Updated on 2021/11/02

写真a

 
OHATA Sho
 
Organization
Institute for Advanced Research Assistant Professor
Graduate School
Graduate School of Environmental Studies
Title
Assistant Professor
Contact information
メールアドレス
External link

Degree 1

  1. Doctor (Science) ( 2015.3   The University of Tokyo ) 

Research Interests 2

  1. Atmospheric chemistry

  2. エアロゾル

Research Areas 1

  1. Environmental Science/Agriculture Science / Environmental dynamic analysis  / エアロゾル、大気化学

Current Research Project and SDGs 1

  1. エアロゾルの気候・環境影響

Research History 4

  1. Nagoya University, Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research   Assistant Professor

    2018.10

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    Country:Japan

  2. The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Science, Department of Earth and Planetary Science   Designated assistant professor

    2018.5 - 2018.9

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    Country:Japan

  3. The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Science, Department of Earth and Planetary Science   Project researcher

    2015.4 - 2018.4

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    Country:Japan

  4. Japan Society for Promotion of Science   Research Fellowship for Young Scientists

    2012.4 - 2015.3

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    Country:Japan

Education 3

  1. The University of Tokyo   Graduate School, Division of Science   Department of Earth and Planetary Science

    2012.4 - 2015.3

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    Country: Japan

  2. The University of Tokyo   Graduate School, Division of Science   Department of Earth and Planetary Science

    2010.4 - 2012.3

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    Country: Japan

  3. The University of Tokyo   Faculty of Science

    2006.4 - 2010.3

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    Country: Japan

Awards 3

  1. 日本気象学会 山本賞

    2017.10   日本気象学会  

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    Award type:Award from Japanese society, conference, symposium, etc.  Country:Japan

  2. 東京大学理学系研究科 研究奨励賞

    2015.3   東京大学  

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    Country:Japan

  3. 日本地球惑星科学連合大会 学生優秀発表賞

    2014.5   日本地球惑星科学連合大会  

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    Award type:Award from Japanese society, conference, symposium, etc.  Country:Japan

 

Papers 31

  1. Arctic black carbon during PAMARCMiP 2018 and previous aircraft experiments in spring Reviewed

    S. Ohata, M. Koike, A. Yoshida, N. Moteki, K. Adachi, N. Oshima, H. Matsui, O. Eppers, H. Bozem, M. Zanatta, A. B. Herber

    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (in press)     2021.11

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    Authorship:Lead author  

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  2. Estimates of mass absorption cross sections of black carbon for filter-based absorption photometers in the Arctic

    Ohata S., Mori T., Kondo Y., Sharma S., Hyvärinen A., Andrews E., Tunved P., Asmi E., Backman J., Servomaa H., Veber D., Eleftheriadis K., Vratolis S., Krejci R., Zieger P., Koike M., Kanaya Y., Yoshida A., Moteki N., Zhao Y., Tobo Y., Matsushita J., Oshima N.

    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques   Vol. 14 ( 10 ) page: 6723 - 6748   2021.10

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:Atmospheric Measurement Techniques  

    Long-Term measurements of atmospheric mass concentrations of black carbon (BC) are needed to investigate changes in its emission, transport, and deposition. However, depending on instrumentation, parameters related to BC such as aerosol absorption coefficient (babs) have been measured instead. Most ground-based measurements of babs in the Arctic have been made by filter-based absorption photometers, including particle soot absorption photometers (PSAPs), continuous light absorption photometers (CLAPs), Aethalometers, and multi-Angle absorption photometers (MAAPs). The measured babs can be converted to mass concentrations of BC (MBC) by assuming the value of the mass absorption cross section (MAC; MBCCombining double low lineg babs/g MAC). However, the accuracy of conversion of babs to MBC has not been adequately assessed. Here, we introduce a systematic method for deriving MAC values from babs measured by these instruments and independently measured MBC. In this method, MBC was measured with a filter-based absorption photometer with a heated inlet (COSMOS). COSMOS-derived MBC (MBC (COSMOS)) is traceable to a rigorously calibrated single particle soot photometer (SP2), and the absolute accuracy of MBC (COSMOS) has been demonstrated previously to be about 15g % in Asia and the Arctic. The necessary conditions for application of this method are a high correlation of the measured babs with independently measured MBC and long-Term stability of the regression slope, which is denoted as MACcor (MAC derived from the correlation). In general, babs-MBC (COSMOS) correlations were high (r2Combining double low lineg 0.76-0.95 for hourly data) at Alert in Canada, Ny-Ålesund in Svalbard, Barrow (NOAA Barrow Observatory) in Alaska, Pallastunturi in Finland, and Fukue in Japan and stable for up to 10 years. We successfully estimated MACcor values (10.8-15.1g m2g g-1 at a wavelength of 550g nm for hourly data) for these instruments, and these MACcor values can be used to obtain error-constrained estimates of MBC from babs measured at these sites even in the past, when COSMOS measurements were not made. Because the absolute values of MBC at these Arctic sites estimated by this method are consistent with each other, they are applicable to the study of spatial and temporal variation in MBC in the Arctic and to evaluation of the performance of numerical model calculations.

