Kazakhstan (KZ) and Hungary (HG) in continental climates. Hourly measurements of soil CO2 efflux, in situ microbial biomass (MB) and in situ microbial activity (qCO(2)) were conducted after the application of simulated rainfall (W plots) and rainfall/glucose (WG plots) treatments. We also evaluated the easily mineralizable carbon (EMC) by incubation. The rainfall treatment caused an increase in the qCO(2) but not in MB, causing a clear but short C flush in all W plots (10-37h), while the WG treatment caused an increase both of qCO(2) and MB, resulting in substantially longer and larger C flush in the WG plots (ca. 100h). The ratio of the cumulative soil CO2 flux caused by rainfall treatment to EMC was larger in TH-W and TZ-W plots (8.2 and 4.9%, respectively) than in the KZ-W and HG-W plots (2.9 and 1.1%, respectively). In addition, applied glucose was more heavily mineralized in the TH-WG and TZ-WG plots (15.0 and 9.7%, respectively) than in the KZ-WG and HG-WG plots (6.4 and 3.4%, respectively), because of the different MB increment patterns for the first 24h, i.e., immediate and large MB increments in TH and TZ, but not in KZ and HG. These results reveal a possible mechanism that causes the rapid decomposition of soil organic carbon and applied organic matter in the dry tropical cropland.

    DOI: 10.1080/00380768.2015.1018800

    Web of Science

  12. Effects of the application of digestates from wet and dry anaerobic fermentation to Japanese paddy and upland soils on short-term nitrification. 査読有り

    Sawada K, Toyota K

    Microbes and environments   30 巻 ( 1 ) 頁: 37 - 43   2015年

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)  

    DOI: 10.1264/jsme2.ME14080

    Web of Science

    PubMed

  13. 土壌微生物研究におけるモデル基質としてのグルコース利用―研究事例と今後の展望― 査読有り

    沢田こずえ, 豊田剛己

    土と微生物   67 巻 ( 1 ) 頁: 32 - 38   2013年4月

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    記述言語:日本語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:土壌微生物研究会  

    将来の気候変動下における土壌炭素循環の予測不確実性を解決するためには,土壌中での微生物を介した炭素循環メカニズムを解明することが重要である。これまで,土壌中で微生物が取り込む基質の主成分であるグルコースをモデル基質として用い,微生物メカニズムを解明する研究が発展してきた。本稿では,微生物がグルコースを吸収して増殖する期間とグルコースが微生物に吸収された後の期間に分けて,研究事例を紹介した。グルコース吸収期間において,バイオマス炭素の半分以下の低濃度のグルコースを添加後のCO2放出速度はミカエリス・メンテン式に従うことが分かった。また,バイオマス炭素以上の高濃度のグルコースを添加後のCO2放出速度の経時変化から,(1)土壌微生物をr戦略微生物とK戦略微生物に分けられること,(2)様々な生態系における窒素・リン制限についての情報が得られることが分かった。グルコース吸収後の期間においては,微生物の代謝回転速度とプライミング効果についてまとめた。プライミング効果の大きさを決定する要因として,添加基質炭素濃度と可給態窒素量が考えられた。今後の展望としては,微生物バイオマスの群集組成に着目した研究の発展が望まれる。

    DOI: 10.18946/jssm.67.1_32

    CiNii Books

    その他リンク: http://agriknowledge.affrc.go.jp/RN/2010852139

  14. 土壌微生物のグルコース利用効率に関与する要因の検証 査読有り

    沢田こずえ, 舟川晋也, 小崎隆

    土と微生物   65 巻 ( 1 ) 頁: 41 - 48   2011年4月

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    記述言語:日本語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:土壌微生物研究会  

    土壌微生物のグルコース利用効率は,有機物循環モデルにおけるパラメーターを見積もるために重要である。グルコース利用効率は,純粋培養微生物では約60%であることが知られている一方,土壌微生物においては,広い範囲の値が報告されている。本稿では,その要因を,全土壌に共通のものと,土壌の性質に由来するものに分けて検証した。共通要因として,(1)計算方法,(2)培養時間,(3)バイオマス炭素由来呼吸の影響.(4)添加グルコース炭素濃度が考えられた。特に(4)において,グルコース利用効率は,添加グルコース炭素濃度が増加するにつれて,ある閾値までは約80%と一定で,閾値を超えると徐々に低下することが明らかになった。一方土壌の性質に由来する要因として,(1)酸性や重金属ストレス,(2)養分濃度,(3)糸状菌と細菌の割合,(4)粘土含量が考えられた。しかし,これらの要因のうち,明らかにグルコース利用効率に影響を与えるものは存在しなかった。以上から,基質濃度が低い疑似定常状態では,基質利用効率を考慮しないこれまでのモデルで微生物呼吸量は十分予測できるが急激な基質添加がある状況下では,従来のモデルでは微生物呼吸量が過小評価される可能性があることが示唆された。

