Updated on 2022/03/29

写真a

 
NAKAZAWA Kazuhiro
 
Organization
Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI) Associate professor
Graduate School
Graduate School of Science
Title
Associate professor
External link

Degree 1

  1. 博士(理学) ( 2001.3   東京大学 ) 

Research Interests 8

  1. ブラックホール

  2. 人工衛星

  3. X線

  4. 宇宙物理

  5. clusters of galaxies

  6. hard X-ray

  7. gamma ray

  8. X-ray astronomy

Research Areas 2

  1. Natural Science / Theoretical studies related to particle-, nuclear-, cosmic ray and astro-physics

  2. Natural Science / Astronomy

Current Research Project and SDGs 2

  1. 雷雲中での粒子加速とガンマ線放射の研究

  2. 宇宙X線MeVガンマ線観測

Research History 2

  1. The University of Tokyo   Lecturer

    2007.4 - 2017.12

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    Country:Japan

  2. JAXA   宇宙科学研究所   助教

    2001.7 - 2007.3

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    Country:Japan

Education 1

  1. The University of Tokyo   Graduate School, Division of Science

    1996.4 - 2001.3

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    Country: Japan

Professional Memberships 3

  1. 日本地球惑星科学連合

    2019.1

  2. 日本天文学会

  3. 日本物理学会

 

Papers 90

  1. Characteristics of Low-Frequency Pulses Associated With Downward Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes

    Wada Y., Morimoto T., Nakamura Y., Wu T., Enoto T., Nakazawa K., Ushio T., Yuasa T., Tsuchiya H.

    Geophysical Research Letters   Vol. 49 ( 5 )   2022.3

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:Geophysical Research Letters  

    Winter thunderstorms in Japan have been recognized as an ideal target to observe high-energy atmospheric phenomena thanks to low-charge-center cloud structures. During four winter seasons in Japan (from 2016 October to 2020 March), seven downward terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) were detected by gamma-ray and broadband low-frequency (LF: 0.8–500 kHz) monitors. All the detected TGFs took place at the initial stage of lightning flashes. Based on the LF observation, the seven downward TGFs in the present study can be classified into two types: energetic-bipolar and small-bipolar types. Three of them are energetic-bipolar events, coincident with a high peak-current LF pulse that originates from a negative return stroke with a peak current larger than 100 kA. The others are small-bipolar events, followed by a negative bipolar LF pulse with a moderate peak current. Three of the four small-bipolar events are multi-pulse TGFs, while all of the energetic-bipolar events in this study are single-pulse TGFs.

    DOI: 10.1029/2021GL097348

    Scopus

  2. Atmospheric Electron Spatial Range Extended by Thundercloud Electric Field Below the Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanche Threshold

    Diniz G., Wada Y., Ohira Y., Nakazawa K., Enoto T.

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES   Vol. 127 ( 3 )   2022.2

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres  

    Cosmic-ray shower, hitting the atmosphere all the time, includes high-energy electrons. Electric fields in thunderstorms accelerate these electrons so that they can reach farther distances with producing secondary electrons. The strong field above 0.284 MV m−1 causes the Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanches (RREA) process with an exponential increase of electrons. Even with lower electric fields below this RREA threshold which are usually measured in thunderstorms, an increase in electrons' kinetic energy and production of secondary electrons can occur without avalanche processes, known as Modification Of Spectra (MOS) of the cosmic-ray shower. Both phenomena are related to observed gamma ray glow, which is bremsstrahlung emission from accelerated electrons in thunderstorms. We calculate an extended range and kinetic energy of electrons below the RREA threshold using an analytical evaluation and Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations. For example, at 0.280 MV m−1 slightly below the RREA threshold, 3 MeV electrons gain 100% of their original kinetic energy through the passage of the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) range defined at the null electric field, which is consistent with results in previous studies as the transition to the RREA process. Even at a lower field of 0.260 MV m−1, the energy recovery by the field allows an injected 20 MeV electron beam to extend its average electron range from 73 m, in the null field configuration, to 562 m. We have performed analytical calculation and Geant4 simulations of atmospheric electron behavior for initial electron energy of 0.1–100 MeV and an electric field below 0.290 MV m−1.

    DOI: 10.1029/2021JD035958

    Web of Science

    Scopus

  3. Catalog of gamma-ray glows during four winter seasons in Japan

    Wada Y., Matsumoto T., Enoto T., Nakazawa K., Yuasa T., Furuta Y., Yonetoku D., Sawano T., Okada G., Nanto H., Hisadomi S., Tsuji Y., Diniz G. S., Makishima K., Tsuchiya H.

    PHYSICAL REVIEW RESEARCH   Vol. 3 ( 4 )   2021.11

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:Physical Review Research  

    In 2015, the Gamma-Ray Observation of Winter Thunderstorms (GROWTH) collaboration launched a mapping observation campaign for high-energy atmospheric phenomena related to thunderstorms and lightning discharges. This campaign has developed a detection network of gamma rays with up to 10 radiation monitors installed in the cities of Kanazawa and Komatsu, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, where low-charge-center winter thunderstorms frequently occur. During four winter seasons from October 2016 to April 2020, a total of 70 gamma-ray glows, i.e., minute-lasting bursts of gamma rays originating from thunderclouds, were detected. Their average duration is 58.9 s. Among the detected events, 77% were observed at night. The gamma-ray glows can be classified into temporally symmetric, temporally asymmetric, and lightning-terminated types based on their count-rate histories. An averaged energy spectrum of the gamma-ray glows is well fitted with a power-law function with an exponential cutoff, whose photon index, cutoff energy, and flux are 0.613±0.009 MeV, 4.68±0.04 MeV, and (1.013±0.003)×10-5 erg cm-2s-1 (0.2-20.0 MeV), respectively. The present paper provides a catalog of gamma-ray glows and their statistical analysis detected during winter thunderstorms in the Kanazawa and Komatsu areas.

    DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevResearch.3.043117

    Web of Science

    Scopus

  4. Multiple Gamma‐ray Glows and a Downward TGF Observed from Nearby Thunderclouds

    S. Hisadomi, K. Nakazawa, Y. Wada, Y. Tsuji, T. Enoto, T. Shinoda, T. Morimoto, Y. Nakamura, T. Yuasa, H. Tsuchiya

    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres   Vol. 126 ( 18 )   2021.9

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:American Geophysical Union (AGU)  

    DOI: 10.1029/2021JD034543

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  5. Detailed design of the science operations for the XRISM mission

    Terada Yukikatsu, Holland Matt, Loewenstein Michael, Tashiro Makoto, Takahashi Hiromitsu, Nobukawa Masayoshi, Mizuno Tsunefumi, Tamura Takayuki, Uno Shin'ichiro, Watanabe Shin, Baluta Chris, Burns Laura, Ebisawa Ken, Eguchi Satoshi, Fukazawa Yasushi, Hayashi Katsuhiro, Iizuka Ryo, Katsuda Satoru, Kitaguchi Takao, Kubota Aya, Miller Eric, Mukai Koji, Nakashima Shinya, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Odaka Hirokazu, Ohno Masanori, Ota Naomi, Sato Rie, Sawada Makoto, Sugawara Yasuharu, Shidatsu Megumi, Tamba Tsubasa, Tanimoto Atsushi, Terashima Yuichi, Tsuboi Yohko, Uchida Yuusuke, Uchiyama Hideki, Yamauchi Shigeo, Yaqoob Tahir

    JOURNAL OF ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPES INSTRUMENTS AND SYSTEMS   Vol. 7 ( 3 )   2021.7

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems  

    X-Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission (XRISM) is an x-ray astronomical mission led by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), with collaboration from the European Space Agency (ESA) and other international participants, that is planned for launch in 2022 (Japanese fiscal year), to quickly restore high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of astrophysical objects using the microcalorimeter array after the loss of Hitomi satellite. In order to enhance the scientific outputs of the mission, the Science Operations Team (SOT) is structured independently from the Instrument Teams (ITs) and the Mission Operations Team. The responsibilities of the SOT are divided into four categories: (1) guest observer program and data distributions, (2) distribution of analysis software and the calibration database, (3) guest observer support activities, and (4) performance verification and optimization activities. Before constructing the operations concept of the XRISM mission, lessons on the science operations learned from past Japanese x-ray missions (ASCA, Suzaku, and Hitomi) are reviewed, and 15 kinds of lessons are identified by categories, such as lessons on the importance of avoiding non-public ("animal") tools, coding quality of public tools in terms of the engineering viewpoint and calibration accuracy, tight communications with ITs and operations teams, and well-defined task division between scientists and engineers. Among these lessons, (a) the importance of early preparation of the operations from the ground stage, (b) construction of an independent team for science operations separate from the instrument development, and (c) operations with well-defined duties by appointed members are recognized as key lessons for XRISM. Based on this, (i) the task division between the mission and science operations and (ii) the subgroup structure within the XRISM Team are defined in detail as the XRISM operations concept. Based on this operations concept, the detailed plan of the science operations is designed as follows. The science operations tasks are shared among Japan, the USA, and Europe and are performed by three centers: the Science Operations Center (SOC) at JAXA, the Science Data Center (SDC) at NASA, and European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) at the ESA. The SOT is defined as a combination of the SOC and SDC. The SOC is designed to perform tasks close to the spacecraft operations, such as spacecraft planning of science targets, quick-look health checks, and prepipeline data processing. The SDC covers tasks regarding data calibration processing (pipeline processing) and maintenance of analysis tools. The data-archive and user-support activities are planned to be covered both by the SOC and SDC. Finally, the details of the science operations tasks and the tools for science operations are defined and prepared before launch. This information is expected to be helpful for the construction of science operations of future x-ray missions.

    DOI: 10.1117/1.JATIS.7.3.037001

    Web of Science

    Scopus

  6. Current status of space gravitational wave antenna DECIGO and B-DECIGO

    Kawamura Seiji, Ando Masaki, Seto Naoki, Sato Shuichi, Musha Mitsuru, Kawano Isao, Yokoyama Jun'ichi, Tanaka Takahiro, Ioka Kunihito, Akutsu Tomotada, Takashima Takeshi, Agatsuma Kazuhiro, Araya Akito, Aritomi Naoki, Asada Hideki, Chiba Takeshi, Eguchi Satoshi, Enoki Motohiro, Fujimoto Masa-Katsu, Fujita Ryuichi, Futamase Toshifumi, Harada Tomohiro, Hayama Kazuhiro, Himemoto Yoshiaki, Hiramatsu Takashi, Hong Feng-Lei, Hosokawa Mizuhiko, Ichiki Kiyotomo, Ikari Satoshi, Ishihara Hideki, Ishikawa Tomohiro, Itoh Yousuke, Ito Takahiro, Iwaguchi Shoki, Izumi Kiwamu, Kanda Nobuyuki, Kanemura Shinya, Kawazoe Fumiko, Kobayashi Shiho, Kohri Kazunori, Kojima Yasufumi, Kokeyama Keiko, Kotake Kei, Kuroyanagi Sachiko, Maeda Kei-ichi, Matsushita Shuhei, Michimura Yuta, Morimoto Taigen, Mukohyama Shinji, Nagano Koji, Nagano Shigeo, Naito Takeo, Nakamura Kouji, Nakamura Takashi, Nakano Hiroyuki, Nakao Kenichi, Nakasuka Shinichi, Nakayama Yoshinori, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Nishizawa Atsushi, Ohkawa Masashi, Oohara Kenichi, Sago Norichika, Saijo Motoyuki, Sakagami Masaaki, Sakai Shin-ichiro, Sato Takashi, Shibata Masaru, Shinkai Hisaaki, Shoda Ayaka, Somiya Kentaro, Sotani Hajime, Takahashi Ryutaro, Takahashi Hirotaka, Akiteru Takamori, Taniguchi Keisuke, Taruya Atsushi, Tsubono Kimio, Tsujikawa Shinji, Ueda Akitoshi, Ueda Ken-ichi, Watanabe Izumi, Yagi Kent, Yamada Rika, Yokoyama Shuichiro, Yoo Chul-Moon, Zhu Zong-Hong

    PROGRESS OF THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS   Vol. 2021 ( 5 )   2021.5

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics  

    The Deci-hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (DECIGO) is a future Japanese space mission with a frequency band of 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz. DECIGO aims at the detection of primordial gravitational waves, which could have been produced during the inflationary period right after the birth of the Universe. There are many other scientific objectives of DECIGO, including the direct measurement of the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe, and reliable and accurate predictions of the timing and locations of neutron star/black hole binary coalescences. DECIGO consists of four clusters of observatories placed in heliocentric orbit. Each cluster consists of three spacecraft, which form three Fabry-Pérot Michelson interferometers with an arm length of 1000 km. Three DECIGO clusters will be placed far from each other, and the fourth will be placed in the same position as one of the other three to obtain correlation signals for the detection of primordial gravitational waves. We plan to launch B-DECIGO, which is a scientific pathfinder for DECIGO, before DECIGO in the 2030s to demonstrate the technologies required for DECIGO, as well as to obtain fruitful scientific results to further expand multi-messenger astronomy.

    DOI: 10.1093/ptep/ptab019

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  7. Meteorological Aspects of Gamma‐Ray Glows in Winter Thunderstorms

    Y. Wada, T. Enoto, M. Kubo, K. Nakazawa, T. Shinoda, D. Yonetoku, T. Sawano, T. Yuasa, T. Ushio, Y. Sato, G. S. Diniz, H. Tsuchiya

    Geophysical Research Letters   Vol. 48 ( 7 )   2021.4

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:American Geophysical Union (AGU)  

    DOI: 10.1029/2020GL091910

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    Other Link: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full-xml/10.1029/2020GL091910

  8. Simulations of expected signal and background of gamma-ray sources by large field-of-view detectors aboard CubeSats

    Galgoczi Gabor, Ripa Jakub, Campana Riccardo, Werner Norbert, Pal Andras, Ohno Masanori, Meszaros Laszlo, Mizuno Tsunefumi, Tarcai Norbert, Torigoe Kento, Uchida Nagomi, Fukazawa Yasushi, Takahashi Hiromitsu, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Hirade Naoyoshi, Hirose Kengo, Hisadomi Syohei, Enoto Teruaki, Odaka Hirokazu, Ichinohe Yuto, Frei Zsolt, Kiss Laszlo

    JOURNAL OF ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPES INSTRUMENTS AND SYSTEMS   Vol. 7 ( 2 )   2021.4

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems  

    In recent years, the number of CubeSats (U-class spacecrafts) launched into space has increased exponentially marking the dawn of the nanosatellite technology. In general, these satellites have a much smaller mass budget compared to conventional scientific satellites, which limits shielding of scientific instruments against direct and indirect radiation in space. We present a simulation framework to quantify the signal in large field-of-view gamma-ray scintillation detectors of satellites induced by x-ray/gamma-ray transients, by taking into account the response of the detector. Furthermore, we quantify the signal induced by x-ray and particle background sources at a Low-Earth Orbit outside South Atlantic Anomaly and polar regions. Finally, we calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) taking into account different energy threshold levels. Our simulation can be used to optimize material composition and predict detectability of various astrophysical sources by CubeSats. We apply the developed simulation to a satellite belonging to a planned CAMELOT CubeSat constellation. This project mainly aims to detect short and long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and as a secondary science objective, to detect soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs). The simulation includes a detailed computer-aided design model of the satellite to take into account the interaction of particles with the material of the satellite as accurately as possible. Results of our simulations predict that CubeSats can complement the large space observatories in high-energy astrophysics for observations of GRBs, SGRs, and TGFs. For the detectors planned to be on board the CAMELOT CubeSats, the simulations show that detections with SNR of at least 9 for median GRB and SGR fluxes are achievable.