    DOI: 10.5194/amt-14-6723-2021

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  3. Absorption instruments inter-comparison campaign at the Arctic Pallas station

    Eija Asmi, John Backman, Henri Servomaa, Aki Virkkula, Maria I. Gini, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Thomas Müller, Sho Ohata, Yutaka Kondo, Antti Hyvärinen

    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques   Vol. 14 ( 8 ) page: 5397 - 5413   2021.8

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Copernicus GmbH  

    Abstract. Aerosol light absorption was measured during a 1-month field campaign in June–July 2019 at the Pallas Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station in northern Finland. Very low aerosol concentrations prevailed during the campaign, which posed a challenge for the instruments' detection capabilities. The campaign provided a real-world test for different absorption measurement techniques supporting the goals of the European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR) Black Carbon (BC) project in developing aerosol absorption standard and reference methods. In this study we compare the results from five filter-based absorption techniques – aethalometer models AE31 and AE33, a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP), a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a continuous soot monitoring system (COSMOS) – and from one indirect technique called extinction minus scattering (EMS). The ability of the filter-based techniques was shown to be adequate to measure aerosol light absorption coefficients down to around 0.01 Mm−1 levels when data were averaged to 1–2 h. The hourly averaged atmospheric absorption measured by the reference MAAP was 0.09 Mm−1 (at a wavelength of 637 nm). When data were averaged for >1 h, the filter-based methods agreed to around 40 %. COSMOS systematically measured the lowest absorption coefficient values, which was expected due to the sample pre-treatment in the COSMOS inlet. PSAP showed the best linear correlation with MAAP (slope=0.95, R2=0.78), followed by AE31 (slope=0.93). A scattering correction applied to PSAP data improved the data accuracy despite the added noise. However, at very high scattering values the correction led to an underestimation of the absorption. The AE31 data had the highest noise and the correlation with MAAP was the lowest (R2=0.65). Statistically the best linear correlations with MAAP were obtained for AE33 and COSMOS (R2 close to 1), but the biases at around the zero values led to slopes clearly below 1. The sample pre-treatment in the COSMOS instrument resulted in the lowest fitted slope. In contrast to the filter-based techniques, the indirect EMS method was not adequate to measure the low absorption values found at the Pallas site. The lowest absorption at which the EMS signal could be distinguished from the noise was >0.1 Mm−1 at 1–2 h averaging times. The mass absorption cross section (MAC) value measured at a range 0–0.3 Mm−1 was calculated using the MAAP and a single particle soot photometer (SP2), resulting in a MAC value of 16.0±5.7 m2 g−1. Overall, our results demonstrate the challenges encountered in the aerosol absorption measurements in pristine environments and provide some useful guidelines for instrument selection and measurement practices. We highlight the need for a calibrated transfer standard for better inter-comparability of the absorption results.

    DOI: 10.5194/amt-14-5397-2021

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  4. Seasonal Variation of Wet Deposition of Black Carbon at Ny‐Ålesund, Svalbard

    Tatsuhiro Mori, Yutaka Kondo, Sho Ohata, Kumiko Goto‐Azuma, Kaori Fukuda, Yoshimi Ogawa‐Tsukagawa, Nobuhiro Moteki, Atsushi Yoshida, Makoto Koike, P. R. Sinha, Naga Oshima, Hitoshi Matsui, Yutaka Tobo, Masanori Yabuki, Wenche Aas

    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres   Vol. 126 ( 12 )   2021.6

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:American Geophysical Union (AGU)  