    DOI: 10.18946/jssm.65.1_41

    CiNii Books

    その他リンク: http://agriknowledge.affrc.go.jp/RN/2010810824

  15. Simulating short-term dynamics of non-increasing soil respiration rates by a model using Michaelis-Menten kinetics 査読有り

    Kozue Sawada, Shinya Funakawa, Takashi Kosaki

    SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT NUTRITION   56 巻 ( 6 ) 頁: 874 - 882   2010年12月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC  

    Short-term dynamics of soil respiration rates over time measured at hourly intervals during less than 12 h after microbial substrates were added to soils can be classified into first- order, zero-order and growth-associated types. To simulate the zero-order type respiration rates, a model using Michaelis-Menten kinetics is proposed, because this kinetics model includes a maximum respiration rate but no increase in microbial biomass. In this model, soil respiration by microorganisms was assumed to be the sum of the mineralization of easily available substrates (R), which include both added glucose (G) and substrates released by disturbance such as a mixing treatment (D) and constant mineralization under steady state conditions. By analyzing the short-term dynamics of previously published respiration rates, which show no increase with time, for a Kazakh forest, a Japanese forest and a Japanese arable soils, the parameter values of z(r) and D(0), which indicate the ratio of respired to utilized R and the initial concentration of D, respectively, were estimated. This allowed simulation of the decreasing concentrations of R and estimation of the parameters V(max) and M in the Michaelis-Menten equation. Simulations using the obtained parameter values matched the measured data well. Correlation coefficients (r(2)) and root mean square errors (RMSE) indicated that the simulations usually matched the measured data, which included not only zero-order respiration rates but also first- order respiration rates. Therefore, the proposed model using Michaelis-Menten kinetics can be used to simulate the short-term dynamics of respiration rates, which show no increase over time, when easily available substrates would be added in soils.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-0765.2010.00524.x

    Web of Science

    J-GLOBAL

  16. Threshold concentrations of glucose to increase the ratio of respiration to assimilation in a Japanese arable soil and a strongly acidic Japanese forest soil 査読有り

    Kozue Sawada, Shinya Funakawa, Takashi Kosaki

    SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT NUTRITION   55 巻 ( 5 ) 頁: 634 - 642   2009年10月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC  

    It is widely recognized that the efficiency of substrate C use in acid and/or disturbed soils by soil microorganisms is relatively low based on the observation that metabolic quotients (qCO(2)) are usually high in these soils. In the present study, threshold concentrations of glucose, at which the ratio of respiration to assimilation by soil microorganisms began to increase, were comparatively analyzed using two soils differing in pH and disturbance, a Japanese arable soil disturbed by cultivation and a strongly acidic Japanese forest soil. Varying concentrations of glucose C, generally less than those in the microbial biomass C, were added to the two soils. The ratio of respired to utilized glucose C remained at approximately 20% when lower concentrations of glucose were added and respiration rates did not increase (zero-order types), whereas the ratio increased when the concentrations of added glucose exceeded a certain level and respiration rates increased (growth-associated types). The substrate-induced respiration rate a few hours after the addition of glucose increased only for the growth-associated types, although chloroform-labile C increased in both types as the concentrations of added glucose increased. The results clearly confirmed the presence of a threshold concentration of glucose above which the ratio of respiration to assimilation increased. The threshold concentrations in Japanese arable and forest soils were lower than the concentration previously reported in a moderately acidic Kazakh forest soil. The lower threshold concentrations observed in the Japanese arable and forest soils are considered to result from different microbial growth characteristics after the addition of glucose linked with a shorter lag period before the exponential increase of the respiration rate and a lower ratio of substrate induced respiration rate to biomass C, respectively. The results suggest that the efficiency of substrate C use in acid and disturbed soils is relatively low in situations where higher concentrations of substrates are occasionally supplied with temporal C 'flushes', such as may occur in the rhizosphere or in the vicinity of plant residues.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-0765.2009.00400.x

    Web of Science

  17. Different effects of pH on microbial biomass carbon and metabolic quotients by fumigation-extraction and substrate-induced respiration methods in soils under different climatic conditions 査読有り