    DOI: 10.1117/1.JATIS.7.2.028004

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  9. Annealing of proton radiation damages in Si-PM at room temperature

    Hirade Naoyoshi, Takahashi Hiromitsu, Uchida Nagomi, Ohno Masanori, Torigoe Kento, Fukazawa Yasushi, Mizuno Tsunefumi, Matake Hiroto, Hirose Kengo, Hisadomi Syouhei, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Yamaoka Kazutaka, Werner Norbert, Ripa Jakub, Hatori Satoshi, Kume Kyo, Mizushima Satoshi

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   Vol. 986   2021.1

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment  

    We report the radiation damage results of two new types of Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) under the 200 MeV proton beam, for cosmic gamma-ray observations with CubeSats. The new MPPCs, S13360-6050CS and S14160-6050HS, have recently become commercially available by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. (HPK). After 100 rad irradiation, the dark current increased by a factor of ∼100 and the threshold energy of gamma-ray detection by CsI scintillator increased, but S14160-6050HS was less degraded. We then confirmed the annealing effects of the dark current and threshold energy for both. The decrease rate of the dark current in both MPPCs were similar to those in the previous works. At 20 °C, the threshold energies of both MPPCs reduced by several tens of percent after irradiation, but below 0 °C, the threshold energy of S14160-6050HS was not significantly lowered. We also confirmed that annealing began before one month post-irradiation.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2020.164673

    Web of Science

    Scopus

  10. Attenuation characteristics of a Ce:Gd3Al2Ga3O12 scintillator

    Nagomi Uchida, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Masanori Ohno, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Yasushi Fukazawa, Masao Yoshino, Kei Kamada, Yuui Yokota, Akira Yoshikawa

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   Vol. 986   2021.1

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:ELSEVIER  

    Attenuation characteristics of scintillation photons from Ce-doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (Ce:GAGG) scintillators were investigated by measuring samples of various sizes. Scintillation light is attenuated by two factors. The first is self-absorption of the Ce:GAGG scintillator itself, and the second is geometrical effects such as reflection properties caused by reflector wrapping. The attenuation coefficient of the Ce:GAGGs was determined as 0.00155 +/- 0.00006 mm(-1) indicating that the scintillation light decays to 1/e as it passes approximately 645 +/- 26 mm through the Ce:GAGG. This attenuation does not affect the entire wavelength range; however, it significantly occurs only in the wavelength range from 460 nm to 510 nm where emission and absorption overlap. In the narrow Ce:GAGG scintillator used in this experiment, the geometrical attenuation effect was in the overall wavelength, and the attenuation coefficient was 0.010 +/- 0.001 mm(-1). In this setup, the self-absorption effect only occupied 10% of the whole attenuation, while geometrical attenuation significantly affected the number of detected photons.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2020.164725

    Web of Science

  11. Detail plans and preparations for the science operations of the XRISM mission

    Yukikatsu Terada, Matt Holland, Michael Loewenstein, Makoto Tashiro, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Masayoshi Nobukawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Takayuki Tamura, Shin'ichiro Uno, Shin Watanabe, Chris Baluta, Laura Burns, Ken Ebisawa, Satoshi Eguchi, Yasushi Fukazawa, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Ryo Iizuka, Satoru Katsuda, Takao Kitaguchi, Aya Kubota, Eric Miller, Koji Mukai, Shinya Nakashima, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Hirokazu Odaka, Masanori Ohno, Naomi Ota, Rie Sato, Yasuharu Sugawara, Megumi Shidatsu, Tsubasa Tamba, Atsushi Tanimoto, Yuichi Terashima, Yohko Tsuboi, Yuusuke Uchida, Hideki Uchiyama, Shigeo Yamauchi, Tahir Yaqoob

    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering   Vol. 11444   2021

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (international conference proceedings)  

    © 2020 SPIE The XRISM is the X-ray astronomical mission led by JAXA/NASA/ESA with international participation, plan to be launched in 2022 (Japanese fiscal year), to quickly recover the high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of astrophysical objects using the micro-calorimeter array after the failure of Hitomi. To enhance the scientific outputs of the mission, the Science Operations Team (SOT) is structured independently from the instrument teams and the mission operation team (MOT). The responsibilities of the SOT are summarized into four categories: 1) Guest observer program and data distributions, 2) Distribution of the analyses software and calibration database, 3) Guest observer supporting activities, and 4) the performance verification and optimization (PVO) activities. Before constructing the Operations Concept of the XRISM mission, the lessons on the Science Operations learned from the past Japanese X-ray missions (ASCA, Suzaku, and Hitomi) are reviewed, and 16 kinds of lessons are identified by the above categories: lessons on the importance of avoiding nonpublic (“animal”) tools, coding quality of public tools both on the engineering viewpoint and the calibration accuracy, tight communications with instrument teams and operations team, well-defined task division between scientists and engineers etc. Among these lessons, a) importance of the early preparations of the operations from the ground stage, b) construction of the independent team for the Science Operations from the instrument developments, and c) operations with well-defined duties by appointed members are recognized as the key lessons for XRISM. Then, i) the task division between the Mission and Science Operations and ii) the subgroup structure within the XRISM team are defined in detail as the XRISM Operations Concept. Then, following the Operations Concept, the detail plan of the Science Operations is designed as follows. The Science Operations tasks are shared among Japan, US, and Europe operated by three centers, the Science Operations Center (SOC) at JAXA, the Science Data Center (SDC) at NASA, and European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) at ESA. The SOT is defined as a combination of the SOC and SDC; the SOC is designed to perform tasks close to the spacecraft operations, such as spacecraft planning of science targets, quick-look health checks, pre-pipeline data processing, etc., and the SDC covers the tasks on the data calibration processing (pipeline processing), maintenance of the analysis tools etc. The data-archive and users-support activities are planned to be covered both by the SOC and SDC. Finally, the details of the Science Operations tasks and the tools for the Science Operations are also described in this paper. This information would be helpful for a construction of Science Operations of future X-ray missions.

    DOI: 10.1117/12.2560861

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  12. Status of X-Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission (XRISM)

    Tashiro Makoto, Maejima Hironori, Toda Kenichi, Kelley Richard, Reichenthal Lillian, Hartz Leslie, Petre Robert, Williams Brian, Guainazzi Matteo, Costantini Elisa, Fujimoto Ryuichi, Hayashida Kiyoshi, Henegar-Leon Joy, Holland Matt, Ishisaki Yoshitaka, Kilbourne Caroline, Loewenstein Mike, Matsushita Kyoko, Mori Koji, Okajima Takashi, Porter F. Scott, Sneiderman Gary, Takei Yoh, Terada Yukikatsu, Tomida Hiroshi, Yamaguchi Hiroya, Watanabe Shin, Akamatsu Hiroki, Arai Yoshitaka, Audard Marc, Awaki Hisamitsu, Babyk Iurii, Bamba Aya, Bando Nobutaka, Behar Ehud, Bialas Thomas, Boissay-Malaquin Rozenn, Brenneman Laura, Brown Greg, Canavan Edgar, Chiao Meng, Comber Brian, Corrales Lia, Cumbee Renata, de Vries Cor, den Herder Jan-Willem, Dercksen Johannes, Diaz-Trigo Maria, DiPirro Michael, Done Chris, Dotani Tadayasu, Ebisawa Ken, Eckart Megan, Eckert Dominique, Eguchi Satoshi, Enoto Teruaki, Ezoe Yuichiro, Ferrigno Carlo, Fujita Yutaka, Fukazawa Yasushi, Furuzawa Akihiro, Gallo Luigi, Gorter Nathalie, Grim Martin, Gu Liyi, Hagino Kouichi, Hamaguchi Kenji, Hatsukade Isamu, Hawthorn David, Hayashi Katsuhiro, Hell Natalie, Hiraga Junko, Hodges-Kluck Edmund, Horiuchi Takafumi, Hornschemeier Ann, Hoshino Akio, Ichinohe Yuto, Iga Sayuri, Iizuka Ryo, Ishida Manabu, Ishihama Naoki, Ishikawa Kumi, Ishimura Kosei, Jaffe Tess, Kaastra Jelle, Kallman Timothy, Kara Erin, Katsuda Satoru, Kenyon Steven, Kimball Mark, Kitaguchi Takao, Kitamoto Shunji, Kobayashi Shogo, Kobayashi Akihide, Kohmura Takayoshi, Kubota Aya, Leutenegger Maurice, Li Muzi, Lockard Tom, Maeda Yoshitomo, Markevitch Maxim, Martz Connor, Matsumoto Hironori, Matsuzaki Keiichi, McCammon Dan, McLaughlin Brian, McNamara Brian, Miko Joseph, Miller Eric, Miller Jon, Minesugi Kenji, Mitani Shinji, Mitsuishi Ikuyuki, Mizumoto Misaki, Mizuno Tsunefumi, Mukai Koji, Murakami Hiroshi, Mushotzky Richard, Nakajima Hiroshi, Nakamura Hideto, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Natsukari Chikara, Nigo Kenichiro, Nishioka Yusuke, Nobukawa Kumiko, Nobukawa Masayoshi, Noda Hirofumi, Odaka Hirokazu, Ogawa Mina, Ohashi Takaya, Ohno Masahiro, Ohta Masayuki, Okamoto Atsushi, Ota Naomi, Ozaki Masanobu, Paltani Stephane, Plucinsky Paul, Pottschmidt Katja, Sampson Michael, Sasaki Takahiro, Sato Kosuke, Sato Rie, Sato Toshiki, Sawada Makoto, Seta Hiromi, Shibano Yasuko, Shida Maki, Shidatsu Megumi, Shigeto Shuhei, Shinozaki Keisuke, Shirron Peter, Simionescu Aurora, Smith Randall, Someya Kazunori, Soong Yang, Sugawara Keisuke, Sugawara Yasuharu, Szymkowiak Andy, Takahashi Hiromitsu, Takeshima Toshiaki, Tamagawa Toru, Tamura Keisuke, Tanaka Takaaki, Tanimoto Atsushi, Terashima Yuichi, Tsuboi Yohko, Tsujimoto Masahiro, Tsunemi Hiroshi, Tsuru Takeshi, Uchida Hiroyuki, Uchida Yuusuke, Uchiyama Hideki, Ueda Yoshihiro, Uno Shinichiro, Vink Jacco, Watanabe Tomomi, Witthoeft Michael, Wolfs Rob, Yamada Shinya, Yamaoka Kazutaka, Yamasaki Noriko, Yamauchi Makoto, Yamauchi Shigeo, Yanagase Keiichi, Yaqoob Tahir, Yasuda Susumu, Yoshida Tessei, Yoshioka Nasa, Zhuravleva Irina

    SPACE TELESCOPES AND INSTRUMENTATION 2020: ULTRAVIOLET TO GAMMA RAY   Vol. 11444   2021

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering  

    The X-Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission (XRISM) is the successor to the 2016 Hitomi mission that ended prematurely. Like Hitomi, the primary science goals are to examine astrophysical problems with precise high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. XRISM promises to discover new horizons in X-ray astronomy. XRISM carries a 6 x 6 pixelized X-ray micro-calorimeter on the focal plane of an X-ray mirror assembly and a co-aligned X-ray CCD camera that covers the same energy band over a large field of view. XRISM utilizes Hitomi heritage, but all designs were reviewed. The attitude and orbit control system were improved in hardware and software. The number of star sensors were increased from two to three to improve coverage and robustness in onboard attitude determination and to obtain a wider field of view sun sensor. The fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) system was carefully examined and reconfigured. Together with a planned increase of ground support stations, the survivability of the spacecraft is significantly improved.

    DOI: 10.1117/12.2565812

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  13. New method to make a smooth surface on Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) substrate

    Awaki H., Aida N., Asakura K., Hanaoka M., Hattori K., Ishibashi K., Ishida M., Ishikura A., Maeda Y., Matsumoto H., Matsushita Y., Mineta T., Mitsuishi I, Miyazawa T., Nakaniwa N., Nakazawa K., Ode Y., Oue C., Sawagami K., Sugita S., Suzuki H., Takahashi H., Uchida Y., Yamamoto R., Yoshimoto M.

    SPACE TELESCOPES AND INSTRUMENTATION 2020: ULTRAVIOLET TO GAMMA RAY   Vol. 11444   2021

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    Language:Japanese   Publisher:Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering  

    CFRP is a composite material composed of carbon fiber and resin. CFRP is commonly applied to the aerospace industry which requires lightweight and intensity. Thanks to superior formability of CFRP, we can form shape of Wolter-1 optics, which consists of paraboloid and hyperboloid, to a monolithic substrate. Since the surface roughness of a CFRP substrate is a few µm, we have to make the smooth surface for reflecting X-rays on the CFRP substrate. We have developed a new method of shaping the reflective surface instead of the replica method used in lightweight X-ray mirrors such as Astro-H. In the new method, the reflective surface is formed by pasting thin sheet-glasses with 100 µm thick onto the CFRP substrate. The thin sheet-glass has a surface roughness about 0.4 nm as measured by Zygo. We fabricated a CFRP mirror pasting thin sheet-glasses, and then coated tungsten on the mirror in June 2020. The figure error (s) of the CFRP mirror was achieved to be about 1-2 µm by stacking the CFRP mirror on the housing module. X-ray imaging quality of the CFRP mirror was measured at Spring-8 in July 2020. The half-power diameter of the CFRP mirror was estimated to be about 150 arcsec, which was nearly equal to the prediction from a distribution of the slope error deduced from the surface profile. We describe a future plan to improve the image quality of the CFRP mirror.

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  14. GRBAlpha: A 1U CubeSat mission for validating timing-based gamma-ray burst localization

    Pal Andras, Ohno Masanori, Meszaros Laszlo, Werner Norbert, Ripa Jakub, Frajt Marcel, Hirade Naoyoshi, Hudec Jan, Kapus Jakub, Koleda Martin, Laszlo Robert, Lipovsky Pavol, Matake Hiroto, Smelko Miroslav, Uchida Nagomi, Csak Balazs, Enoto Teruaki, Frei Zsolt, Fukazawa Yasushi, Galgoczi Gabor, Hirose Kengo, Hisadomi Syohei, Ichinohe Yuto, Kiss Laszlo L., Mizuno Tsunefumi, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Odaka Hirokazu, Takahashi Hiromitsu, Torigoe Kento

    SPACE TELESCOPES AND INSTRUMENTATION 2020: ULTRAVIOLET TO GAMMA RAY   Vol. 11444   2021

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    GRBAlpha is a 1U CubeSat mission with an expected launch date in the first half of 2021. It carries a 75 × 75 × 5 mm CsI(Tl) scintillator, read out by a dual-channel multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) setup, to detect gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The GRB detector is an in-orbit demonstration for the detector system on the Cubesats Applied for MEasuring and LOcalising Transients (CAMELOT) mission. While GRBAlpha provides 1/8th of the expected effective area of CAMELOT, the comparison of the observed light curves with other existing GRB monitoring satellites will allow us to validate the core idea of CAMELOT, i.e. the feasibility of timing-based localization.

    DOI: 10.1117/12.2561351

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  15. The XRISM science data center: Optimizing the scientific return from a unique X-ray observatory

    Michael Loewenstein, Robert S. Hill, Matthew P. Holland, Eric D. Miller, Tahir Yaqoob, Trisha F. Doyle, Patricia L. Hall, Efrem Braun, Chris Baluta, Koji Mukai, Yukikatsu Terada, Makoto Tashiro, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Masayoshi Nobukawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Takayuki Tamura, Shin'ichiro Uno, Shin Watanabe, Ken Ebisawa, Satoshi Eguchi, Yasushi Fukazawa, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Ryo Iizuka, Satoru Katsuda, Takao Kitaguchi, Aya Kubota, Shinya Nakashima, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Hirokazu Odaka, Masanori Ohno, Naomi Ota, Rie Sato, Yasuharu Sugawara, Megumi Shidatsu, Tsubasa Tamba, Atsushi Tanimoto, Yuichi Terashima, Yohko Tsuboi, Yuusuke Uchida, Hideki Uchiyama, Shigeo Yamauchiq

    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering   Vol. 11444   2021

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    © 2020 SPIE The X-Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission, XRISM, is currently scheduled to launch in 2022 with the objective of building on the brief, but significant, successes of the ASTRO-H (Hitomi) mission in solving outstanding astrophysical questions using high resolution X-ray spectroscopy. The XRISM Science Operations Team (SOT) consists of the JAXA-led Science Operations Center (SOC) and NASA-led Science Data Center (SDC), which work together to optimize the scientific output from the Resolve high-resolution spectrometer and the Xtend wide-field imager through planning and scheduling of observations, processing and distribution of data, development and distribution of software tools and the calibration database (CaldB), support of ground and in-flight calibration, and support of XRISM users in their scientific investigations of the energetic universe. Here, we summarize the roles and responsibilities of the SDC and its current status and future plans. The Resolve instrument poses particular challenges due to its unprecedented combination of high spectral resolution and throughput, broad spectral coverage, and relatively small field-of-view and large pixel-size. We highlight those challenges and how they are being met.