    DOI: 10.1029/2020JD034110

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    Other Link: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full-xml/10.1029/2020JD034110

  5. Compositions and mixing states of aerosol particles by aircraft observations in the Arctic springtime, 2018 Reviewed

    Kouji Adachi, Naga Oshima, Sho Ohata, Atsushi Yoshida, Nobuhiro Moteki, Makoto Koike

    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics   Vol. 21 ( 5 ) page: 3607 - 3626   2021.3

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Copernicus GmbH  

    Abstract. Aerosol particles were collected at various altitudes in
    the Arctic during the Polar Airborne Measurements and Arctic Regional
    Climate Model Simulation Project 2018 (PAMARCMiP 2018) conducted in the
    early spring of 2018. The composition, size, number fraction, and mixing state of
    individual aerosol particles were analyzed using transmission electron
    microscopy (TEM), and their sources and transport were evaluated by
    numerical model simulations. We found that sulfate, sea-salt, mineral-dust,
    K-bearing, and carbonaceous particles were the major aerosol constituents.
    Many particles were composed of two or more compositions that had coagulated
    and were coated with sulfate, organic materials, or both. The number
    fraction of mineral-dust and sea-salt particles decreased with increasing
    altitude. The K-bearing particles increased within a biomass burning (BB)
    plume at altitudes > 3900 m, which originated from Siberia.
    Chlorine in sea-salt particles was replaced with sulfate at high altitudes.
    These results suggest that the sources, transport, and aging of Arctic
    aerosols largely vary depending on the altitude and air-mass history. We also
    provide the occurrences of solid-particle inclusions (soot, fly-ash, and
    Fe-aggregate particles), some of which are light-absorbing particles. They
    were mainly emitted from anthropogenic and biomass burning sources and were
    embedded within other relatively large host particles. Our TEM measurements
    revealed the detailed mixing state of individual particles at various
    altitudes in the Arctic. This information facilitates the accurate
    evaluation of the aerosol influences on Arctic haze, radiation balance,
    cloud formation, and snow/ice albedo when deposited.

    DOI: 10.5194/acp-21-3607-2021

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  6. Studies on Arctic aerosols and clouds during the ArCS project Reviewed

    Polar Science     2020.11

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    Language:English   Publisher:Polar Science  

    DOI: 10.1016/j.polar.2020.100621

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  7. Seasonal Variation of Wet Deposition of Black Carbon in Arctic Alaska

    T. Mori, Y. Kondo, S. Ohata, Y. Zhao, P. R. Sinha, N. Oshima, H. Matsui, N. Moteki, M. Koike

    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres   Vol. 125 ( 16 )   2020.8

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    DOI: 10.1029/2019JD032240

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  8. Abundances and Microphysical Properties of Light‐Absorbing Iron Oxide and Black Carbon Aerosols Over East Asia and the Arctic Reviewed

    Atsushi Yoshida, Nobuhiro Moteki, Sho Ohata, Tatsuhiro Mori, Makoto Koike, Yutaka Kondo, Hitoshi Matsui, Naga Oshima, Akinori Takami, Kazuyuki Kita

    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres   Vol. 125 ( 15 )   2020.8

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:American Geophysical Union (AGU)  

    DOI: 10.1029/2019JD032301

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    Other Link: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full-xml/10.1029/2019JD032301

  9. Changes in black carbon and PM<sub>2.5</sub> in Tokyo in 2003-2017.

    Mori T, Ohata S, Morino Y, Koike M, Moteki N, Kondo Y

    Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and biological sciences   Vol. 96 ( 3 ) page: 122-129   2020.3

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    DOI: 10.2183/pjab.96.010

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  10. Concentrations and size distributions of black carbon in the surface snow of Eastern Antarctica in 2011 Reviewed

    T. Kinase, K. Adachi, N. Oshima, K. Goto-Azuma, Y. Ogawa-Tsukagawa, M. Shiobara, Y. Kondo, N. Moteki, S. Ohata, T. Mori, M. Hayashi, K. Hara, H. Kawashima, and K. Kita

    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres   Vol. 125   2019.12

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    DOI: 10.1029/2019JD030737