    Kozue Sawada, Shinya Funakawa, Takashi Kosaki

    SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT NUTRITION   55 巻 ( 3 ) 頁: 363 - 374   2009年6月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC  

    Soil microbial biomass C, the metabolic quotient ([qCO(2)] respiration rate to biomass ratio) and growth characteristics, such as lag period and specific respiration increment after the addition of glucose to the soil, were determined for 19 surface soils varying widely in pH and land use under different climatic conditions in Asia. The soil samples included natural undisturbed forest and grassland soils, and disturbed soils affected by cultivation or slash and burn agricultural practices. Although chloroform labile C was significantly correlated with the substrate-induced respiration (SIR) rate, the ratio of chloroform labile C to SIR was negatively correlated with soil pH. The SIR-biomass C to organic C ratio was significantly correlated with soil pH, but this correlation was not observed between pH and the biomass C to organic C ratio using the fumigation-extraction (FE) method. Similarly, the qCO(2) measured using SIR-biomass C (SIR-qCO(2)) was negatively correlated with soil pH, whereas the qCO(2) measured using FE-biomass C (FE-qCO(2)) was not correlated with pH. These results were in contrast to several reports on the significant correlations between soil pH and FE-biomass C to organic C ratio and FE-qCO(2) using soil samples collected from a relatively narrow range of climatic conditions. Therefore, it could be concluded that soil pH can indirectly affect the FE-biomass C to organic C ratio and FE-qCO(2) by affecting the quality and decomposition of litter and soil organic matter, but has a more direct effect on the SIR-biomass C to organic C ratio and SIR-qCO(2) by inhibiting the mineralization of glucose in acid soils. Although the lag period and the specific respiration increment were not well correlated with any measured variables, the lag period was significantly lower in the disturbed soils than in the natural undisturbed soils. This suggests that the lag period after glucose addition could be used as a good indicator of disturbance.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-0765.2009.00378.x

    Web of Science

  18. Soil microorganisms have a threshold concentration of glucose to increase the ratio of respiration to assimilation 査読有り

    Kozue Sawada, Shinya Funakawa, Takashi Kosak

    SOIL SCIENCE AND PLANT NUTRITION   54 巻 ( 2 ) 頁: 216 - 223   2008年4月

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    記述言語:英語   掲載種別:研究論文(学術雑誌)   出版者・発行元:BLACKWELL PUBLISHING  

    The ratio of respiration to assimilation of glucose in soil microorganisms is reported to increase as the concentrations of added glucose increase. To explain this, a conceptual model has already been proposed in which the glucose acquired by soil microbes is incorporated into either storage compounds or storage compounds together with structural compounds only if sufficient glucose is available for growth. The model also suggested that glucose incorporation into storage compounds required less respiration and more assimilation than incorporation into structural compounds. We hypothesized that soil microbes start to invest acquired glucose into the synthesis of structural compounds when added glucose exceeds a threshold concentration. To confirm this hypothesis we investigated the patterns of glucose use after the addition of glucose C at 23 to 311% of biomass C, levels that are much lower than those tested in previous studies. Respiration rates did not increase (zero-order types) when added glucose C ranged from 23 to 47% of biomass C, but they did increase (growth-associated types) when glucose C was more than 78% of biomass C. The ratio of respiration to utilized glucose was approximately 20% for the zero-order types, but was higher than 20% and increased as the concentrations of added glucose increased for the growth-associated types. In addition, the substrate-induced respiration rate at 12 h after the glucose addition increased only for the growth-associated types, although chloroform-labile C increased in both types as the concentrations of added glucose increased. These results suggested that structural compounds were synthesized only for the growth-associated types and, thus, there was a threshold concentration of glucose over which structural compounds started to be synthesized in soil microbes and the ratio of respiration to assimilation started to increase.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-0765.2007.00235.x

    Web of Science

▼全件表示

書籍等出版物 3

  1. 土壌生化学(実践土壌学シリーズ 3)

    沢田こずえ( 担当: 共著 ,  範囲: 第3章「微生物バイオマスと群集構造」、P. 25-38、)

    朝倉書店  2019年 

  2. 土のひみつ~食料・環境・生命~

    沢田こずえ, 豊田剛己( 担当: 分担執筆 ,  範囲: 第5-3章:土壌に窒素が供給されると大気中の二酸化炭素が減少する?)