    DOI: 10.1117/12.2560840

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  16. Solar Neutron Spectrometer Onboard a 3U CubeSat

    YAMAOKA Kazutaka, TAJIMA Hiroyasu, MIYATA Kikuko, INAMORI Takaya, SASAI Yoshinori, KAWAHARA Hiroaki, PARK Ji Hyun, NAKAZAWA Kazuhiro, MASUDA Satoshi, MATSUSHITA Koji, ITO Kazuya, NOBASHI Daiki, TAKAHASHI Hiromitsu, WATANABE Kyoko

    TRANSACTIONS OF THE JAPAN SOCIETY FOR AERONAUTICAL AND SPACE SCIENCES, AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY JAPAN   Vol. 19 ( 3 ) page: 354 - 359   2021

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    <p>Solar neutron observations are very important for understanding of nucleon acceleration mechanism in solar flares, but there are only a few tens of detection since the discovery in 1980. This is because solar neutron observations have been mainly carried out from not space but the ground with insufficient sensitivity. For microsatellite applications, we have designed very compact and high sensitive solar neutron and gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing a novel photo-sensor Silicon photo-multiplier. This paper describes concept, design and performance of our detector for micro/nanosatellite applications.</p>

    DOI: 10.2322/tastj.19.354

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  17. Current status of the x-ray mirror for the XL-Calibur experiment

    Kengo Hattori, Hironori Matsumoto, Quincy Abarr, Hisamitsu Awaki, Richard Bose, Dana Braun, Gianluigi De Geronimo, Paul Dowkontt, Teruaki Enoto, Manel Errando, Yasushi Fukazawa, Thomas A. Gadson, Victor Guarino, Shuichi Gunji, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Scott E. Heatwole, Shuntaro Ide, Manabu Ishida, Nirmal Iyer, Henric Krawczynski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Takuya Miyazawa, Hirofumi Noda, Takashi Okajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Keisuke Tamura, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Fabian Kislat, Mózsi Kiss, Takao Kitaguchi, Rakhee Kushwah, James Lanzi, Shaorui Li, Lindsey Lisalda, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Nozomi Nakaniwa, Mark Pearce, Zachary Peterson, Brian Rauch, David Stuchlik, Mai Takeo, Toru Tamagawa, Kazumi Uchida, Andrew T. West

    Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2020: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray     2020.12

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    DOI: 10.1117/12.2560928

  18. Satellite mission: PhoENiX (Physics of Energetic and Non-thermal plasmas in the X (= magnetic reconnection) region)

    Noriyuki Narukage, Mitsuo Oka, Yasushi Fukazawa, Keiichi Matsuzaki, Shin Watanabe, Taro Sakao, Kouichi Hagino, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Iku Shinohara, Masumi Shimojo, Shinsuke Takasao, Hiroshi Tanabe, Munetaka Ueno, Tadayuki Takahashi, Takeshi Takashima, Masayuki Ohta

    Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2020: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray     2020.12

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    DOI: 10.1117/12.2561341

  19. Photonuclear Reactions in Lightning I: Verification and Modeling of Reaction and Propagation Processes

    Y. Wada, T. Enoto, K. Nakazawa, H. Odaka, Y. Furuta, H. Tsuchiya

    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres   Vol. 125 ( 20 )   2020.10

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    DOI: 10.1029/2020JD033193

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  20. Photonuclear Reactions in Lightning II: Comparison between Observation and Simulation Model

    Y. Wada, T. Enoto, K. Nakazawa, T. Yuasa, Y. Furuta, H. Odaka, K. Makishima, H. Tsuchiya

    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres   Vol. 125 ( 20 )   2020.10

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    DOI: 10.1029/2020JD033194

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  21. Origin of the in-orbit instrumental background of the Hard X-ray Imager onboard Hitomi

    Kouichi Hagino, Hirokazu Odaka, Goro Sato, Tamotsu Sato, Hiromasa Suzuki, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Madoka Kawaharada, Masanori Ohno, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Shogo B. Kobayashi, Hiroaki Murakami, Katsuma Miyake, Makoto Asai, Tatsumi Koi, Greg Madejski, Shinya Saito, Dennis H. Wright, Teruaki Enoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Jun Kataoka, Junichiro Katsuta, Motohide Kokubun, Philippe Laurent, François Lebrun, Olivier Limousin, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Kunishiro Mori, Takeshi Nakamori, Toshio Nakano, Hirofumi Noda, Masayuki Ohta, Rie Sato, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shin’ichiro Takeda, Takaaki Tanaka, Yukikatsu Terada, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shin Watanabe, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Yoichi Yatsu, Takayuki Yuasa

    Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems   Vol. 6 ( 4 )   2020.10

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    DOI: 10.1117/1.JATIS.6.4.046003

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  22. Thundercloud Project: Exploring high-energy phenomena in thundercloud and lightning

    Takayuki Yuasa, Yuuki Wada, Teruaki Enoto, Yoshihiro Furuta, Harufumi Tsuchiya, Shohei Hisadomi, Yuna Tsuji, Kazufumi Okuda, Takahiro Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Kazuo Makishima, Shoko Miyake, Yuko Ikkatai

    Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics   Vol. 2020 ( 10 )   2020.10

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    <title>Abstract</title>
    We designed, developed, and deployed a distributed sensor network aiming at observing high-energy ionizing radiation, primarily gamma rays, from winter thunderclouds and lightning in coastal areas of Japan. Starting in 2015, we have installed, in total, more than 15 units of ground-based detector system in Ishikawa Prefecture and Niigata Prefecture, and accumulated 551 days of observation time in four winter seasons from late 2015 to early 2019. In this period, our system recorded 51 gamma-ray radiation events from thundercloud and lightning. Highlights of science results obtained from this unprecedented amount of data include the discovery of photonuclear reaction in lightning which produces neutrons and positrons along with gamma rays, and deeper insights into the life cycle of a particle-acceleration and gamma-ray-emitting region in a thundercloud. The present paper reviews objective, methodology, and results of our experiment, with a stress on its instrumentation.

    DOI: 10.1093/ptep/ptaa115

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  23. Implications of the mild gas motion found with Hitomi in the core of the Perseus cluster

    Liyi Gu, Kazuo Makishima, Ryoji Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Kazuhiro Shimasaku, Naohisa Inada, Tadayuki Kodama, Haiguang Xu, Madoka Kawaharada

    Astronomy & Astrophysics   Vol. 638   page: A138 - A138   2020.6

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    Based mainly on X-ray observations, we study the interactions between the intracluster medium (ICM) in clusters of galaxies and their member galaxies. Through (magneto)hydrodynamic and gravitational channels, moving galaxies are expected to drag the ICM around them, and then transfer some fraction of their dynamical energies on cosmological timescales to the ICM. This hypothesis is in line with several observations, including the possible cosmological infall of galaxies toward the cluster center, found over redshifts of <italic>z</italic> ∼ 1 to <italic>z</italic> ∼ 0. Further assuming that the energy lost by these galaxies is first converted into ICM turbulence and then dissipated, this picture can explain the subsonic and uniform ICM turbulence, measured with <italic>Hitomi</italic> in the core region of the Perseus cluster. The scenario may also explain several other unanswered problems regarding clusters of galaxies, such as what prevents the ICM from underoing the expected radiative cooling, how the various mass components in nearby clusters have attained different radial distributions, and how a thermal stability is realized between hot and cool ICM components that co-exist around cD galaxies. This view is also considered to pertain to the general scenario of galaxy evolution, including their environmental effects.

    DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201936437

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  24. Photoneutron detection in lightning by gadolinium orthosilicate scintillators

    Wada Y., Nakazawa K., Enoto T., Furuta Y., Yuasa T., Makishima K., Tsuchiya H.

    PHYSICAL REVIEW D   Vol. 101 ( 10 )   2020.5

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    During a winter thunderstorm on 24 November 2017, a downward terrestrial gamma-ray flash took place and triggered photonuclear reactions with atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen nuclei, coincident with a lightning discharge at the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station in Japan. We directly detected neutrons produced by the photonuclear reactions with gadolinium orthosilicate scintillation crystals installed at sea level. Two gadolinium isotopes included in the scintillation crystals, Gd155 and Gd157, have large cross sections of neutron captures to thermal neutrons such as Gd155(n,γ)Gd156 and Gd157(n,γ)Gd158. Deexcitation gamma rays from Gd156 and Gd158 are self-absorbed in the scintillation crystals, and make spectral-line features which can be distinguished from other non-neutron signals. The neutron burst lasted for ∼100 ms, and neutron fluences are estimated to be >52 and >31 neutrons cm-2 at two observation points inside the power station. Gadolinium orthosilicate scintillators work as valid detectors for thermal neutrons in lightning.

    DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.101.102007

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  25. High Peak-Current Lightning Discharges Associated With Downward Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes

    Y. Wada, T. Enoto, Y. Nakamura, T. Morimoto, M. Sato, T. Ushio, K. Nakazawa, T. Yuasa, D. Yonetoku, T. Sawano, M. Kamogawa, H. Sakai, Y. Furuta, K. Makishima, H. Tsuchiya

    Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres   Vol. 125 ( 4 )   2020.2

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    ©2020. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. During 2017–2018 winter operation of the Gamma-Ray Observation of Winter Thunderclouds experiment in Japan, two downward terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) that triggered atmospheric photonuclear reactions were detected. They took place during winter thunderstorms on 5 December 2017 and 9 January 2018 at Kanazawa, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. Each event coincided with an intracloud/intercloud discharge, which had a negative-polarity peak current higher than 150 kA. Their radio waveforms in the low-frequency band are categorized as a distinct lightning type called “energetic in-cloud pulse” (EIP). Negative-polarity EIPs have been previously suggested to be highly associated with downward TGFs, and the present observations provide evidence of the correlation between them for the first time. Furthermore, both of the downward TGFs followed “gamma-ray glows,” minute-lasting high-energy emissions from thunderclouds. It is suggested that the negative EIPs took place with downward propagating negative leaders or upward positive ones developed in highly electrified regions responsible for the gamma-ray glows.

    DOI: 10.1029/2019JD031730

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  26. The simulation framework of the timing-based localization for future all-sky gamma-ray observations with a fleet of CubeSats

    Ohno M., Werner N., Pál A., Mészáros L., Ichinohe Y., Řípa J., Topinka M., Munz F., Galgóczi G., Fukazawa Y., Mizuno T., Takahashi H., Uchida N., Torigoe K., Hirade N., Hirose K., Matake H., Nakazawa K., Hisadomi S., Odaka H., Enoto T., Hudec J., Kapus J., Koleda M., Laszlo R.

    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering   Vol. 11454   2020

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    The timing-based localization, which utilize the triangulation principle with the different arrival time of gammaray photons, with a fleet of Cubesats is a unique and powerful solution for the future all-sky gamma-ray observation, which is a key for identification of the electromagnetic counterpart of the gravitational wave sources. The Cubesats Applied for MEasuring and Localising Transients (CAMELOT) mission is now being promoted by the Hungarian and Japanese collaboration with a basic concept of the nine Cubesats constellations in low earth orbit. The simulation framework for estimation of the localization capability has been developed including orbital parameters, an algorithm to estimate the expected observed profile of gamma-ray photons, finding the peak of the cross-correlation function, and a statistical method to find a best-fit position and its uncertainty. It is revealed that a degree-scale localization uncertainty can be achieved by the CAMELOT mission concept for bright short gamma-ray bursts, which could be covered by future large field of view ground-based telescopes. The new approach utilizing machine-learning approach is also investigated to make the procedure automated for the future large scale constellations. The trained neural network with 106 simulated light curves generated by the artificial short burst templates successfully predicts the time-delay of the real light curve and achieves a comparable performance to the cross-correlation algorithm with full automated procedures.

    DOI: 10.1117/12.2562253

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  27. A new possible accretion scenario for ultra-luminous X-ray sources

    Kobayashi Shogo B., Nakazawa K., Makishima K.

    MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY   Vol. 489 ( 1 ) page: 366 - 384   2019.10

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    Using archival data from Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and NuSTAR, nine representative ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in nearby galaxies were studied. Their X-ray spectra were all reproduced with a multicolour disc emission model plus its Comptonization. However, the spectral shapes of individual sources changed systematically depending on the luminosity, and defined three typical spectral states. These states differ either in the ratio between the Comptonizing electron temperature and the innermost disc temperature, or in the product of Compton y-parameter and fraction of the Comptonized disc photons. The luminosity range at which a particular state emerges was found to scatter by a factor of up to 16 among the eight ULXs. By further assuming that the spectral state is uniquely determined by the Eddington ratio, the sample ULXs are inferred to exhibit a similar scatter in their masses. This gives a model-independent support to the interpretation of ULXs in terms of relatively massive black holes. None of the spectra showed noticeable local structures. Especially, no Fe K-shell absorption/emission lines were detected, with upper limits of 30-40 eV in equivalent width from the brightest three among the sample: NGC 1313 X-1, Holmberg IX X-1, and IC 342 X-1. These properties disfavour ordinary mass accretion from a massive companion star, and suggest direct Bondi-Hoyle accretion from dense parts of the interstellar medium.

    DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz2139

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  28. Space gravitational-wave antennas DECIGO and B-DECIGO Reviewed

    Kawamura Seiji, Nakamura Takashi, Ando Masaki, Seto Naoki, Akutsu Tomotada, Funaki Ikkoh, Ioka Kunihito, Kanda Nobuyuki, Kawano Isao, Musha Mitsuru, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Sato Shuichi, Takashima Takeshi, Tanaka Takahiro, Tsubono Kimio, Yokoyama Jun'ichi, Agatsuma Kazuhiro, Aoyanagi Koh-suke, Arai Koji, Araya Akito, Aritomi Naoki, Asada Hideki, Aso Yoichi, Chen Dan, Chiba Takeshi, Ebisuzaki Toshikazu, Eguchi Satoshi, Ejiri Yumiko, Enoki Motohiro, Eriguchi Yoshiharu, Fujimoto Masa-Katsu, Fujita Ryuichi, Fukushima Mitsuhiro, Futamase Toshifumi, Gondo Rina, Harada Tomohiro, Hashimoto Tatsuaki, Hayama Kazuhiro, Hikida Wataru, Himemoto Yoshiaki, Hirabayashi Hisashi, Hiramatsu Takashi, Hong Feng-Lei, Horisawa Hideyuki, Hosokawa Mizuhiko, Ichiki Kiyotomo, Ikegami Takeshi, Inoue Kaiki T, Ishihara Hideki, Ishikawa Takehiko, Ishizaki Hideharu, Ito Hiroyuki, Itoh Yousuke, Izumi Kiwamu, Kanemura Shinya, Kawashima Nobuki, Kawazoe Fumiko, Kishimoto Naoko, Kiuchi Kenta, Kobayashi Shiho, Kohri Kazunori, Koizumi Hiroyuki, Kojima Yasufumi, Kokeyama Keiko, Kokuyama Wataru, Kotake Kei, Kozai Yoshihide, Kunimori Hiroo, Kuninaka Hitoshi, Kuroda Kazuaki, Kuroyanagi Sachiko, Maeda Kei-ichi, Matsuhara Hideo, Matsumoto Nobuyuki, Michimura Yuta, Miyakawa Osamu, Miyamoto Umpei, Miyoki Shinji, Morimoto Mutsuko Y, Morisawa Toshiyuki, Moriwaki Shigenori, Mukohyama Shinji, Nagano Shigeo, Nakamura Kouji, Nakano Hiroyuki, Nakao Kenichi, Nakasuka Shinichi, Nakayama Yoshinori, Nishida Erina, Nishizawa Atsushi, Niwa Yoshito, Noumi Taiga, Obuchi Yoshiyuki, Ohishi Naoko, Ohkawa Masashi, Okada Kenshi, Okada Norio, Okutomi Koki, Oohara Kenichi, Sago Norichika, Saijo Motoyuki, Saito Ryo, Sakagami Masaaki, Sakai Shin-ichiro, Sakata Shihori, Sasaki Misao, Sato Takashi, Shibata Masaru, Shibata Kazunori, Shimo-oku Ayumi, Shinkai Hisaaki, Shoda Ayaka, Somiya Kentaro, Sotani Hajime, Suemasa Aru, Sugiyama Naoshi, Suwa Yudai, Suzuki Rieko, Tagoshi Hideyuki, Takahashi Fuminobu, Takahashi Kakeru, Takahashi Keitaro, Takahashi Ryutaro, Takahashi Ryuichi, Takahashi Hirotaka, Akiteru Takamori, Takano Tadashi, Tanaka Nobuyuki, Taniguchi Keisuke, Taruya Atsushi, Tashiro Hiroyuki, Torii Yasuo, Toyoshima Morio, Tsujikawa Shinji, Ueda Akitoshi, Ueda Ken-ichi, Ushiba Takafumi, Utashima Masayoshi, Wakabayashi Yaka, Yagi Kent, Yamamoto Kazuhiro, Yamazaki Toshitaka, Yoo Chul-Moon, Yoshida Shijun, Yoshino Taizoh

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MODERN PHYSICS D   Vol. 28 ( 12 )   2019.9

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    DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (DECIGO) is a future Japanese space gravitational-wave antenna. The most important objective of DECIGO, among various sciences to be aimed at, is to detect gravitational waves coming from the inflation of the universe. DECIGO consists of four clusters of spacecraft, and each cluster consists of three spacecraft with three Pabry-Perot Michelson interferometers. As a pathfinder mission of DECIGO, B-DECIGO will be launched, hopefully in the 2020s, to demonstrate technologies necessary for DECIGO as well as to lead to fruitful multimessenger astronomy. B-DECIGO is a small-scale or simpler version of DECIGO with the sensitivity slightly worse than that of DECIGO, yet good enough to provide frequent detection of gravitational waves.

    DOI: 10.1142/S0218271818450013

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  29. Downward Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flash Observed in a Winter Thunderstorm Reviewed

    Wada, Y, Enoto, T, Nakazawa, K, Furuta, Y, Yuasa, T, Nakamura, Y, Morimoto, T, Matsumoto, T, Makishima, K, Tsuchiya, H

    Physical Review Letters   Vol. 123 ( 6 ) page: 061103   2019.8

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    DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.061103

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    Other Link: http://harvest.aps.org/v2/journals/articles/10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.061103/fulltext

  30. Estimation of the detected background by the future gamma ray transient mission CAMELOT

    Ripa Jakub, Galgoczi Gabor, Werner Norbert, Pal Andras, Ohno Masanori, Meszaros Laszlo, Mizuno Tsunefumi, Tarcai Norbert, Torigoe Kento, Uchida Nagomi, Fukazawa Yasushi, Takahashi Hiromitsu, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Hirade Naoyoshi, Hirose Kengo, Hisadomi Syohei, Enoto Teruaki, Odaka Hirokazu, Ichinohe Yuto, Frei Zsolt, Kiss Laszlo

    ASTRONOMISCHE NACHRICHTEN   Vol. 340 ( 7 ) page: 666 - 673   2019.8

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    This study presents a background estimation for the CubeSats Applied for MEasuring and LOcalising Transients (CAMELOT), which is a proposed fleet of nanosatellites for the all-sky monitoring and timing-based localization of gamma ray transients with precise localization capability at low Earth orbits. CAMELOT will allow us to observe and precisely localize short gamma ray bursts (GRBs) associated with kilonovae, long GRBs associated with core-collapse massive stars, magnetar outbursts, terrestrial gamma ray flashes, and gamma ray counterparts to gravitational wave sources. A fleet of at least nine 3U CubeSats is proposed to be equipped with large and thin CsI(Tl) scintillators read out by multipixel photon counters (MPPC). A careful study of the radiation environment in space is necessary to optimize the detector casing, estimate the duty cycle due to the crossing of the South Atlantic Anomaly and polar regions, and minimize the effect of the radiation damage of MPPCs.