  11. Black Carbon and Inorganic Aerosols in Arctic Snowpack Reviewed

    Mori Tatsuhiro, Goto-Azuma Kumiko, Kondo Yutaka, Ogawa-Tsukagawa Yoshimi, Miura Kazuhiko, Hirabayashi Motohiro, Oshima Naga, Koike Makoto, Kupiainen Kaarle, Moteki Nobuhiro, Ohata Sho, Sinha P. R., Sugiura Konosuke, Aoki Teruo, Schneebeli Martin, Steffen Konrad, Sato Atsushi, Tsushima Akane, Makarov Vladimir, Omiya Satoshi, Sugimoto Atsuko, Takano Shinya, Nagatsuka Naoko

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES   Vol. 124 ( 23 ) page: 13325-13356   2019.12

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    DOI: 10.1029/2019JD030623

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  12. Accuracy of black carbon measurements by a filter-based absorption photometer with a heated inlet Reviewed

    Sho Ohata, Yutaka Kondo, Nobuhiro Moteki, Tatsuhiro Mori, Atsushi Yoshida, Puna R. Sinha, Makoto Koike

    AEROSOL SCI TECH   Vol. 53 ( 9 ) page: 1079 - 1091   2019.9

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    DOI: 10.1080/02786826.2019.1627283

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  13. Glacially sourced dust as a potentially significant source of ice nucleating particles Reviewed

    Y. Tobo, K. Adachi, P. J. DeMott, T. C. J. Hill, D. S. Hamilton, N. M. Mahowald, N. Nagatsuka, S. Ohata, J. Uetake, Y. Kondo, and M. Koike

    Nature Geoscience     2019.3

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    DOI: doi: 10.1038/s41561-019-0314-x

  14. Observational constraint of in-cloud supersaturation for simulations of aerosol rainout in atmospheric models Reviewed

    N. Moteki, T. Mori, H. Matsui, S. Ohata

    npj Climate and Atmospheric Science     page: 2:6   2019.2

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    DOI: doi: 10.1038/s41612-019-0063-y

  15. Abundance and emission flux of the anthropogenic iron oxide aerosols from the East Asian continental outflow Reviewed

    A. Yoshida, S. Ohata, N. Moteki, K. Adachi, T. Mori, M. Koike, and A. Takami

    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres   Vol. 123   page: 11194-11209   2018.10

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  16. エアロゾルの湿性除去メカニズムに関する観測的研究 Invited Reviewed

    大畑祥

    天気   Vol. 65 ( 9 ) page: 617-626   2018.9

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  17. Abundance of light-absorbing anthropogenic iron oxide aerosols in the urban atmosphere and their emission sources Reviewed

    S. Ohata, A. Yoshida, N. Moteki, K. Adachi, Y. Takahashi, M. Kurisu, and M. Koike

    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres   Vol. 123   page: 8115-8134   2018.8

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  18. Anthropogenic combustion iron as a complex climate forcer Reviewed

    Matsui Hitoshi, Mahowald Natalie M., Moteki Nobuhiro, Hamilton Douglas S., Ohata Sho, Yoshida Atsushi, Koike Makoto, Scanza Rachel A., Flanner Mark G.

    Nature communications   Vol. 9 ( 1 ) page: 1593   2018.4

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    DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-03997-0

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  19. Seasonal progression of the deposition of black carbon by snowfall at Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen Reviewed

    P. R. Sinha, Y. Kondo, K. Goto-Azuma, Y. Tsukagawa, K. Fukuda, M. Koike, S. Ohata, N. Moteki, T. Mori, N. Oshima, E. J. Forland, M. Irwin, J.-C. Gallet, and C. A. Pedersen

    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres   Vol. 123   page: 997-1016   2018.1

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  20. Anthropogenic iron oxide aerosols enhance atmospheric heating Reviewed

    Nobuhiro Moteki, Kouji Adachi, Sho Ohata, Atsushi Yoshida, Tomoo Harigaya, Makoto Koike, Yutaka Kondo

    NATURE COMMUNICATIONS   Vol. 8   page: 15329   2017.5

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    Combustion-induced carbonaceous aerosols, particularly black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC), have been largely considered as the only significant anthropogenic contributors to shortwave atmospheric heating. Natural iron oxide (FeOx) has been recognized as an important contributor, but the potential contribution of anthropogenic FeOx is unknown. In this study, we quantify the abundance of FeOx over East Asia through aircraft measurements using a modified single-particle soot photometer. The majority of airborne FeOx particles in the continental outflows are of anthropogenic origin in the form of aggregated magnetite nanoparticles. The shortwave absorbing powers (P-abs) attributable to FeOx and to BC are calculated on the basis of their size-resolved mass concentrations and the mean P-abs(FeOx)/P-abs(BC) ratio in the continental outflows is estimated to be at least 4-7%. We demonstrate that in addition to carbonaceous aerosols the aggregate of magnetite nanoparticles is a significant anthropogenic contributor to shortwave atmospheric heating.