    朝倉書店  2015年9月 

  3. 改訂新土壌微生物実験法

    沢田こずえ( 担当: 分担執筆 ,  範囲: 第11-3章:基質誘導呼吸法)

    養賢堂  2013年7月 

MISC 2

  1. 書評:金子信博編「土壌生態学(実践土壌学シリーズ2)」 招待有り

    沢田こずえ  

    日本土壌肥料学雑誌90 巻   頁: 106   2019年

  2. 書評:Kevin R Tate 編 「Microbial Biomass: A Paradigm Shift in Terrestrial Biogeochemistry」 招待有り

    沢田こずえ  

    土と微生物72 巻 ( 1 ) 頁: 57 - 58   2018年4月

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    記述言語:日本語   掲載種別:書評論文,書評,文献紹介等  

講演・口頭発表等 2

  1. 「分解者」の定義に当てはめて土壌微生物とその働きを考える 招待有り

    沢田こずえ

    日本生態学会自由集会  2017年3月15日 

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    記述言語:日本語   会議種別:口頭発表(招待・特別)  

  2. 「ミニマム・ロス」の農業の規範となる自然生態系土壌における微生物群集組成と養分循環の解明 招待有り

    沢田こずえ

    日本土壌微生物学会2021年度大会シンポジウム(東京)  2021年6月 

科研費 5

  1. 「ミニマム・ロスの農業」実現を目指して

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    担当区分:研究分担者 

  2. 熱帯畑作地における有機物の「質・量」統合的生態系管理による劣化土壌修復技術の創出

    基盤B

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    担当区分:研究分担者 

    2年目にあたる本年度は、課題1:土地利用が土壌微生物群集の多様性・機能および群集内・間の炭素利用効率に与える影響の解明、に取り組むため、昨年度に引き続き、タンザニアにおいて、土地利用が異なる4地点から採取した土壌の分析を行った。この結果、アンプリコン解析を用いた土壌微生物の群集構造の解析およびシャノン指数を用いた多様性評価の結果、炭素利用効率が高い地点で、1)特定の微生物群集が存在すること、2)微生物の多様性が高いこと、を明らかにした。以上のことは、仮説「農地化に伴う微生物群集構造の変化は炭素利用効率を低下させる」を支持している。
    これに加えて、土壌の理化学性と微生物群集構造は類似しているが、微生物の多様性と炭素利用効率には有意な差がある、畑地と乾燥林の2地点を対象に、添加した炭素を実際に体内に取り込んだ微生物の群集構造や多様性を特定するために、Stable Isotope Probe法を用いた実験を行い、試料を作成した。次年度以降、これら試料中の微生物群集を、アンプリコン解析により評価することで、実際に基質を利用している微生物群集が土地利用間でどの程度違うのか、に着目して、2地点の炭素利用効率の違いを検討する。
    また、上述した結果は熱帯酸性土壌であるタンザニアでの実験結果であるが、熱帯アルカリ性土壌であるインドでも同様の調査を実施し、類似の試験設定で各種試料を採取している。次年度以降、同様の実験を行い解析することで、より広範な生態環境条件下を対象とした仮説の検証を行う。
    上述したとおり、当初の計画通り、昨年度入手した分析試料の分析や解析が順調に進んでいる。加えて、現在までに得られた結果も仮説を支持するものとなっていることから、(2)おおむね順調に進展している、といえる。
    課題1の達成のために、引き続き1-2年目に採取・精製した試料を用いた分析を行う。具体的には、SIP法を用いた土壌微生物の群集内における炭素資源利用特性の評価(タンザニアの試料)と、土地利用ごとの土壌理化学性と土壌微生物の群集構造および炭素利用効率の関係性解明(インドの試料)である。これらの遂行により、仮説「農地化に伴う微生物群集構造の変化は炭素利用効率を低下させる」を熱帯地域において実証する。
    次に、課題2:多様な有機物の施用が有機物分解速度に与える影響の解明、に関しては、COVID-19の影響も考慮しつつ、安全第一としたうえで、慎重かつ柔軟に研究を進めることとする。具体的には、万が一、現地での圃場試験ができなかった場合には、すでに手元にある現地土壌を用いて、日本国内で類似の培養実験を実施することを検討する。
    加えて、得られた研究成果を国内外の学会で発表するとともに、投稿論文の取りまとめを行う。

  3. 熱帯土壌におけるリン利用性が有機物分解・蓄積に与える影響

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    担当区分:研究代表者 

  4. 土壌有機炭素の蓄積・分解を制御するメカニズムの解明

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    担当区分:研究分担者 

  5. 森林生態系における土壌微生物の多様性とプライミング効果の関係

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    担当区分:研究代表者