    DOI: 10.1002/asna.201913673

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  31. Spectral properties of gamma-ray bursts observed by the Suzaku wide-band all-sky monitor Reviewed

    Ohmori Norisuke, Yamaoka Kazutaka, Yamauchi Makoto, Urata Yuji, Ohno Masanori, Sugita Satoshi, Hurley Kevin, Tashiro Makoto S, Fukazawa Yasushi, Iwakiri Wataru, Katsukura Daisuke, Kokubun Motohide, Makishima Kazuo, Murakami Souta, Nakagawa Yujin E, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Odaka Katsuya, Takahashi Kaito, Takahashi Tadayuki, Terada Yukikatsu

    PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   Vol. 71 ( 4 )   2019.8

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  32. Gamma-ray glow preceding downward terrestrial gamma-ray flash Reviewed

    Y. Wada, T. Enoto, Y. Nakamura, Y. Furuta, T. Yuasa, K. Nakazawa, T. Morimoto, Mi. Sato, T. Matsumoto, D. Yonetoku, T. Sawano, H. Sakai, M. Kamogawa, T. Ushio, K. Makishima, H. Tsuchiya

    Communications Physics   Vol. 2 ( 67 ) page: 1 - 9   2019.6

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    © 2019, The Author(s). Two types of high-energy events have been detected from thunderstorms. One is “terrestrial gamma-ray flashes” (TGFs), sub-millisecond emissions coinciding with lightning discharges. The other is minute-lasting “gamma-ray glows”. Although both phenomena are thought to originate from relativistic runaway electron avalanches in strong electric fields, the connection between them is not well understood. Here we report unequivocal simultaneous detection of a gamma-ray glow termination and a downward TGF, observed from the ground. During a winter thunderstorm in Japan on 9 January 2018, our detectors caught a gamma-ray glow, which moved for ~100 s with ambient wind, and then abruptly ceased with a lightning discharge. Simultaneously, the detectors observed photonuclear reactions triggered by a downward TGF, whose radio pulse was located within ~1 km from where the glow ceased. It is suggested that the highly-electrified region producing the glow was related to the initiation of the downward TGF.

    DOI: 10.1038/s42005-019-0168-y

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  33. Event-selection technique for the multi-layer Si−CdTe Compton camera onboard Hitomi

    Masanori Ohno, Yasushi Fukazawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Yasuyuki Tanaka, Jun'ichiro Katsuta, Takafumi Kawano, Sho Habata, Chiho Okada, Norie Ohashi, Takuto Teramae, Koji Tanaka, Tadayuki Takahashi, Motohide Kokubun, Shin Watanabe, Goro Sato, Rie Sato, Masayuki Ohta, Yusuke Uchida, Ryota Tamaru, Hiroki Yoneda, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Hiroaki Murakami, Hiroyasu Tajima, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Masaomi Kinoshita, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takao Kitaguchi, Hirokazu Odaka

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment   Vol. 924   page: 327 - 331   2019.4

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    © 2018 Elsevier B.V. The soft gamma-ray detector (SGD) onboard Hitomi, which has a unique design concept, based on the combination of a ”narrow-field multi-layer semi-conductor Compton camera” and an active shielding, realizes astronomical observations in the 60−600 keV energy band with a high sensitivity. Development of optimum event selection criteria is essential for deriving the best observational performance of the SGD, but it is challenging because many parameters such as the detected photon energy, the Compton-scattering angle, and distance of each hit, among others, are non-linearly correlated. In this study, we propose a new method for distinguishing the signal from the background in the multi-parameter space utilizing a machine-learning approach. Our preliminary result, which uses both on-ground experimental data with good photon statistics and flight data with real in-orbit background and signal information, suggests that this approach might a good guide for an optimal event selection by the Compton camera.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2018.09.114

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  34. Performance study of a large CsI(Tl) scintillator with an MPPC readout for nanosatellites used to localize gamma-ray bursts Reviewed

    Kento Torigoe, Yasushi Fukazawa, Gabór Galgóczi, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Masanori Ohno, András Pál, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Koji Tanaka, Norbert Tarcai, Nagomi Uchida, Norbert Werner, Teruaki Enoto, Zsolt Frei, Yuto Ichinohe, László Kiss, Hirokazu Odaka, Jakub Řípa, Zsolt Várhegyi

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment   Vol. 924   page: 316 - 320   2019.4

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    DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2018.08.039

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  35. A NuSTAR study of the 55 ks hard X-ray pulse-phase modulation in the magnetar 4U 0142+61

    Makishima Kazuo, Murakami Hiroaki, Enoto Teruaki, Nakazawa Kazuhiro

    PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   Vol. 71 ( 1 )   2019.1

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    Archival NuSTAR data of the magnetar 4U 0142+61, acquired in 2014 March for a total time span of 258 ks, were analyzed. This is to reconfirm the 55 ks modulation in the hard X-ray pulse phases of this source, found with a Suzaku observation in 2009 (Makishima et al.,2014, Phys. Rev. Lett., 112, 171102). Indeed, the 10-70 keV X-ray pulsation, detected with NuSTAR at 8.68917 s, was found to be also phase-modulated (at >98% confidence) at the same ∼55 ks period, or half that value. Furthermore, a brief analysis of another Suzaku data set of 4U 0142+61, acquired in 2013, reconfirmed the same 55 ks phase modulation in the 15-40 keV pulses. Thus, the hard X-ray pulse-phase modulation was detected with Suzaku (in 2009 and 2013) and NuSTAR (in 2014) at a consistent period. However, the modulation amplitude varied significantly; A ∼ 0.7 s with Suzaku (in 2009), A ∼ 1.2 s with Suzaku (in 2013), and A ∼ 0.17 s with NuSTAR. In addition, the phase modulation properties detected with NuSTAR differed considerably between the first 1/3 and the latter 2/3 of the observation. In energies below 10 keV, the pulse-phase modulation was not detected with either Suzaku or NuSTAR. These results reinforce the view of Makishima et al. (2014, Phys. Rev. Lett., 112, 171102); the neutron star in 4U 0142+61 keeps free precession, under a slight axial deformation due probably to ultra-high toroidal magnetic fields of ∼10 16 G. The wobbling angle of precession should remain constant, but the pulse-phase modulation amplitude varies on time scales of months to years, presumably as asymmetry of the hard X-ray emission pattern around the star's axis changes.

    DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psy129

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  36. Completeness of Cyclic Proofs for Symbolic Heaps with Inductive Definitions

    Tatsuta Makoto, Nakazawa Koji, Kimura Daisuke

    PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES AND SYSTEMS, APLAS 2019   Vol. 11893   page: 367 - 387   2019

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    Publisher:Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)  

    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-34175-6_19

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  37. Solar neutron and gamma-ray detector for a 3U Cubesat

    Kazutaka Yamaoka, Hiroyasu Tajima, Kikuko Miyata, Takaya Inamori, Yoshinori Sasai, Hiroaki Kawahara, Ji Hyun Park, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Satoshi Masuda, Koji Matsushita, Kazuya Itoh, Daiki Nobashi, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Kyoko Watanabe

    Proceedings of Science   Vol. 358   2019

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    © Copyright owned by the author(s) under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). Solar neutron observations are very important on understanding of particle acceleration mechanism in the Sun. However, previous ground-based observations with large area telescope (~10 m2)at high latitude are not sensitive to solar neutrons due to attenuation in the earth atmosphere and roughly 10 detection since its discovery in 1980. From space, the SEDA-AP instrument with much smaller area (100 cm2) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) monitored solar neutrons including charged particles, and successfully detected more than 30 detection since its launch in 2009. Unfortunately the SEDA-AP operation was stopped on March 2018. To overcome situation for no mission dedicated for solar neutrons, we have designed and developed a solar neutron and gamma-ray detector for a 3U cubesat with a size of 30×10×10 cm. Actually we launched the 50-kg class ChubuSat-2 satellite for solar neutron observations on February 2016, and have now been adjusting it to a 3U cubesat application. The solar neutron and gamma-ray detector consists of multi-layered plastic scintillator bars, and GAGG(Ce) scintillator array, and both of them are read out with silicon photo-multipliers (Si PMs). More than 600 signals from Si PMs are processed by ASICs. In this paper, we will describe details of the detector and performance of its breadboard model (BBM).

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  38. Gamma-ray observations at the coastal area of Japan Sea in winter seasons

    Tsuchiya H., Enoto T., Wada Y., Furuta Y., Nakazawa K., Yuasa T., Umemoto D., Makishima K.

    Proceedings of Science   Vol. 358   2019

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    Since 2006, The Gamma Ray Observation of Winter Thunderclouds (GROWTH) collaboration has operated radiation measurement networks at the coastal area of Japan sea. The area is famous for its frequent occurrence of winter thunderstorms. We aims at elucidating how particles in lightning and thunderclouds are accelerated to relativistic energies. More than 10-years observations reveal that there are two types of radiation bursts associated with winter thunderstorms. One is a "long burst" or a "gamma-ray glow" lasting for a few tens of seconds to a few minutes. The other is a "short burst" in association with lightning. In order to expand the observational network, we have developed a small type of a radiation detector. In this paper, we focus on recent several findings obtained by the new detectors. One is a combination of a short burst and a long one, showing simultaneous detection of prompt gamma rays extending to ~10 MeV and the 511-keV annihilation ones. These gamma-ray signals demonstrate the occurrence of photonuclear reactions in lightning. Another is an event that a gamma-ray glow suddenly ceased just prior to lightning, suggesting a relation between lightning and the two types of radiation bursts. On the basis of these results, we discuss the production mechanism of gamma rays related to thunderstorms and the lightning initiation problem.

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  39. Detection of polarized gamma-ray emission from the Crab nebula with the Hitomi Soft Gamma-ray Detector

    Aharonian Felix, Akamatsu Hiroki, Akimoto Fumie, Allen Steven W., Angelini Lorella, Audard Marc, Awaki Hisamitsu, Axelsson Magnus, Bamba Aya, Bautz Marshall W., Blandford Roger, Brenneman Laura W., Brown Gregory V., Bulbul Esra, Cackett Edward M., Chernyakova Maria, Chiao Meng P., Coppi Paolo S., Costantini Elisa, de Plaa Jelle, de Vries Cor P., den Herder Jan-Willem, Done Chris, Dotani Tadayasu, Ebisawa Ken, Eckart Megan E., Enoto Teruaki, Ezoe Yuichiro, Fabian Andrew C., Ferrigno Carlo, Foster Adam R., Fujimoto Ryuichi, Fukazawa Yasushi, Furuzawa Akihiro, Galeazzi Massimiliano, Gallo Luigi C., Gandhi Poshak, Giustini Margherita, Goldwurm Andrea, Gu Liyi, Guainazzi Matteo, Haba Yoshito, Hagino Kouichi, Hamaguchi Kenji, Harrus Ilana M., Hatsukade Isamu, Hayashi Katsuhiro, Hayashi Takayuki, Hayashida Kiyoshi, Hiraga Junko S., Hornschemeier Ann, Hoshino Akio, Hughes John P., Ichinohe Yuto, Iizuka Ryo, Inoue Hajime, Inoue Yoshiyuki, Ishida Manabu, Ishikawa Kumi, Ishisaki Yoshitaka, Iwai Masachika, Kaastra Jelle, Kallman Tim, Kamae Tsuneyoshi, Kataoka Jun, Katsuda Satoru, Kawai Nobuyuki, Kelley Richard L., Kilbourne Caroline A., Kitaguchi Takao, Kitamoto Shunji, Kitayama Tetsu, Kohmura Takayoshi, Kokubun Motohide, Koyama Katsuji, Koyama Shu, Kretschmar Peter, Krimm Hans A., Kubota Aya, Kunieda Hideyo, Laurent Philippe, Lee Shiu-Hang, Leutenegger Maurice A., Limousin Olivier, Loewenstein Michael, Long Knox S., Lumb David, Madejski Greg, Maeda Yoshitomo, Maier Daniel, Makishima Kazuo, Markevitch Maxim, Matsumoto Hironori, Matsushita Kyoko, McCammon Dan, McNamara Brian R., Mehdipour Missagh, Miller Eric D., Miller Jon M., Mineshige Shin, Mitsuda Kazuhisa, Mitsuishi Ikuyuki, Miyazawa Takuya, Mizuno Tsunefumi, Mori Hideyuki, Mori Koji, Mukai Koji, Murakami Hiroshi, Mushotzky Richard F., Nakagawa Takao, Nakajima Hiroshi, Nakamori Takeshi, Nakashima Shinya, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Nobukawa Kumiko K., Nobukawa Masayoshi, Noda Hirofumi, Odaka Hirokazu, Ohashi Takaya, Ohno Masanori, Okajima Takashi, Ota Naomi, Ozaki Masanobu, Paerels Frits, Paltani Stephane, Petre Robert, Pinto Ciro, Porter Frederick S., Pottschmidt Katja, Reynolds Christopher S., Safi-Harb Samar, Saito Shinya, Sakai Kazuhiro, Sasaki Toru, Sato Goro, Sato Kosuke, Sato Rie, Sawada Makoto, Schartel Norbert, Serlemtsos Peter J., Seta Hiromi, Shidatsu Megumi, Simionescu Aurora, Smith Randall K., Soong Yang, Stawarz Lukasz, Sugawara Yasuharu, Sugita Satoshi, Szymkowiak Andrew, Tajima Hiroyasu, Takahashi Hiromitsu, Takahashi Tadayuki, Takeda Shin'ichiro, Takei Yoh, Tamagawa Toru, Tamura Takayuki, Tanaka Takaaki, Tanaka Yasuo, Tanaka Yasuyuki T., Tashiro Makoto S., Tawara Yuzuru, Terada Yukikatsu, Terashima Yuichi, Tombesi Francesco, Tomida Hiroshi, Tsuboi Yohko, Tsujimoto Masahiro, Tsunemi Hiroshi, Tsuru Takeshi Go, Uchida Hiroyuki, Uchiyama Hideki, Uchiyama Yasunobu, Ueda Shutaro, Ueda Yoshihiro, Uno Shin'ichiro, Urry C. Megan, Ursino Eugenio, Watanabe Shin, Werner Norbert, Wilkins Dan R., Williams Brian J., Yamada Shinya, Yamaguchi Hiroya, Yamaoka Kazutaka, Yamasaki Noriko Y., Yamauchi Makoto, Yamauchi Shigeo, Yaqoob Tahir, Yatsu Yoichi, Yonetoku Daisuke, Zhuravleva Irina, Zoghbi Abderahmen, Uchida Yuusuke

    PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   Vol. 70 ( 6 )   2018.12

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    We present the results from the Hitomi Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) observation of the Crab nebula. The main part of SGD is a Compton camera, which in addition to being a spectrometer, is capable of measuring polarization of gamma-ray photons. The Crab nebula is one of the brightest X-ray/gamma-ray sources on the sky, and the only source from which polarized X-ray photons have been detected. SGD observed the Crab nebula during the initial test observation phase of Hitomi. We performed data analysis of the SGD observation, SGD background estimation, and SGD Monte Carlo simulations and successfully detected polarized gamma-ray emission from the Crab nebula with only about 5 ks exposure time. The obtained polarization fraction of the phase-integrated Crab emission (sum of pulsar and nebula emissions) is (22.1%±10.6%), and the polarization angle is 110°.7 + 13°.2/-13°.0 in the energy range of 60.160 keV (the errors correspond to the 1 σ deviation). The confidence level of the polarization detection was 99.3%. The polarization angle measured by SGD is about one sigma deviation with the projected spin axis of the pulsar, 124°.0 ± 0°.0.1.

    DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psy118

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  40. Termination of Electron Acceleration in Thundercloud by Intra/Inter-cloud Discharge Reviewed

    Yuuki Wada, Gregory S. Bowers, Teruaki Enoto, Masashi Kamogawa, Yoshitaka Nakamura, Takeshi Morimoto, David M. Smith, Yoshihiro Furuta, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Takayuki Yuasa, Atsushi Matsuki, Mamoru Kubo, Toru Tamagawa, Kazuo Makishima, Harufumi Tsuchiya

    Geophysical Research Letters,   Vol. 45 ( 11 ) page: 5700 - 5707   2018.6

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    An on-ground observation program for high energy atmospheric phenomena in<br />
    winter thunderstorms along Japan Sea has been performed via measurements of<br />
    gamma-ray radiation, atmospheric electric field and low-frequency radio band.<br />
    On February 11, 2017, the radiation detectors recorded gamma-ray emission<br />
    lasting for 75 sec. The gamma-ray spectrum extended up to 20 MeV and was<br />
    reproduced by a cutoff power-law model with a photon index of<br />
    $1.36^{+0.03}_{-0.04}$, being consistent with a Bremsstrahlung radiation from a<br />
    thundercloud (as known as a gamma-ray glow and a thunderstorm ground<br />
    enhancement). Then the gamma-ray glow was abruptly terminated with a nearby<br />
    lightning discharge. The low-frequency radio monitors, installed $\sim$50 km<br />
    away from the gamma-ray observation site recorded leader development of an<br />
    intra/inter-cloud discharge spreading over $\sim$60 km area with a $\sim$300 ms<br />
    duration. The timing of the gamma-ray termination coincided with the moment<br />
    when the leader development of the intra/inter-cloud discharge passed 0.7 km<br />
    horizontally away from the radiation monitors. The intra/inter-cloud discharge<br />
    started $\sim$15 km away from the gamma-ray observation site. Therefore, the<br />
    glow was terminated by the leader development, while it did not trigger the<br />
    lightning discharge in the present case.