    DOI: 10.1038/ncomms15329

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  21. Evaluation of ground-based black carbon measurements by filter-based photometers at two Arctic sites Reviewed

    P. R. Sinha, Y. Kondo, M. Koike, J. A. Ogren, A. Jefferson, T. E. Barrett, R. J. Sheesley, S. Ohata, N. Moteki, H. Coe, D. Liu, M. Irwin, P. Tunved, P.K. Quinn, and Y. Zhao

    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres   Vol. 122   page: 3544-3572   2017.5

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  22. アラスカ積雪中のブラックカーボンの緯度分布 Reviewed

    塚川佳美,東久美子,近藤豊,杉浦幸之助,大畑祥,森樹大,茂木信宏,小池真,平林幹啓,Remi Dallmayr,榎本浩之

    雪氷   Vol. 78 ( 6 ) page: 459-478   2016.11

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  23. A key process controlling the wet removal of aerosols: new observational evidence Reviewed

    S. Ohata, N. Moteki, T. Mori, M. Koike, and Y. Kondo

    Scientific Reports   Vol. 6   page: 34113   2016.10

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    DOI: doi: 10.1038/srep34113

  24. Effects of wet deposition on the abundance and size distribution of black carbon in East Asia Reviewed

    Y. Kondo, N. Moteki, N. Oshima, S. Ohata, M. Koike, Y. Shibano, N. Takegawa, and K. Kita

    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres   Vol. 121   page: 4691-4712   2016.5

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  25. Improved technique for measuring the size distribution of black carbon particles in liquid water Reviewed

    T. Mori, N. Moteki, S. Ohata, M. Koike, K. Goto-Azuma, Y. Miyazaki, and Y. Kondo

    Aerosol Science and Technology   Vol. 50   page: 242-254   2016.2

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  26. Detection of light-absorbing iron oxide particles using a modified single-particle soot photometer Reviewed

    A. Yoshida, N. Moteki, S. Ohata, T. Mori, R. Tada, P. Dagsson-Waldhauserová, and Y. Kondo

    Aerosol Science and Technology   Vol. 50 ( 3 ) page: i-iv   2016.1

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  27. Hygroscopicity of materials internally mixed with black carbon measured in Tokyo Reviewed

    S. Ohata, J. P. Schwarz, N. Moteki, M. Koike, A. Takami, and Y. Kondo

    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres   Vol. 121   page: 362-381   2016.1

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  28. Technique and theoretical approach for quantifying the hygroscopicity of black-carbon-containing aerosol using a single particle soot photometer Reviewed

    J. P. Schwarz, A. E. Perring, M. Z. Markovic, R. S. Gao, S. Ohata, J. Langridge, D. Law, R. McLaughlin, and D. W. Fahey

    Journal of Aerosol Science   Vol. 81   page: 110-126   2015.1

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  29. Wet deposition of black carbon at a remote site in the East China Sea Reviewed

    T. Mori, Y. Kondo, S. Ohata, N. Moteki, H. Matsui, N. Oshima, and A. Iwasaki

    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres   Vol. 119   2014.8

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    DOI: doi:10.1002/2014JD022103

  30. Evaluation of a method to measure black carbon particles suspended in rainwater and snow samples Reviewed

    S. Ohata, N. Moteki, J. P. Schwarz, D. W. Fahey, and Y. Kondo

      Vol. 47   page: 1073-1082   2013.8

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  31. Evaluation of a method for measurement of the concentration and size distribution of black carbon particles suspended in rainwater Reviewed

    S. Ohata, N. Moteki, and Y. Kondo.

    Aerosol Science and Technology   Vol. 45   page: 1326-1336   2011.6

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MISC 3

  1. 2019年度「エアロゾル・雲・降水の相互作用に関する研究会」報告

    佐藤陽祐,當房豊,山下克也,荒木健太郎,岩崎杉紀,三隅良平,大竹秀明,茂木信宏,齋藤泉,川合秀明,中島孝,中野諭,森樹大,橋本明弘,郭威鎮,勝山祐太,瀬戸里枝,古藤慎之,山田怜史,折笠成宏,田尻拓也,遠藤幸生,近藤誠,大畑祥,松嶋俊樹

    天気   Vol. 67 ( 11 ) page: 665 - 671   2020.11

  2. 降水雲の過飽和度を観測から制約する:エアロゾル空間分布の予測のために

    茂木信宏,森樹大,松井仁志,大畑祥

    大気化学研究   ( 41 )   2019.7

  3. 第17回国際雲・降水会議(ICCP2016)の報告

    三隅良平,岩崎杉紀,道端拓朗,竹見哲也,山下克也,佐藤陽祐,當房豊,大畑祥,橋本明弘,折笠成宏,田尻拓也,村上正隆

    天気   Vol. 63 ( 11 ) page: 862 - 868   2016.11

Presentations 23

  1. SPES法に基づく非水溶性エアロゾルの測定

    大畑祥

    アジア高山域における氷河融解を加速する光吸収性不純物に関する研究集会  2021.11.1 

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    Event date: 2021.11

  2. Arctic black carbon during PAMARCMiP 2018 and previous aircraft experiments in spring

    Sho Ohata

    2021.6 

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    Event date: 2021.6

  3. Estimates of mass absorption cross sections of black carbon for filter-based absorption photometers in the Arctic

    Sho Ohata

    4th PACES Open Science Meeting  2021.5 

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    Event date: 2021.5

  4. 雪氷中のブラックカーボンの測定方法

    大畑祥

    研究集会:氷河融解を加速する光吸収性不純物に関する研究  2020.10 

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    Event date: 2020.10

  5. 大気化学会のロードマップについて

    松井仁志、大畑祥

    2019年度 エアロゾル・雲・降水の相互作用に関する研究集会  2020.2 

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    Event date: 2020.2

  6. 日本北部における大気エアロゾル観測拠点の整備

    持田陸宏、大畑祥

    H30年度陸別ユーザーズミーティング  2019.2 

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    Event date: 2019.2

  7. 北極におけるエアロゾル・雲の航空機観測

    大畑祥、吉田淳、茂木信宏、足立光司、小池真

    研究集会:航空機観測による気候・地球システム科学研究の推進 

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    Event date: 2018.12

    Language:Japanese   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Country:Japan  

  8. Abundance of light-absorbing anthropogenic iron oxide aerosols in the urban atmosphere and their emission sources International conference

    S. Ohata, A. Yoshida, N. Moteki, K. Adachi, Y. Takahashi, M. Kurisu, and M. Koike

    2018 joint 14th iCACGP Quadrennial Symposium/15th IGAC Science Conference 

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    Event date: 2018.9

    Language:English   Presentation type:Poster presentation  

    Country:Japan  

  9. 北極におけるエアロゾル・雲の航空機観測

    大畑祥、吉田淳、茂木信宏、足立光司、小池真

    日本地球惑星科学連合 

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    Event date: 2018.5

    Language:Japanese   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Country:Japan  

  10. Long-term and intensive measurements of black carbon aerosols in the Arctic

    S. Ohata, M. Koike, P. R. Sinha, N. Moteki, K. Goto-Azuma, Y. Ogawa-Tsukagawa, T. Mori, A. Yoshida, Y. Tobo, and Y. Kondo

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    Event date: 2017.12

    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Country:Japan  

  11. 東京都市大気における黒色酸化鉄の動態と発生源

    大畑祥、茂木信宏、吉田淳、小池真、足立光司、近藤豊

    日本気象学会 

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    Event date: 2017.10

    Language:Japanese   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Country:Japan  

  12. エアロゾル湿性除去メカニズムに関する観測的研究(2017年度山本賞受賞記念講演) Invited

    大畑祥

    日本気象学会 

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    Event date: 2017.10

    Language:Japanese   Presentation type:Oral presentation (invited, special)  