    DOI: 10.1029/2018GL077784

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    arXiv

  41. ATCA 16 cm observation of CIZA J1358.9-4750: Implication of merger stage and constraint on non-thermal properties Reviewed

    Akahori Takuya, Kato Yuichi, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Ozawa Takeaki, Gu Liyi, Takizawa Motokazu, Fujita Yutaka, Nakanishi Hiroyuki, Okabe Nobuhiro, Makishima Kazuo

    PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   Vol. 70 ( 3 )   2018.6

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  42. Multiwavelength study of X-ray luminous clusters in the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program S16A field (vol 70, S22, 2018) Reviewed

    Miyaoka Keita, Okabe Nobuhiro, Kitaguchi Takao, Oguri Masamune, Fukazawa Yasushi, Mandelbaum Rachel, Medezinski Elinor, Babazaki Yasunori, Nishizawa Atsushi J, Hamana Takashi, Lin Yen-Ting, Akamatsu Hiroki, Chiu I-Non, Fujita Yutaka, Ichinohe Yuto, Komiyama Yutaka, Sasaki Toru, Takizawa Motokazu, Ueda Shutaro, Umetsu Keiichi, Coupon Jean, Hikage Chiaki, Hoshino Akio, Leauthaud Alexie, Matsushita Kyoko, Mitsuishi Ikuyuki, Miyatake Hironao, Miyazaki Satoshi, More Surhud, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Ota Naomi, Sato Kousuke, Spergel David, Tamura Takayuki, Tanaka Masayuki, Tanaka Manobu M, Utsumi Yousuke

    PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   Vol. 70 ( 3 )   2018.6

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  43. Hitomi X-ray observation of the pulsar wind nebula G21.5-0.9 Reviewed

    Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W Brenneman, Gregory V Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P Chiao, Paolo S Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle de Plaa, Cor P de Vries, Jan-Willem den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masachika Iwai, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L Kelley, Caroline A Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu-Hang Lee, Maurice A Leutenegger, Olivier Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian R McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D Miller, Jon M Miller, Shin Mineshige, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Takuya Miyazawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hideyuki Mori, Koji Mori, Koji Mukai, Hiroshi Murakami, Richard F Mushotzky, Takao Nakagawa, Hiroshi Nakajima, Takeshi Nakamori, Shinya Nakashima, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Kumiko K Nobukawa, Masayoshi Nobukawa, Hirofumi Noda, Hirokazu Odaka, Takaya Ohashi, Masanori Ohno, Takashi Okajima, Naomi Ota, Masanobu Ozaki, Frits Paerels, Stéphane Paltani, Robert Petre, Ciro Pinto, Frederick S Porter, Katja Pottschmidt, Christopher S Reynolds, Samar Safi-Harb, Shinya Saito, Kazuhiro Sakai, Toru Sasaki, Goro Sato, Kosuke Sato, Rie Sato, Makoto Sawada, Norbert Schartel, Peter J Serlemtsos, Hiromi Seta, Megumi Shidatsu, Aurora Simionescu, Randall K Smith, Yang Soong, Łukasz Stawarz, Yasuharu Sugawara, Satoshi Sugita, Andrew Szymkowiak, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shin’ichiro Takeda, Yoh Takei, Toru Tamagawa, Takayuki Tamura, Takaaki Tanaka, Yasuo Tanaka, Yasuyuki T Tanaka, Makoto S Tashiro, Yuzuru Tawara, Yukikatsu Terada, Yuichi Terashima, Francesco Tombesi, Hiroshi Tomida, Yohko Tsuboi, Masahiro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Takeshi Go Tsuru, Hiroyuki Uchida, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shutaro Ueda, Yoshihiro Ueda, Shin’ichiro Uno, C Megan Urry, Eugenio Ursino, Shin Watanabe, Norbert Werner, Dan R Wilkins, Brian J Williams, Shinya Yamada, Hiroya Yamaguchi, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Noriko Y Yamasaki, Makoto Yamauchi, Shigeo Yamauchi, Tahir Yaqoob, Yoichi Yatsu, Daisuke Yonetoku, Irina Zhuravleva, Abderahmen Zoghbi, Toshiki Sato, Nozomu Nakaniwa, Hiroaki Murakami, Benson Guest

    PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   Vol. 70 ( 3 )   2018.6

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    DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psy027

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  44. Modeling of proton-induced radioactivation background in hard X-ray telescopes: Geant4-based simulation and its demonstration by Hitomi's measurement in a low Earth orbit Reviewed

    Hirokazu Odaka, Makoto Asai, Kouichi Hagino, Tatsumi Koi, Greg Madejski, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Masanori Ohno, Shinya Saito, Tamotsu Sato, Dennis H. Wright, Teruaki Enoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Jun Kataoka, Junichiro Katsuta, Madoka Kawaharada, Shogo B. Kobayashi, Motohide Kokubun, Philippe Laurent, Francois Lebrun, Olivier Limousin, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Taketo Mimura, Katsuma Miyake, Kunishiro Mori, Hiroaki Murakami, Takeshi Nakamori, Toshio Nakano, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Hirofumi Noda, Masayuki Ohta, Masanobu Ozaki, Goro Sato, Rie Sato, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shin'ichiro Takeda, Takaaki Tanaka, Yasuyuki Tanaka, Yukikatsu Terada, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shin Watanabe, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Tetsuya Yasuda, Yoichi Yatsu, Takayuki Yuasa, Andreas Zoglauer

    NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION A-ACCELERATORS SPECTROMETERS DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT   Vol. 891   page: 92 - 105   2018.5

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    Hard X-ray astronomical observatories in orbit suffer from a significant amount of background due to radioactivation induced by cosmic-ray protons and/or geomagnetically trapped protons. Within the framework of a full Monte Carlo simulation, we present modeling of in-orbit instrumental background which is dominated by radioactivation. To reduce the computation time required by straightforward simulations of delayed emissions from activated isotopes, we insert a semi-analytical calculation that converts production probabilities of radioactive isotopes by interaction of the primary protons into decay rates at measurement time of all secondary isotopes. Therefore, our simulation method is separated into three steps: (1) simulation of isotope production, (2) semi-analytical conversion to decay rates, and (3) simulation of decays of the isotopes at measurement time. This method is verified by a simple setup that has a CdTe semiconductor detector, and shows a 100-fold improvement in efficiency over the straightforward simulation. To demonstrate its experimental performance, the simulation framework was tested against data measured with a CdTe sensor in the Hard X-ray Imager onboard the Hitomi X-ray Astronomy Satellite, which was put into a low Earth orbit with an altitude of 570 km and an inclination of 31 degrees, and thus experienced a large amount of irradiation from geomagnetically trapped protons during its passages through the South Atlantic Anomaly. The simulation is able to treat full histories of the proton irradiation and multiple measurement windows. The simulation results agree very well with the measured data, showing that the measured background is well described by the combination of proton-induced radioactivation of the CdTe detector itself and thick Bi4Ge3O12 scintillator shields, leakage of cosmic X-ray background and albedo gamma-ray radiation, and emissions from naturally contaminated isotopes in the detector system.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2018.02.071

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  45. In-orbit performance and calibration of the Hard X-ray Imager onboard Hitomi (ASTRO-H) Reviewed

    Kouichi Hagino, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Goro Sato, Motohide Kokubun, Teruaki Enoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Jun Kataoka, Junichiro Katsuta, Shogo B. Kobayashi, Philippe Laurent, Francois Lebrun, Olivier Limousin, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Taketo Mimura, Katsuma Miyake, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Kunishiro Mori, Hiroaki Murakami, Takeshi Nakamori, Toshio Nakano, Hirofumi Noda, Hirokazu Odaka, Masanori Ohno, Masayuki Ohta, Shinya Saito, Rie Sato, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shin'ichiro Takeda, Takaaki Tanaka, Yukikatsu Terada, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shin Watanabe, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Yoichi Yatsu, Takayuki Yuasa

    Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems   Vol. 4 ( 2 )   2018.4

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    The Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) onboard Hitomi (ASTRO-H) is an imaging spectrometer covering hard x-ray energies of 5 to 80 keV. Combined with the Hard X-ray Telescope, it enables imaging spectroscopy with an angular resolution of 10.7 half-power diameter, in a field of view of 9' × 9'. The main imager is composed of four layers of Si detectors and one layer of CdTe detector, stacked to cover a wide energy band up to 80 keV, surrounded by an active shield made of Bi4Ge3O12 scintillator to reduce the background. The HXI started observations 12 days before the Hitomi loss and successfully obtained data from G21.5-0.9, Crab, and blank sky. Utilizing these data, we calibrate the detector response and study properties of in-orbit background. The observed Crab spectra agree well with a powerlaw model convolved with the detector response, within 5% accuracy. We find that albedo electrons in specified orbit strongly affect the background of the Si top layer and establish a screening method to reduce it. The background level over the full field of view after all the processing and screening is as low as the preflight requirement of 1 - 3 × 10-4 counts s-1 cm-2 keV-1.

    DOI: 10.1117/1.JATIS.4.2.021409

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  46. In-orbit performance and calibration of the Hard X-ray Imager onboard Hitomi (ASTRO-H) Reviewed

    Kouichi Hagino, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Goro Sato, Motohide Kokubun, Teruaki Enoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Jun Kataoka, Junichiro Katsuta, Shogo B. Kobayashi, Philippe Laurent, Francois Lebrun, Olivier Limousin, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Taketo Mimura, Katsuma Miyake, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Kunishiro Mori, Hiroaki Murakami, Takeshi Nakamori, Toshio Nakano, Hirofumi Noda, Hirokazu Odaka, Masanori Ohno, Masayuki Ohta, Shinya Saito, Rie Sato, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shin'ichiro Takeda, Takaaki Tanaka, Yukikatsu Terada, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shin Watanabe, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Yoichi Yatsu, Takayuki Yuasa

    Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems   Vol. 4 ( 2 )   2018.4

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    The Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) onboard Hitomi (ASTRO-H) is an imaging spectrometer covering hard x-ray energies of 5 to 80 keV. Combined with the Hard X-ray Telescope, it enables imaging spectroscopy with an angular resolution of 10.7 half-power diameter, in a field of view of 9' × 9'. The main imager is composed of four layers of Si detectors and one layer of CdTe detector, stacked to cover a wide energy band up to 80 keV, surrounded by an active shield made of Bi4Ge3O12 scintillator to reduce the background. The HXI started observations 12 days before the Hitomi loss and successfully obtained data from G21.5-0.9, Crab, and blank sky. Utilizing these data, we calibrate the detector response and study properties of in-orbit background. The observed Crab spectra agree well with a powerlaw model convolved with the detector response, within 5% accuracy. We find that albedo electrons in specified orbit strongly affect the background of the Si top layer and establish a screening method to reduce it. The background level over the full field of view after all the processing and screening is as low as the preflight requirement of 1 - 3 × 10-4 counts s-1 cm-2 keV-1.

    DOI: 10.1117/1.JATIS.4.2.021409

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  47. Design and performance of Soft Gamma-ray Detector onboard the Hitomi (ASTRO-H) satellite Reviewed

    Hiroyasu Tajima, Shin Watanabe, Yasushi Fukazawa, Roger Blandford, Teruaki Enoto, Andrea Goldwurm, Kouichi Hagino, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Yuto Ichinohe, Jun Kataoka, Junichiro Katsuta, Takao Kitaguchi, Motohide Kokubun, Philippe Laurent, François Lebrun, Olivier Limousin, Grzegorz M. Madejski, Kazuo Makishima, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Kunishiro Mori, Takeshi Nakamori, Toshio Nakano, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Hirofumi Noda, Hirokazu Odaka, Masanori Ohno, Masayuki Ohta, Shinya Saito, Goro Sato, Rie Sato, Shinichiro Takeda, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Takaaki Tanaka, Yasuyuki Tanaka, Yukikatsu Terada, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Yoichi Yatsu, Daisuke Yonetoku, Takayuki Yuasa

    Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems   Vol. 4 ( 2 )   2018.4

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    Hitomi (ASTRO-H) was the sixth Japanese X-ray satellite that carried instruments with exquisite energy resolution of &lt
    7 eV and broad energy coverage of 0.3 to 600 keV. The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) was the Hitomi instrument that observed the highest energy band (60 to 600 keV). The SGD design achieves a low background level by combining active shields and Compton cameras where Compton kinematics is utilized to reject backgrounds coming from outside of the field of view. A compact and highly efficient Compton camera is realized using a combination of silicon and cadmium telluride semiconductor sensors with a good energy resolution. Compton kinematics also carries information for gamma-ray polarization, making the SGD an excellent polarimeter. Following several years of development, the satellite was successfully launched on February 17, 2016. After proper functionality of the SGD components were verified, the nominal observation mode was initiated on March 24, 2016. The SGD observed the Crab Nebula for approximately two hours before the spacecraft ceased to function on March 26, 2016. We present concepts of the SGD design followed by detailed description of the instrument and its performance measured on ground and in orbit.

    DOI: 10.1117/1.JATIS.4.2.021411

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  48. In-orbit performance and calibration of the Hard X-ray Imager onboard Hitomi (ASTRO-H)

    Hagino K.

    Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems   Vol. 4 ( 2 )   2018.4

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    DOI: 10.1117/1.JATIS.4.2.021409

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  49. In-orbit performance and calibration of the Hard X-ray Imager onboard Hitomi (ASTRO-H)

    Hagino Kouichi, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Sato Goro, Kokubun Motohide, Enoto Teruaki, Fukazawa Yasushi, Hayashi Katsuhiro, Kataoka Jun, Katsuta Junichiro, Kobayashi Shogo B., Laurent Philippe, Lebrun Francois, Limousin Olivier, Maier Daniel, Makishima Kazuo, Mimura Taketo, Miyake Katsuma, Mizuno Tsunefumi, Mori Kunishiro, Murakami Hiroaki, Nakamori Takeshi, Nakano Toshio, Noda Hirofumi, Odaka Hirokazu, Ohno Masanori, Ohta Masayuki, Saito Shinya, Sato Rie, Tajima Hiroyasu, Takahashi Hiromitsu, Takahashi Tadayuki, Takeda Shin'ichiro, Tanaka Takaaki, Terada Yukikatsu, Uchiyama Hideki, Uchiyama Yasunobu, Watanabe Shin, Yamaoka Kazutaka, Yatsu Yoichi, Yuasa Takayuki

    JOURNAL OF ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPES INSTRUMENTS AND SYSTEMS   Vol. 4 ( 2 )   2018.4

  50. HITOMI (ASTRO-H) X-ray astronomy satellite Reviewed

    Tadayuki Takahashi, Motohide Kokubun, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Richard L. Kelley, Takaya Ohashi, Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W. Allen, Naohisa Anabuki, Lorella Angelini, Keith Arnaud, Makoto Asai, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Philipp Azzarello, Chris Baluta, Aya Bamba, Nobutaka Bando, Marshall W. Bautz, Thomas Bialas, Roger Blandford, Kevin Boyce, Laura W. Brenneman, Gregory V. Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M. Cackett, Edgar Canavan, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P. Chiao, Paolo S. Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Steve O' Dell, Michael DiPirro, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, John Doty, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E. Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C. Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R. Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Stefan Funk, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C. Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Kirk Gilmore, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Daniel Haas, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M. Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Takayuki Hayashi, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Jan Willem Den Herder, Junko S. Hiraga, Kazuyuki Hirose, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P. Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Kazunori Ishibashi, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Kosei Ishimura, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masayuki Itoh, Masachika Iwai, Naoko Iwata, Naoko Iyomoto, Chris Jewell, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Erin Kara, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Junichiro Katsuta, Madoka Kawaharada, Nobuyuki Kawai, Taro Kawano, Shigeo Kawasaki, Dmitry Khangulyan, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Mark Kimball

    Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems   Vol. 4 ( 2 )   2018.4

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    © The Authors. The Hitomi (ASTRO-H) mission is the sixth Japanese x-ray astronomy satellite developed by a large international collaboration, including Japan, USA, Canada, and Europe. The mission aimed to provide the highest energy resolution ever achieved at E > 2 keV, using a microcalorimeter instrument, and to cover a wide energy range spanning four decades in energy from soft x-rays to gamma rays. After a successful launch on February 17, 2016, the spacecraft lost its function on March 26, 2016, but the commissioning phase for about a month provided valuable information on the onboard instruments and the spacecraft system, including astrophysical results obtained from first light observations. The paper describes the Hitomi (ASTRO-H) mission, its capabilities, the initial operation, and the instruments/spacecraft performances confirmed during the commissioning operations for about a month.