    Country:Japan  

  13. Wet removal of black carbon aerosols controlled by their cloud condensation nuclei activity International conference

    S. Ohata, N. Moteki, T. Mori, M. Koike, and Y. Kondo

    International Conference on Clouds and Precipitation 2016 

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    Event date: 2016.7

    Language:English   Presentation type:Poster presentation  

    Country:United Kingdom  

  14. Hygroscopicity of materials internally mixed with black carbon measured in Tokyo International conference

    S. Ohata, J.P. Schwarz, N. Moteki, M. Koike, A. Takami, and Y. Kondo

    AGU Fall Meeting 

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    Event date: 2015.12

    Language:English   Presentation type:Poster presentation  

    Country:United States  

  15. 大気・降水同時観測によるブラックカーボン湿性除去の研究

    大畑祥、茂木信宏、森樹大、小池真、高見昭憲、近藤豊

    日本気象学会 

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    Event date: 2015.5

    Language:Japanese   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Country:Japan  

  16. 東京におけるブラックカーボン含有粒子の吸湿特性と湿性除去の測定 International conference

    大畑祥、茂木信宏、森樹大、小池真、高見昭憲、近藤豊

    日本地球惑星科学連合 

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    Event date: 2015.5

    Language:Japanese   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Country:Japan  

  17. Measurement of the hygroscopicity and wet removal of black-carbon-containing particles in the urban atmosphere of Tokyo International conference

    S. Ohata, N. Moteki, T. Mori, M. Koike, J. P. Schwarz, and Y. Kondo

    EGU General Assembly 2015 

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    Event date: 2015.4

    Language:English   Presentation type:Poster presentation  

    Country:Austria  

  18. ブラックカーボン含有粒子の吸湿性を測定する新手法の開発

    大畑祥、茂木信宏、Joshua P. Schwarz, 近藤豊

    日本地球惑星科学連合 

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    Event date: 2014.5

    Language:Japanese   Presentation type:Poster presentation  

    Country:Japan  

  19. 雨・雪サンプル中のブラックカーボンの測定法の開発

    大畑祥、茂木信宏、Joshua P. Schwarz, David W. Fahey, 近藤豊

    日本地球惑星科学連合 

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    Event date: 2013.5

    Language:Japanese   Presentation type:Poster presentation  

    Country:Japan  

  20. Evaluations of the method to measure black carbon particles suspended in rainwater and snow samples International conference

    S. Ohata, N. Moteki, J. P. Schwarz, D. W. Fahey, and Y. Kondo

    AGU Fall Meeting 

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    Event date: 2012.12

    Language:English   Presentation type:Oral presentation (general)  

    Country:United States  

  21. Evaluation of a method for measurement of black carbon particles suspended in rainwater and its application to long-term measurement at a remote site in the East China Sea International conference

    S. Ohata, N. Moteki, and Y. Kondo

    AGU Fall Meeting 

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    Event date: 2011.12

    Language:English   Presentation type:Poster presentation  

    Country:United States  

  22. SP2を用いた雨水中のブラックカーボンの測定法の開発

    大畑祥、茂木信宏、宮川拓真、近藤豊

    日本地球惑星科学連合 

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    Event date: 2011.5

    Language:Japanese   Presentation type:Poster presentation  

    Country:Japan  

  23. 東京と沖縄における雨水中のブラックカーボン濃度の測定

    大畑祥、茂木信宏、近藤豊

    日本気象学会 

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    Event date: 2011.5

    Language:Japanese   Presentation type:Poster presentation  

    Country:Japan  

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Research Project for Joint Research, Competitive Funding, etc. 2

  1. 地球温暖化に関わる北極エアロゾルの動態解明と放射影響評価

    Grant number:2-2003  2020.4 - 2023.3

    環境研究総合推進費 

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    Authorship:Coinvestigator(s) 

  2. 地球温暖化に関わる北極ブラックカーボンとダスト粒子の動態と放射効果

    Grant number:2-1703  2017.4 - 2019.3

    環境研究総合推進費 

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    Authorship:Coinvestigator(s)  Grant type:Competitive

KAKENHI (Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research) 6

  1. 氷河融解を加速する3大光吸収性不純物の定量評価

    Grant number:20H00196  2020.4 - 2025.3

    科学研究費補助金 

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    Authorship:Coinvestigator(s) 

  2. 北極におけるエアロゾルの動態と気候影響

    Grant number:20H00196  2020.4 - 2024.3

    科学研究費補助金 

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    Authorship:Coinvestigator(s) 

  3. 氷晶核として働く固体エアロゾルの測定器開発

    Grant number:19K20437  2019.4 - 2022.3

    日本学術振興会  科学研究費助成事業  若手研究

    大畑 祥

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    Authorship:Principal investigator 