    DOI: 10.1117/1.JATIS.4.2.021402

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  51. Hard x-ray imager onboard Hitomi (ASTRO-H)

    Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Sato Goro, Kokubun Motohide, Enoto Teruaki, Fukazawa Yasushi, Hagino Kouichi, Hayashi Katsuhiro, Kataoka Jun, Katsuta Junichiro, Kobayashi Shogo B., Laurent Philippe, Lebrun Francois, Limousin Olivier, Maier Daniel, Makishima Kazuo, Mizuno Tsunefumi, Mori Kunishiro, Nakamori Takeshi, Nakano Toshio, Noda Hirofumi, Odaka Hirokazu, Ohno Masanori, Ohta Masayuki, Saito Shinya, Sato Rie, Tajima Hiroyasu, Takahashi Hiromitsu, Takahashi Tadayuki, Takeda Shin'ichiro, Tanaka Takaaki, Terada Yukikatsu, Uchiyama Hideki, Uchiyama Yasunobu, Watanabe Shin, Yamaoka Kazutaka, Yatsu Yoichi, Yuasa Takayuki

    JOURNAL OF ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPES INSTRUMENTS AND SYSTEMS   Vol. 4 ( 2 )   2018.4

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    The hard x-ray imaging spectroscopy system of "Hitomi" x-ray observatory is composed of two sets of hard x-ray imagers (HXI) coupled with hard x-ray telescopes (HXT). With a 12-m focal length, the system provides fine (10:7 half-power diameter) imaging spectroscopy covering about 5 to 80 keV. The HXI sensor consists of a camera, which is composed of four layers of Si and one layer of CdTe semiconductor imagers, and an active shield composed of nine Bi4Ge3O12 scintillators to provide low background. The two HXIs started observation on March 8 and 14, 2016 and were operational until 26 March. Using a Crab observation, 5 to 80 keV energy coverage and good detection efficiency were confirmed. The detector background level of 1 to 3 × 10-4 counts s?1 keV?1 cm?2 (in detector geometrical area) at 5 to 80 keV was achieved, by cutting the high-background time-intervals, adopting sophisticated energy-dependent imager layer selection, and baffling of the cosmic x-ray background and active-shielding. This level is among the lowest of detectors working in this energy band. By comparing the effective area and the background, it was shown that the HXI had a sensitivity that is same to that of NuSTAR for point sources and 3 to 4 times better for largely extended diffuse sources.

    DOI: 10.1117/1.JATIS.4.2.021410

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  52. The Hitomi X-Ray Observatory, Part 2 Reviewed

    Kelley Richard L, Nakazawa Kazuhiro

    JOURNAL OF ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPES INSTRUMENTS AND SYSTEMS   Vol. 4 ( 2 )   2018.4

  53. Atmospheric gas dynamics in the Perseus cluster observed with Hitomi

    Aharonia F., Aharonian F., Akamatsu H., Akimoto F., Allen S.W., Angelini L., Audard M., Awaki H., Axelsson M., Bamba A., Bautz M.W., Blandford R., Brenneman L.W., Brown G.V., Bulbul E., Cackett E.M., Canning R.E.A., Chernyakova M., Chiao M.P., Coppi P.S., Costantini E., De Plaa J., De Vries C.P., Den Herder J.W., Done C., Dotani T., Ebisawa K., Eckart M.E., Enoto T., Ezoe Y., Fabian A.C., Ferrigno C., Foster A.R., Fujimoto R., Fukazawa Y., Furuzawa A., Galeazzi M., Gallo L.C., Gandhi P., Giustini M., Goldwurm A., Gu L., Guainazzi M., Haba Y., Hagino K., Hamaguchi K., Harrus I.M., Hatsukade I., Hayashi K., Hayashi T., Hayashi T., Hayashida K., Hiraga J.S., Hornschemeier A., Hoshino A., Hughes J.P., Ichinohe Y., Iizuka R., Inoue H., Inoue S., Inoue Y., Ishida M., Ishikawa K., Ishisaki Y., Iwai M., Kaastra J., Kallman T., Kamae T., Kataoka J., Katsuda S., Kawai N., Kelley R.L., Kilbourne C.A., Kitaguchi T., Kitamoto S., Kitayama T., Kohmura T., Kokubun M., Koyama K., Koyama S., Kretschmar P., Krimm H.A., Kubota A., Kunieda H., Laurent P., Lee S.H., Leutenegger M.A., Limousin O., Loewenstein M., Long K.S., Lumb D., Madejski G., Maeda Y., Maier D., Makishima K., Markevitch M., Matsumoto H., Matsushita K., Mccammon D., Mcnamara B.R.

    Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan   Vol. 70 ( 2 )   2018.3

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    Extending the earlier measurements reported in Hitomi collaboration (2016, Nature, 535, 117), we examine the atmospheric gas motions within the central 100kpc of the Perseus cluster using observations obtained with the Hitomi satellite. After correcting for the point spread function of the telescope and using optically thin emission lines, we find that the line-of-sight velocity dispersion of the hot gas is remarkably low and mostly uniform. The velocity dispersion reaches a maxima of approximately 200 km s-1 toward the central active galactic nucleus (AGN) and toward the AGN inflated northwestern "ghost" bubble. Elsewhere within the observed region, the velocity dispersion appears constant around 100 km s-1. We also detect a velocity gradient with a 100 km s-1 amplitude across the cluster core, consistent with large-scale sloshing of the core gas. If the observed gas motions are isotropic, the kinetic pressure support is less than 10% of the thermal pressure support in the cluster core. The well-resolved, optically thin emission lines have Gaussian shapes, indicating that the turbulent driving scale is likely below 100 kpc, which is consistent with the size of the AGN jet inflated bubbles. We also report the first measurement of the ion temperature in the intracluster medium, which we find to be consistent with the electron temperature. In addition, we present a new measurement of the redshift of the brightest cluster galaxy NGC 1275.

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  54. Hitomi X-ray studies of giant radio pulses from the Crab pulsar

    Aharonian F.

    Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan   Vol. 70 ( 2 )   2018.3

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  55. Atmospheric gas dynamics in the Perseus cluster observed with Hitomi Reviewed

    Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W Brenneman, Gregory V Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M Cackett, Rebecca E A Canning, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P Chiao, Paolo S Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle de Plaa, Cor P de Vries, Jan-Willem den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Tasuku Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Shota Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masachika Iwai, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L Kelley, Caroline A Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu-Hang Lee, Maurice A Leutenegger, Olivier Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian R McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D Miller, Jon M Miller, Shin Mineshige, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Takuya Miyazawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hideyuki Mori, Koji Mori, Koji Mukai, Hiroshi Murakami, Richard F Mushotzky, Takao Nakagawa, Hiroshi Nakajima, Takeshi Nakamori, Shinya Nakashima, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Kumiko K Nobukawa, Masayoshi Nobukawa, Hirofumi Noda, Hirokazu Odaka, Takaya Ohashi, Masanori Ohno, Takashi Okajima, Naomi Ota, Masanobu Ozaki, Frits Paerels, Stéphane Paltani, Robert Petre, Ciro Pinto, Frederick S Porter, Katja Pottschmidt, Christopher S Reynolds, Samar Safi-Harb, Shinya Saito, Kazuhiro Sakai, Toru Sasaki, Goro Sato, Kosuke Sato, Rie Sato, Makoto Sawada, Norbert Schartel, Peter J Serlemtsos, Hiromi Seta, Megumi Shidatsu, Aurora Simionescu, Randall K Smith, Yang Soong, Łukasz Stawarz, Yasuharu Sugawara, Satoshi Sugita, Andrew Szymkowiak, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shin’ichiro Takeda, Yoh Takei, Toru Tamagawa, Takayuki Tamura, Keigo Tanaka, Takaaki Tanaka, Yasuo Tanaka, Yasuyuki T Tanaka, Makoto S Tashiro, Yuzuru Tawara, Yukikatsu Terada, Yuichi Terashima, Francesco Tombesi, Hiroshi Tomida, Yohko Tsuboi, Masahiro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Takeshi Go Tsuru, Hiroyuki Uchida, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shutaro Ueda, Yoshihiro Ueda, Shin’ichiro Uno, C Megan Urry, Eugenio Ursino, Qian H S Wang, Shin Watanabe, Norbert Werner, Dan R Wilkins, Brian J Williams, Shinya Yamada, Hiroya Yamaguchi, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Noriko Y Yamasaki, Makoto Yamauchi, Shigeo Yamauchi, Tahir Yaqoob, Yoichi Yatsu, Daisuke Yonetoku, Irina Zhuravleva, Abderahmen Zoghbi

    PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   Vol. 70 ( 2 )   2018.3

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    DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psx138

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  56. Temperature structure in the Perseus cluster core observed with Hitomi Reviewed

    Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W Brenneman, Gregory V Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P Chiao, Paolo S Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle de Plaa, Cor P de Vries, Jan-Willem den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Maki Furukawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masachika Iwai, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Yuichi Kato, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L Kelley, Caroline A Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu-Hang Lee, Maurice A Leutenegger, Olivier Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian R McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D Miller, Jon M Miller, Shin Mineshige, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Takuya Miyazawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hideyuki Mori, Koji Mori, Koji Mukai, Hiroshi Murakami, Richard F Mushotzky, Takao Nakagawa, Hiroshi Nakajima, Takeshi Nakamori, Shinya Nakashima, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Kumiko K Nobukawa, Masayoshi Nobukawa, Hirofumi Noda, Hirokazu Odaka, Takaya Ohashi, Masanori Ohno, Takashi Okajima, Naomi Ota, Masanobu Ozaki, Frits Paerels, Stéphane Paltani, Robert Petre, Ciro Pinto, Frederick S Porter, Katja Pottschmidt, Christopher S Reynolds, Samar Safi-Harb, Shinya Saito, Kazuhiro Sakai, Toru Sasaki, Goro Sato, Kosuke Sato, Rie Sato, Makoto Sawada, Norbert Schartel, Peter J Serlemtsos, Hiromi Seta, Megumi Shidatsu, Aurora Simionescu, Randall K Smith, Yang Soong, Łukasz Stawarz, Yasuharu Sugawara, Satoshi Sugita, Andrew Szymkowiak, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shiníchiro Takeda, Yoh Takei, Toru Tamagawa, Takayuki Tamura, Takaaki Tanaka, Yasuo Tanaka, Yasuyuki T Tanaka, Makoto S Tashiro, Yuzuru Tawara, Yukikatsu Terada, Yuichi Terashima, Francesco Tombesi, Hiroshi Tomida, Yohko Tsuboi, Masahiro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Takeshi Go Tsuru, Hiroyuki Uchida, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shutaro Ueda, Yoshihiro Ueda, Shiníchiro Uno, C Megan Urry, Eugenio Ursino, Shin Watanabe, Norbert Werner, Dan R Wilkins, Brian J Williams, Shinya Yamada, Hiroya Yamaguchi, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Noriko Y Yamasaki, Makoto Yamauchi, Shigeo Yamauchi, Tahir Yaqoob, Yoichi Yatsu, Daisuke Yonetoku, Irina Zhuravleva, Abderahmen Zoghbi

    PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   Vol. 70 ( 2 )   2018.3

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    DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psy004

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  57. Search for thermal X-ray features from the Crab nebula with the Hitomi soft X-ray spectrometer Reviewed

    Hitomi Collaboration, Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W Brenneman, Gregory V Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P Chiao, Paolo S Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle de Plaa, Cor P de Vries, Jan-Willem den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L Kelley, Caroline A Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu-Hang Lee, Maurice A Leutenegger, Olivier Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian R McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D Miller, Jon M Miller, Shin Mineshige, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Takuya Miyazawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hideyuki Mori, Koji Mori, Koji Mukai, Hiroshi Murakami, Richard F Mushotzky, Takao Nakagawa, Hiroshi Nakajima, Takeshi Nakamori, Shinya Nakashima, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Kumiko K Nobukawa, Masayoshi Nobukawa, Hirofumi Noda, Hirokazu Odaka, Takaya Ohashi, Masanori Ohno, Takashi Okajima, Naomi Ota, Masanobu Ozaki, Frits Paerels, Stéphane Paltani, Robert Petre, Ciro Pinto, Frederick S Porter, Katja Pottschmidt, Christopher S Reynolds, Samar Safi-Harb, Shinya Saito, Kazuhiro Sakai, Toru Sasaki, Goro Sato, Kosuke Sato, Rie Sato, Toshiki Sato, Makoto Sawada, Norbert Schartel, Peter J Serlemtsos, Hiromi Seta, Megumi Shidatsu, Aurora Simionescu, Randall K Smith, Yang Soong, Łukasz Stawarz, Yasuharu Sugawara, Satoshi Sugita, Andrew Szymkowiak, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shin΄ichiro Takeda, Yoh Takei, Toru Tamagawa, Takayuki Tamura, Takaaki Tanaka, Yasuo Tanaka, Yasuyuki T Tanaka, Makoto S Tashiro, Yuzuru Tawara, Yukikatsu Terada, Yuichi Terashima, Francesco Tombesi, Hiroshi Tomida, Yohko Tsuboi, Masahiro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Takeshi Go Tsuru, Hiroyuki Uchida, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shutaro Ueda, Yoshihiro Ueda, Shin΄ichiro Uno, C Megan Urry, Eugenio Ursino, Shin Watanabe, Norbert Werner, Dan R Wilkins, Brian J Williams, Shinya Yamada, Hiroya Yamaguchi, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Noriko Y Yamasaki, Makoto Yamauchi, Shigeo Yamauchi, Tahir Yaqoob, Yoichi Yatsu, Daisuke Yonetoku, Irina Zhuravleva, Abderahmen Zoghbi, Nozomu Tominaga, Takashi J Moriya

    PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   Vol. 70 ( 2 )   2018.3

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    DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psx072

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  58. Measurements of resonant scattering in the Perseus Cluster core with Hitomi SXS Reviewed

    Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W Brenneman, Gregory V Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P Chiao, Paolo S Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle de Plaa, Cor P de Vries, Jan-Willem den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Maki Furukawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masachika Iwai, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L Kelley, Caroline A Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu-Hang Lee, Maurice A Leutenegger, Olivier O Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian R McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D Miller, Jon M Miller, Shin Mineshige, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Takuya Miyazawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hideyuki Mori, Koji Mori, Koji Mukai, Hiroshi Murakami, Richard F Mushotzky, Takao Nakagawa, Hiroshi Nakajima, Takeshi Nakamori, Shinya Nakashima, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Kumiko K Nobukawa, Masayoshi Nobukawa, Hirofumi Noda, Hirokazu Odaka, Anna Ogorzalek, Takaya Ohashi, Masanori Ohno, Takashi Okajima, Naomi Ota, Masanobu Ozaki, Frits Paerels, Stéphane Paltani, Robert Petre, Ciro Pinto, Frederick S Porter, Katja Pottschmidt, Christopher S Reynolds, Samar Safi-Harb, Shinya Saito, Kazuhiro Sakai, Toru Sasaki, Goro Sato, Kosuke Sato, Rie Sato, Makoto Sawada, Norbert Schartel, Peter J Serlemtsos, Hiromi Seta, Megumi Shidatsu, Aurora Simionescu, Randall K Smith, Yang Soong, Łukasz Stawarz, Yasuharu Sugawara, Satoshi Sugita, Andrew Szymkowiak, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shiníchiro Takeda, Yoh Takei, Toru Tamagawa, Takayuki Tamura, Takaaki Tanaka, Yasuo Tanaka, Yasuyuki T Tanaka, Makoto S Tashiro, Yuzuru Tawara, Yukikatsu Terada, Yuichi Terashima, Francesco Tombesi, Hiroshi Tomida, Yohko Tsuboi, Masahiro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Takeshi Go Tsuru, Hiroyuki Uchida, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shutaro Ueda, Yoshihiro Ueda, Shiníchiro Uno, C Megan Urry, Eugenio Ursino, Shin Watanabe, Norbert Werner, Dan R Wilkins, Brian J Williams, Shinya Yamada, Hiroya Yamaguchi, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Noriko Y Yamasaki, Makoto Yamauchi, Shigeo Yamauchi, Tahir Yaqoob, Yoichi Yatsu, Daisuke Yonetoku, Irina Zhuravleva, Abderahmen Zoghbi

    PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   Vol. 70 ( 2 )   2018.3

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    DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psx127

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  59. Hitomi X-ray studies of giant radio pulses from the Crab pulsar Reviewed

    Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W. Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W. Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W. Brenneman, Gregory V. Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M. Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P. Chiao, Paolo S. Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle De Plaa, Cor P. De Vries, Jan Willem Den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E. Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C. Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R. Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C. Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M. Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S. Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P. Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masachika Iwai, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L. Kelley, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A. Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, L. E.E. Shiu-Hang, Maurice A. Leutenegger, Olivier O. Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S. Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian R. McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D. Miller, Jon M. Miller, Shin Mineshige

    Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan   Vol. 70 ( 2 )   2018.3

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    © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Astronomical Society of Japan. To search for giant X-ray pulses correlated with the giant radio pulses (GRPs) from the Crab pulsar, we performed a simultaneous observation of the Crab pulsar with the X-ray satellite Hitomi in the 2-300 keV band and the Kashima NICT radio telescope in the 1.4-1.7 GHz band with a net exposure of about 2 ks on 2016 March 25, just before the loss of the Hitomi mission. The timing performance of the Hitomi instruments was confirmed to meet the timing requirement and about 1000 and 100 GRPs were simultaneously observed at the main pulse and inter-pulse phases, respectively, and we found no apparent correlation between the giant radio pulses and the X-ray emission in either the main pulse or inter-pulse phase. All variations are within the 2 σ fluctuations of the X-ray fluxes at the pulse peaks, and the 3 σ upper limits of variations of main pulse or inter-pulse GRPs are 22% or 80% of the peak flux in a 0.20 phase width, respectively, in the 2-300 keV band. The values for main pulse or inter-pulse GRPs become 25% or 110%, respectively, when the phase width is restricted to the 0.03 phase. Among the upper limits from the Hitomi satellite, those in the 4.5-10 keV and 70-300 keV bands are obtained for the first time, and those in other bands are consistent with previous reports. Numerically, the upper limits of the main pulse and inter-pulse GRPs in the 0.20 phase width are about (2.4 and 9.3) × 10−11 erg cm−2, respectively. No significant variability in pulse profiles implies that the GRPs originated from a local place within the magnetosphere. Although the number of photon-emitting particles should temporarily increase to account for the brightening of the radio emission, the results do not statistically rule out variations correlated with the GRPs, because the possible X-ray enhancement may appear due to a >0.02% brightening of the pulse-peak flux under such conditions.

    DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psx083

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  60. Hitomi observations of the LMC SNR N 132 D: Highly redshifted X-ray emission from iron ejecta Reviewed

    Hitomi Collaboration, Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W Brenneman, Gregory V Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P Chiao, Paolo S Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle de Plaa, Cor P de Vries, Jan-Willem den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masachika Iwai, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L Kelley, Caroline A Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu-Hang Lee, Maurice A Leutenegger, Olivier Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian R McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D Miller, Jon M Miller, Shin Mineshige, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Takuya Miyazawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hideyuki Mori, Koji Mori, Koji Mukai, Hiroshi Murakami, Richard F Mushotzky, Takao Nakagawa, Hiroshi Nakajima, Takeshi Nakamori, Shinya Nakashima, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Kumiko K Nobukawa, Masayoshi Nobukawa, Hirofumi Noda, Hirokazu Odaka, Takaya Ohashi, Masanori Ohno, Takashi Okajima, Naomi Ota, Masanobu Ozaki, Frits Paerels, Stéphane Paltani, Robert Petre, Ciro Pinto, Frederick S Porter, Katja Pottschmidt, Christopher S Reynolds, Samar Safi-Harb, Shinya Saito, Kazuhiro Sakai, Toru Sasaki, Goro Sato, Kosuke Sato, Rie Sato, Toshiki Sato, Makoto Sawada, Norbert Schartel, Peter J Serlemtsos, Hiromi Seta, Megumi Shidatsu, Aurora Simionescu, Randall K Smith, Yang Soong, Łukasz Stawarz, Yasuharu Sugawara, Satoshi Sugita, Andrew Szymkowiak, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shin’ichiro Takeda, Yoh Takei, Toru Tamagawa, Takayuki Tamura, Takaaki Tanaka, Yasuo Tanaka, Yasuyuki T Tanaka, Makoto S Tashiro, Yuzuru Tawara, Yukikatsu Terada, Yuichi Terashima, Francesco Tombesi, Hiroshi Tomida, Yohko Tsuboi, Masahiro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Takeshi Go Tsuru, Hiroyuki Uchida, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shutaro Ueda, Yoshihiro Ueda, Shin’ichiro Uno, C Megan Urry, Eugenio Ursino, Shin Watanabe, Norbert Werner, Dan R Wilkins, Brian J Williams, Shinya Yamada, Hiroya Yamaguchi, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Noriko Y Yamasaki, Makoto Yamauchi, Shigeo Yamauchi, Tahir Yaqoob, Yoichi Yatsu, Daisuke Yonetoku, Irina Zhuravleva, Abderahmen Zoghbi

    PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   Vol. 70 ( 2 )   2018.3

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    DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psx151

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  61. Hitomi observation of radio galaxy NGC 1275: The first X-ray microcalorimeter spectroscopy of Fe-K alpha line emission from an active galactic nucleus Reviewed

    Hitomi Collaboration, Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W Brenneman, Gregory V Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P Chiao, Paolo S Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle de Plaa, Cor P de Vries, Jan-Willem den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masachika Iwai, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L Kelley, Caroline A Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu-Hang Lee, Maurice A Leutenegger, Olivier O Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian R McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D Miller, Jon M Miller, Shin Mineshige, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Takuya Miyazawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hideyuki Mori, Koji Mori, Koji Mukai, Hiroshi Murakami, Richard F Mushotzky, Takao Nakagawa, Hiroshi Nakajima, Takeshi Nakamori, Shinya Nakashima, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Kumiko K Nobukawa, Masayoshi Nobukawa, Hirofumi Noda, Hirokazu Odaka, Takaya Ohashi, Masanori Ohno, Takashi Okajima, Naomi Ota, Masanobu Ozaki, Frits Paerels, Stéphane Paltani, Robert Petre, Ciro Pinto, Frederick S Porter, Katja Pottschmidt, Christopher S Reynolds, Samar Safi-Harb, Shinya Saito, Kazuhiro Sakai, Toru Sasaki, Goro Sato, Kosuke Sato, Rie Sato, Makoto Sawada, Norbert Schartel, Peter J Serlemitsos, Hiromi Seta, Megumi Shidatsu, Aurora Simionescu, Randall K Smith, Yang Soong, Łukasz Stawarz, Yasuharu Sugawara, Satoshi Sugita, Andrew Szymkowiak, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shin’ichiro Takeda, Yoh Takei, Toru Tamagawa, Takayuki Tamura, Takaaki Tanaka, Yasuo Tanaka, Yasuyuki T Tanaka, Makoto S Tashiro, Yuzuru Tawara, Yukikatsu Terada, Yuichi Terashima, Francesco Tombesi, Hiroshi Tomida, Yohko Tsuboi, Masahiro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Takeshi Go Tsuru, Hiroyuki Uchida, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shutaro Ueda, Yoshihiro Ueda, Shin’ichiro Uno, C Megan Urry, Eugenio Ursino, Shin Watanabe, Norbert Werner, Dan R Wilkins, Brian J Williams, Shinya Yamada, Hiroya Yamaguchi, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Noriko Y Yamasaki, Makoto Yamauchi, Shigeo Yamauchi, Tahir Yaqoob, Yoichi Yatsu, Daisuke Yonetoku, Irina Zhuravleva, Abderahmen Zoghbi, Taiki Kawamuro

    PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   Vol. 70 ( 2 )   2018.3

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    DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psx147

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  62. Glimpse of the highly obscured HMXB IGR J16318-4848 with Hitomi Reviewed

    Hitomi Collaboration, Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W Brenneman, Gregory V Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P Chiao, Paolo S Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle de Plaa, Cor P de Vries, Jan-Willem den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masachika Iwai, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L Kelley, Caroline A Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu-Hang Lee, Maurice A Leutenegger, Olivier O Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian R McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D Miller, Jon M Miller, Shin Mineshige, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Takuya Miyazawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hideyuki Mori, Koji Mori, Koji Mukai, Hiroshi Murakami, Richard F Mushotzky, Takao Nakagawa, Hiroshi Nakajima, Takeshi Nakamori, Shinya Nakashima, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Kumiko K Nobukawa, Masayoshi Nobukawa, Hirofumi Noda, Hirokazu Odaka, Takaya Ohashi, Masanori Ohno, Takashi Okajima, Naomi Ota, Masanobu Ozaki, Frits Paerels, Stéphane Paltani, Robert Petre, Ciro Pinto, Frederick S Porter, Katja Pottschmidt, Christopher S Reynolds, Samar Safi-Harb, Shinya Saito, Kazuhiro Sakai, Toru Sasaki, Goro Sato, Kosuke Sato, Rie Sato, Makoto Sawada, Norbert Schartel, Peter J Serlemtsos, Hiromi Seta, Megumi Shidatsu, Aurora Simionescu, Randall K Smith, Yang Soong, Łukasz Stawarz, Yasuharu Sugawara, Satoshi Sugita, Andrew Szymkowiak, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shiníchiro Takeda, Yoh Takei, Toru Tamagawa, Takayuki Tamura, Takaaki Tanaka, Yasuo Tanaka, Yasuyuki T Tanaka, Makoto S Tashiro, Yuzuru Tawara, Yukikatsu Terada, Yuichi Terashima, Francesco Tombesi, Hiroshi Tomida, Yohko Tsuboi, Masahiro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Takeshi Go Tsuru, Hiroyuki Uchida, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shutaro Ueda, Yoshihiro Ueda, Shiníchiro Uno, C Megan Urry, Eugenio Ursino, Shin Watanabe, Norbert Werner, Dan R Wilkins, Brian J Williams, Shinya Yamada, Hiroya Yamaguchi, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Noriko Y Yamasaki, Makoto Yamauchi, Shigeo Yamauchi, Tahir Yaqoob, Yoichi Yatsu, Daisuke Yonetoku, Irina Zhuravleva, Abderahmen Zoghbi, Nozomi Nakaniwa

    PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   Vol. 70 ( 2 )   2018.3

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    DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psx154

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  63. Atomic data and spectral modeling constraints from high-resolution X-ray observations of the Perseus cluster with Hitomi Reviewed

    Hitomi Collaboration, Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W Brenneman, Gregory V Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P Chiao, Paolo S Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle de Plaa, Cor P de Vries, Jan-Willem den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Natalie Hell, Junko S Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masachika Iwai, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L Kelley, Caroline A Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu-Hang Lee, Maurice A Leutenegger, Olivier Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian R McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D Miller, Jon M Miller, Shin Mineshige, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Takuya Miyazawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hideyuki Mori, Koji Mori, Koji Mukai, Hiroshi Murakami, Richard F Mushotzky, Takao Nakagawa, Hiroshi Nakajima, Takeshi Nakamori, Shinya Nakashima, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Kumiko K Nobukawa, Masayoshi Nobukawa, Hirofumi Noda, Hirokazu Odaka, Takaya Ohashi, Masanori Ohno, Takashi Okajima, Naomi Ota, Masanobu Ozaki, Frits Paerels, Stéphane Paltani, Robert Petre, Ciro Pinto, Frederick S Porter, Katja Pottschmidt, Christopher S Reynolds, Samar Safi-Harb, Shinya Saito, Kazuhiro Sakai, Toru Sasaki, Goro Sato, Kosuke Sato, Rie Sato, Makoto Sawada, Norbert Schartel, Peter J Serlemtsos, Hiromi Seta, Megumi Shidatsu, Aurora Simionescu, Randall K Smith, Yang Soong, Łukasz Stawarz, Yasuharu Sugawara, Satoshi Sugita, Andrew Szymkowiak, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shin’ichiro Takeda, Yoh Takei, Toru Tamagawa, Takayuki Tamura, Takaaki Tanaka, Yasuo Tanaka, Yasuyuki T Tanaka, Makoto S Tashiro, Yuzuru Tawara, Yukikatsu Terada, Yuichi Terashima, Francesco Tombesi, Hiroshi Tomida, Yohko Tsuboi, Masahiro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Takeshi Go Tsuru, Hiroyuki Uchida, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shutaro Ueda, Yoshihiro Ueda, Shin’ichiro Uno, C Megan Urry, Eugenio Ursino, Shin Watanabe, Norbert Werner, Dan R Wilkins, Brian J Williams, Shinya Yamada, Hiroya Yamaguchi, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Noriko Y Yamasaki, Makoto Yamauchi, Shigeo Yamauchi, Tahir Yaqoob, Yoichi Yatsu, Daisuke Yonetoku, Irina Zhuravleva, Abderahmen Zoghbi, A J J Raassen

    PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   Vol. 70 ( 2 )   2018.3

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    DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psx156

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  64. An estimation of the white dwarf mass in the Dwarf Nova GK Persei with NuSTAR observations of two states Reviewed

    Yuuki Wada, Takayuki Yuasa, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Kazuo Makishima, Takayuki Hayashi, Manabu Ishida

    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society   Vol. 474 ( 2 ) page: 1564 - 1571   2018.2

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    We report on X-ray observations of the Dwarf Nova GK Persei performed by NuSTAR in 2015. GK Persei, behaving also as an Intermediate Polar, exhibited a Dwarf Nova outburst in 2015 March-April. The object was observed with NuSTAR during the outburst state, and again in a quiescent state wherein the 15-50 keV flux was 33 times lower. Using a multitemperature plasma emission and reflection model, the highest plasma temperature in the accretion column was measured as 19.7-1.0+1.3 keV in outburst and 36.2-3.2+3.5 keV in quiescence. The significant change of the maximum temperature is considered to reflect an accretion-induced decrease of the inner-disc radius Rin, where accreting gas is captured by the magnetosphere. Assuming this radius scales as Rin ∝ M˙ -2/7, where M˙ is themass accretion rate, we obtain Rin = 1.9-0.2+0.4 RWD and Rin = 7.4-1.2 +2.1 RWD in outburst and quiescence, respectively, where RWD is the white-dwarf (WD) radius of this system. Utilizing the measured temperatures and fluxes, as well as the standard mass-radius relation ofWDs, we estimate the WD mass as MWD = 0.87 ± 0.08M⊙ including typical systematic uncertainties by 7 per cent. The surface magnetic field is also measured as B ~ 5 × 105 G. These results exemplify a new X-ray method of estimating MWD and B of WDs by using large changes in M.

    DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx2880

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  65. The hitomi X-Ray observatory Reviewed

    Richard L. Kelley, Kazuhiro Nakazawa

    Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems   Vol. 4 ( 1 )   2018.1

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    DOI: 10.1117/1.JATIS.4.1.011201

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  66. Multiwavelength study of X-ray luminous clusters in the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program S16A field Reviewed

    Keita Miyaoka, Nobuhiro Okabe, Takao Kitaguchi, Masamune Oguri, Yasushi Fukazawa, Rachel Mandelbaum, Elinor Medezinski, Yasunori Babazaki, Atsushi J. Nishizawa, Takashi Hamana, Yen-Ting Lin, Hiroki Akamatsu, I-Non Chiu, Yutaka Fujita, Yuto Ichinohe, Yutaka Komiyama, Toru Sasaki, Motokazu Takizawa, Shutaro Ueda, Keiichi Umetsu, Jean Coupon, Chiaki Hikage, Akio Hoshino, Alexie Leauthaud, Kyoko Matsushita, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Hironao Miyatake, Satoshi Miyazaki, Surhud More, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Naomi Ota, Kousuke Sato, David Spergel, Takayuki Tamura, Masayuki Tanaka, Manobu M Tanaka, Yousuke Utsumi

    Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan   Vol. 70 ( Special Issue 1 )   2018.1

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    We present a joint X-ray, optical, and weak-lensing analysis for X-ray luminous galaxy clusters selected from the MCXC (Meta-Catalog of X-Ray Detected Clusters of Galaxies) cluster catalog in the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP) survey field with S16A data. As a pilot study for a series of papers, we measure hydrostatic equilibrium (HE) masses using XMM-Newton data for four clusters in the current coverage area out of a sample of 22 MCXC clusters. We additionally analyze a non-MCXC cluster associated with one MCXC cluster. We show that HE masses for the MCXC clusters are correlated with cluster richness from the CAMIRA catalog, while that for the non-MCXC cluster deviates from the scaling relation. The mass normalization of the relationship between cluster richness and HE mass is compatible with one inferred by matching CAMIRA cluster abundance with a theoretical halo mass function. The mean gas mass fraction based on HE masses for the MCXC clusters is (fgas) = 0.125 ± 0.012 at spherical overdensity Δ = 500, which is ∼80%-90% of the cosmic mean baryon fraction, Ωb/Ωm,measured by cosmicmicrowave background experiments. We find that themean baryon fraction estimated from X-ray and HSC-SSP optical data is comparable to Ωb/Ωm. A weak-lensing shear catalog of background galaxies, combined with photometric redshifts, is currently available only for three clusters in our sample. Hydrostatic equilibrium masses roughly agree with weak-lensing masses, albeit with large uncertainty. This study demonstrates that further multi wave length study for a large sample of clusters using X-ray, HSC-SSP optical, and weak-lensing data will enable us to understand cluster physics and utilize cluster-based cosmology.

    DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psx132

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  67. The analysis of gamma ray from winter thundercloud in Kanazawa between 2015 and 2017

    Matsumoto Takahiro, Wada Yuuki, Furuta Yoshihiro, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Enoto Teruaki, Yuasa Takayuki, Makishima Kazuo, Tsuchiya Harufumi, Odaka Hirokazu, Bamba Aya, Yonetoku Daisuke, Sawano Tatsuya

    Meeting Abstracts of the Physical Society of Japan   Vol. 73.2 ( 0 ) page: 134 - 134   2018

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    DOI: 10.11316/jpsgaiyo.73.2.0_134

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  68. CAMELOT - Concept study and early results for onboard data processing and GPS-based timestamping

    András Pál, László Mészáros, Norbert Tarcai, Norbert Werner, Jakub Řípa, Masanori Ohno, Kento Torigoe, Koji Tanaka, Nagomi Uchida, Gabór Galgóczi, Yasushi Fukazawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Zsolt Várhegyi, Teruaki Enoto, Hirokazu Odaka, Yuto Ichinohe, Zsolt Frei, László Kiss

    arXiv     2018

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  69. Monitoring of gamma-ray bursts with a fleet of nanosatellites

    Řípa J., Werner N., Pál A., Ohno M., Tarcai N., Torigoe K., Tanaka K., Uchida N., Mészáros L., Galgóczi G., Fukazawa Y., Mizuno T., Takahashi H., Nakazawa K., Várhegyi Z., Enoto T., Odaka H., Ichinohe Y., Frei Z., Kiss L.

    Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC   Vol. 2018-October   2018

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    We present the results of our feasibility study for a fleet of nano-satellites to perform an all sky monitoring and timing-based localisation of gamma-ray transients. The fleet of nine satellites of the CubeSat standard equipped with scintillator based soft gamma-ray detectors will measure the time difference between the arrival of the signal at the different satellites (the time will be synchronised using GPS) and determine the location of bright gamma-ray bursts in the sky by triangulation. The satellites will downlink the data about the detected transient within minutes, enabling rapid follow-up observations at other wavelengths.

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  70. Long-term test of a stacked CdTe mini-HXI setup Reviewed

    Daniel Maier, Benoit Horeau, Philippe Laurent, Olivier Limousin, Diana Renaud, Madoka Kawaharada, Motohide Kokubun, Goro Sato, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shin Watanabe, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Cesar Boatella Polo

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment   Vol. 912   page: 199 - 204   2018

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Elsevier B.V.  