    Grant amount:\4030000 ( Direct Cost: \3100000 、 Indirect Cost:\930000 )

    雲内部において水雲粒が凍結し氷雲粒を生成する過程は、雲の寿命や光学特性、ひいては気候に大きな影響を及ぼす。水雲粒の凍結が起こるには、水雲粒の内部に氷形成の核となる非水溶性の固体エアロゾルが含まれていることが必要であり、中でも生物由来粒子や鉱物粒子が高い氷形成能力を持つと考えられている。しかし、大気中の生物由来粒子・鉱物粒子を分離して数濃度・粒径を測定する手法は存在せず、それらの動態と氷晶核数への寄与は明らかになっていない。本研究では、この測定を可能にするため、大気中のエアロゾルを水中に捕集し、非水溶性の固体エアロゾルにレーザー光を照射しその散乱光・蛍光を検出する新しい測定器を開発する。
    研究実施計画では、水中に分散する粒子にレーザー光を照射し、その散乱光強度の角度依存性を検出することにより、生物由来粒子と鉱物粒子を分離して数濃度・粒径を測定する測定器を開発する計画としていた。しかし近年、入射するレーザー光と水中の粒子の前方散乱光の干渉を検出するSingle-particle extinction and scattering method (SPES法)が開発され、これにより各粒子の粒径と複素屈折率の情報が同時に得られることが東京大学の研究グループにより示された。SPES法は、当初の計画で研究の目的とした固体エアロゾルの数濃度・粒径・組成情報の光学的な測定を可能にする技術であり、SPES法に基づく測定器は当初開発を計画した測定器よりもシンプルなフローセル構造と高いハードウェア拡張性を持っている。
    そこで本研究で用いる装置の測定原理として、粒子の散乱光強度の角度依存性の検出ではなく、SPES法を利用することとした。また、エアロゾルの水中への捕集方法は、まずフィルタ上にエアロゾルを捕集し、その後で水に分散させる方式とした。この手法を確立することにより、様々な環境で採取したエアロゾル試料の分析への応用が可能になる考えられる。
    今年度は、上述の検討を行った上で、SPES法を用いた測定器の立ち上げを東京大学の研究グループの支援のもとで行った。また、粒径・複素屈折率・形状が既知の標準粒子を用いて測定器の光学系の校正に取り組んだ。名古屋の都市大気のエアロゾルを試験的に捕集し、水に分散させ、SPES装置で分析することにより初期データを得た。オーストラリアの森林において2020年1月18日から2020年3月13日の期間にエアロゾル試料の採取を行い、清浄な森林大気と森林火災による汚染大気の両方の影響を受けた試料を得た。
    近年確立されたSPES法に基づく測定器の立ち上げを行ったことにより、当初の計画よりも早く実大気の固体エアロゾルの試験測定を実施できている。一方で、当初の計画とは異なる測定原理の装置を立ち上げていることや、エアロゾルを直接水中に捕集する方式ではなく、様々な環境試料の後分析を可能にするためフィルタ上にエアロゾルを捕集した後で水に分散させて分析する方式を採用するなど、当初の計画から変更を行っている。これらの状況を総合的に考慮し、本研究はおおむね順調に進展していると判断した。
    フィルタ捕集とSPES法に基づく定量的な固体エアロゾルの測定を行うため、フィルタのエアロゾル捕集効率・フィルタに捕集されたエアロゾルの水への分散効率・SPES装置の粒子検出効率を室内実験で決定する。また、特定の組成の固体エアロゾルに強い感度を持つ他のエアロゾル測定器との比較を通じて本手法の評価を行う。

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  4. 大気有機エアロゾルの吸湿性に対する定量的理解の深化-化学構造・起源との関係-

    Grant number:19H04253  2019.4 - 2022.3

    科学研究費補助金  基盤研究(B)

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    Authorship:Coinvestigator(s) 

  5. 卓越研究員事業

    2018.10 - 2020.3

    科学技術人材育成費補助金 

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    Authorship:Principal investigator 

    Grant amount:\12000000 ( Direct Cost: \12000000 )

  6. 東アジアにおける黒色炭素粒子の降水による除去過程の解明

    Grant number:12J06736  2012.4 - 2015.3

    科学研究費補助金 

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    Authorship:Principal investigator 

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