    This work presents a long-term operation of two stacked CdTe double sided strip detectors that are comparable with the CdTe detectors onboard Hitomi's HXI. The goal of this test is to study the evolution of the spectroscopic performance of the detectors during a one year operation cycle which resembles the in-orbit operation cycle of Hitomi HXI. Crystal defects inside CdTe cause a degradation of the spectroscopic performance (polarization effect) of the crystal which is becoming worse during detector operation. In order to prevent crystal polarization, the detectors are reset (switch-off of the depletion voltage) once a day. Our main investigation was to study if a long-term degradation can occur as a result of incomplete depolarization during the reset. We present the hardware setup and the analytical steps that were used to investigate the detector stability during each day and over the whole testing period. For the anode signals our results show at 60 keV: a daily line drift of (−2.8±0.7) eV/ks while the long-term drift is (−1.5±1.2) eV/day. The degradation of the energy resolution is measured to be (+2.4±0.3) eV/ks FWHM and the loss of efficiency is (−0.29±0.02) %/ks.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2017.11.035

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  71. Concept of X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission

    Tashiro Makoto, Maejima Hironori, Toda Kenichi, Kelley Richard, Reichenthal Lillian, Lobell James, Petre Robert, Guainazzi Matteo, Costantini Elisa, Edison Mark, Fujimoto Ryuichi, Grim Martin, Hayashida Kiyoshi, den Herder Jan-Willem, Ishisaki Yoshitaka, Paltani Stephane, Matsushita Kyoko, Mori Koji, Sneiderman Gary, Takei Yoh, Terada Yukikatsu, Tomida Hiroshi, Akamatsu Hiroki, Angelini Lorella, Arai Yoshitaka, Awaki Hisamitsu, Babyk Iurii, Bamba Aya, Barfknecht Peter, Barnstable Kim, Bialas Thomas, Blagojevic Branimir, Bonafede Joseph, Brambora Clifford, Brenneman Laura, Brown Greg, Brown Kimberly, Burns Laura, Canavan Edgar, Carnahan Tim, Chiao Meng, Comber Brian, Corrales Lia, de Vries Cor, Dercksen Johannes, Diaz-Trigo Maria, Dillard Tyrone, DiPirro Michael, Done Chris, Dotani Tadayasu, Ebisawa Ken, Eckart Megan, Enoto Teruaki, Ezoe Yuichiro, Ferrigno Carlo, Fujita Yutaka, Fukazawa Yasushi, Furuzawa Akihiro, Gallo Luigi, Graham Steve, Gu Liyi, Hagino Kohichi, Hamaguchi Kenji, Hatsukade Isamu, Hawes Dean, Hayashi Takayuki, Hegarty Cailey, Hell Natalie, Hiraga Junko, Hodges-Kluck Edmund, Holland Matt, Hornschemeier Ann, Hoshino Akio, Ichinohe Yuto, Iizuka Ryo, Ishibashi Kazunori, Ishida Manabu, Ishikawa Kumi, Ishimura Kosei, James Bryan, Kallman Timothy, Kara Erin, Katsuda Satoru, Kenyon Steven, Kilbourne Caroline, Kimball Mark, Kitaguchi Takao, Kitamoto Shunji, Kobayashi Shogo, Kohmura Takayoshi, Koyama Shu, Kubota Aya, Leutenegger Maurice, Lockard Tom, Loewenstein Mike, Maeda Yoshitomo, Marbley Lynette, Markevitch Maxim, Martz Connor, Matsumoto Hironori, Matsuzaki Keiichi, McCammon Dan, McNamara Brian, Miko Joseph, Miller Eric, Miller Jon, Minesugi Kenji, Mitsuishi Ikuyuki, Mizuno Tsunefumi, Mori Hideyuki, Mukai Koji, Murakami Hiroshi, Mushotzky Richard, Nakajima Hiroshi, Nakamura Hideto, Nakashima Shinya, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Natsukari Chikara, Nigo Kenichiro, Nishioka Yusuke, Nobukawa Kumiko, Nobukawa Masayoshi, Noda Hirofumi, Odaka Hirokazu, Ogawa Mina, Ohashi Takaya, Ohno Masahiro, Ohta Masayuki, Okajima Takashi, Okamoto Atsushi, Onizuka Michitaka, Ota Naomi, Ozaki Masanobu, Plucinsky Paul, Porter F. Scott, Pottschmidt Katja, Sato Kosuke, Sato Rie, Sawada Makoto, Seta Hiromi, Shelton Ken, Shibano Yasuko, Shida Maki, Shidatsu Megumi, Shirron Peter, Simionescu Aurora, Smith Randall, Someya Kazunori, Soong Yang, Sugawara Yasuharu, Szymkowiak Andy, Takahashi Hiromitsu, Tamagawa Toru, Tamura Takayuki, Tanaka Takaaki, Terashima Yuichi, Tsuboi Yohko, Tsujimoto Masahiro, Tsunemi Hiroshi, Tsuru Takeshi, Uchida Hiroyuki, Uchiyama Hideki, Ueda Yoshihiro, Uno Shinichiro, Walsh Thomas, Watanabe Shin, Williams Brian, Wolfs Rob, Wright Michael, Yamada Shinya, Yamaguchi Hiroya, Yamaoka Kazutaka, Yamasaki Noriko, Yamauchi Shigeo, Yamauchi Makoto, Yanagase Keiichi, Yaqoob Tahir, Yasuda Susumu, Yoshioka Nasa, Zabala Jaime, Zhuravleva Irina

    SPACE TELESCOPES AND INSTRUMENTATION 2018: ULTRAVIOLET TO GAMMA RAY   Vol. 10699   2018

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    The ASTRO-H mission was designed and developed through an international collaboration of JAXA, NASA, ESA, and the CSA. It was successfully launched on February 17, 2016, and then named Hitomi. During the in-orbit verification phase, the on-board observational instruments functioned as expected. The intricate coolant and refrigeration systems for soft X-ray spectrometer (SXS, a quantum micro-calorimeter) and soft X-ray imager (SXI, an X-ray CCD) also functioned as expected. However, on March 26, 2016, operations were prematurely terminated by a series of abnormal events and mishaps triggered by the attitude control system. These errors led to a fatal event: the loss of the solar panels on the Hitomi mission. The X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission (or, XARM) is proposed to regain the key scientific advances anticipated by the international collaboration behind Hitomi. XARM will recover this science in the shortest time possible by focusing on one of the main science goals of Hitomi,"Resolving astrophysical problems by precise high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy".1 This decision was reached after evaluating the performance of the instruments aboard Hitomi and the mission's initial scientific results, and considering the landscape of planned international X-ray astrophysics missions in 2020's and 2030's. Hitomi opened the door to high-resolution spectroscopy in the X-ray universe. It revealed a number of discrepancies between new observational results and prior theoretical predictions. Yet, the resolution pioneered by Hitomi is also the key to answering these and other fundamental questions. The high spectral resolution realized by XARM will not offer mere refinements; rather, it will enable qualitative leaps in astrophysics and plasma physics. XARM has therefore been given a broad scientific charge: "Revealing material circulation and energy transfer in cosmic plasmas and elucidating evolution of cosmic structures and objects". To fulfill this charge, four categories of science objectives that were defined for Hitomi will also be pursued by XARM; these include (1) Structure formation of the Universe and evolution of clusters of galaxies; (2) Circulation history of baryonic matters in the Universe; (3) Transport and circulation of energy in the Universe; (4) New science with unprecedented high resolution X-ray spectroscopy. In order to achieve these scientific objectives, XARM will carry a 6 × 6 pixelized X-ray micro-calorimeter on the focal plane of an X-ray mirror assembly, and an aligned X-ray CCD camera covering the same energy band and a wider field of view. This paper introduces the science objectives, mission concept, and observing plan of XARM.

    DOI: 10.1117/12.2309455

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  72. CAMELOT: design and performance verification of the detector concept and localization capability

    Masanori Ohno, Norbert Werner, András Pál, Jakub Řípa, Gabór Galgóczi, Norbert Tarcai, Zsolt Várhegyi, Yasushi Fukazawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Koji Tanaka, Nagomi Uchida, Kento Torigoe, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Teruaki Enoto, Hirokazu Odaka, Yuto Ichinohe, Zsolt Frei, László Kiss

    Proc. SPIE 10699, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2018: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray   Vol. 10699   2018

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    DOI: 10.1117/12.2313228

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  73. CAMELOT: Cubesats Applied for MEasuring and LOcalising Transients mission overview

    Norbert Werner, Jakub Řípa, András Pál, Masanori Ohno, Norbert Tarcai, Kento Torigoe, Koji Tanaka, Nagomi Uchida, László Mészáros, Gabór Galgóczi, Yasushi Fukazawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Zsolt Várhegyi, Teruaki Enoto, Hirokazu Odaka, Yuto Ichinohe, Zsolt Frei, László Kiss

    Proc. SPIE 10699, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2018: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray   Vol. 10699   2018

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    DOI: 10.1117/12.2313764

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  74. The FORCE mission : Science aim and instrument parameter for broadband X-ray imaging spectroscopy with good angular resolution

    Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Koji Mori, Takeshi G. Tsuru, Yoshihiro Ueda, Hisamitsu Awaki, Yasushi Fukazawa, Manabu Ishida, Hironori Matsumoto, Hiroshi Murakami, Takashi Okajima, Tadayuki Takahashi, Hiroshi Tsunemi, William W. Zhang

    Proc. SPIE 10699, 2018   Vol. 10699   2018

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    FORCE is a 1.2 tonnes small mission dedicated for wide-band fine-imaging<br />
    x-ray observation. It covers from 1 to 80 keV with a good angular resolution of<br />
    $15&quot;$ half-power-diameter. It is proposed to be launched around mid-2020s and<br />
    designed to reach a limiting sensitivity as good as $F_X (10-40~{\rm keV}) = 3<br />
    \times 10^{-15}$~erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ keV$^{-1}$ within 1~Ms. This number is<br />
    one order of magnitude better than current best one. With its high-sensitivity<br />
    wide-band coverage, FORCE will probe the new science field of &quot;missing BHs&quot;,<br />
    searching for families of black holes of which populations and evolutions are<br />
    not well known. Other point-source and diffuse-source sciences are also<br />
    considered. FORCE will also provide the &quot;hard x-ray coverage&quot; to forthcoming<br />
    large soft x-ray observatories.

    DOI: 10.1117/12.2309344

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  75. Triggering of photonuclear reactions by a lightning discharge

    Enoto Teruaki, Wada Yuuki, Furuta Yoshihiro, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Yuasa Takayuki, Okuda Kazufumi, Makishima Kazuo, Sato Mitsuteru, Sato Yousuke, Nakano Toshio, Umemoto Daigo, Tsuchiya Harufumi

    Meeting Abstracts of the Physical Society of Japan   Vol. 73.1 ( 0 ) page: 176 - 176   2018

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    DOI: 10.11316/jpsgaiyo.73.1.0_176

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  76. Development of in-orbit radioactivation background simulation and its application to the Hard X-ray Imager onboard Hitomi

    Odaka Hirokazu, Asai Makoto, Hagino Kouichi, Koi Tatsumi, Madejski Greg, Mizuno Tsunefumi, Ohno Masanori, Saito Shinya, Wright Dennis, Nakazawa Kazuhiro

    Meeting Abstracts of the Physical Society of Japan   Vol. 73.2 ( 0 ) page: 163 - 163   2018

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    DOI: 10.11316/jpsgaiyo.73.2.0_163

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  77. Discovery of photonuclear reactions triggered by lightning discharge: On-ground detection of neutrons and positrons

    Wada Yuuki, Furuta Yoshihiro, Enoto Teruaki, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Yuasa Takayuki, Okuda Kazufumi, Makishima Kazuo, Sato Mitsuteru, Sato Yousuke, Nakano Toshio, Suzuki Hiromasa, Umemoto Daigo, Tsuchiya Harufumi

    Meeting Abstracts of the Physical Society of Japan   Vol. 73.1 ( 0 ) page: 422 - 422   2018

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    DOI: 10.11316/jpsgaiyo.73.1.0_422

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  78. Mass production of the gamma-ray detector using a large CsI and mapping observation of winter thunderclouds

    Matsumoto Takahiro, Wada Yuki, Furuta Yoshihiro, Sino Manami, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Enoto Teruaki, Yuasa Takayuki, Makisima Kazuo, Nakano Toshio, Tsuchiya Harufumi

    Meeting Abstracts of the Physical Society of Japan   Vol. 73.1 ( 0 ) page: 414 - 414   2018

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    DOI: 10.11316/jpsgaiyo.73.1.0_414

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  79. Suzaku and Chandra observations of the galaxy cluster RXC J1053.7+5453 with a radio relic Reviewed

    Itahana Madoka, Takizawa Motokazu, Akamatsu Hiroki, van Weeren Reinout J, Kawahara Hajime, Fukazawa Yasushi, Kaastra Jelle S, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Ohashi Takaya, Ota Naomi, Rottgering Huub J. A, Vink Jacco, Zandanel Fabio

    PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   Vol. 69 ( 6 )   2017.12

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    We present the results of Suzaku and Chandra observations of the galaxy cluster RXC J1053.7+5453 (z = 0.0704), which contains a radio relic. The radio relic is located at a distance of similar to 540 kpc from the X-ray peak toward the west. We measured the temperature of this cluster for the first time. The resultant temperature in the center is similar to 1.3 keV, which is lower than the value expected from the X-ray luminosity-temperature and the velocity dispersion-temperature relations. Though we did not find a significant temperature jump at the outer edge of the relic, our results suggest that the temperature decreases outward across the relic. Assuming the existence of the shock at the relic, its Mach number becomes M similar or equal to 1.4. A possible spatial variation of Mach number along the relic is suggested. Additionally, a sharp surface brightness edge is found at a distance of similar to 160 kpc from the X-ray peak toward the west in the Chandra image. We performed X-ray spectral and surface brightness analyses around the edge with the Suzaku and Chandra data, respectively. The obtained surface brightness and temperature profiles suggest that this edge is not a shock but likely a cold front. Alternatively, it cannot be ruled out that thermal pressure is really discontinuous across the edge. In this case, if the pressure across the surface brightness edge is in equilibrium, other forms of pressure sources, such as cosmic-rays, are necessary. We searched for the non-thermal inverse Compton component in the relic region. Assuming a photon index Gamma = 2.0, the resultant upper limit of the flux is 1.9 x 10(-14) erg s(-1) cm(-2) for a 4.50 x 10(-3) deg(2) area in the 0.3-10 keV band, which implies that the lower limit of magnetic field strength becomes 0.7 mu G.

    DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psx095

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  80. Photonuclear reactions triggered by lightning discharge Reviewed

    Teruaki Enoto, Yuuki Wada, Yoshihiro Furuta, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Takayuki Yuasa, Kazufumi Okuda, Kazuo Makishima, Mitsuteru Sato, Yousuke Sato, Toshio Nakano, Daigo Umemoto, Harufumi Tsuchiya

    NATURE   Vol. 551 ( 7681 ) page: 481 - +   2017.11

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    Lightning and thunderclouds are natural particle accelerators(1). Avalanches of relativistic runaway electrons, which develop in electric fields within thunderclouds(2,3), emit bremsstrahlung gamma-rays. These gamma-rays have been detected by ground-based observatories(4-9), by airborne detectors(10) and as terrestrial gamma-ray flashes from space(10-14). The energy of the gamma-rays is sufficiently high that they can trigger atmospheric photonuclear reactions(10,15-19) that produce neutrons and eventually positrons via beta(+) decay of the unstable radioactive isotopes, most notably N-13, which is generated via N-14 + gamma -&gt; N-13 + n, where gamma denotes a photon and n a neutron. However, this reaction has hitherto not been observed conclusively, despite increasing observational evidence of neutrons(7,20,21) and positrons(10,22) that are presumably derived from such reactions. Here we report ground-based observations of neutron and positron signals after lightning. During a thunderstorm on 6 February 2017 in Japan, a gamma-ray flash with a duration of less than one millisecond was detected at our monitoring sites 0.5-1.7 kilometres away from the lightning. The subsequent gamma-ray afterglow subsided quickly, with an exponential decay constant of 40-60 milliseconds, and was followed by prolonged line emission at about 0.511 megaelectronvolts, which lasted for a minute. The observed decay time-scale and spectral cutoff at about 10 megaelectronvolts of the gamma-ray afterglow are well explained by de-excitation gamma-rays from nuclei excited by neutron capture. The centre energy of the prolonged line emission corresponds to electron-positron annihilation, providing conclusive evidence of positrons being produced after the lightning.

    DOI: 10.1038/nature24630

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  81. Solar abundance ratios of the iron-peak elements in the Perseus cluster Reviewed

    Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W. Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall W. Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W. Brenneman, Gregory V. Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M. Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P. Chiao, Paolo S. Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle De Plaa, Jan-Willem den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E. Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C. Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R. Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C. Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M. Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S. Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John P. Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masachika Iwai, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L. Kelley, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A. Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu-Hang Lee, Maurice A. Leutenegger, Olivier Limousine, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S. Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian R. McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D. Miller, Jon M. Miller, Shin Mineshige, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Takuya Miyazawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hideyuki Mori, Koji Mori, Koji Mukai, Hiroshi Murakami, Richard F. Mushotzky, Takao Nakagawa, Hiroshi Nakajima, Takeshi Nakamori, Shinya Nakashima, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Kumiko K. Nobukawa, Masayoshi Nobukawa, Hirofumi Noda, Hirokazu Odaka, Takaya Ohashi, Masanori Ohno, Takashi Okajima, Naomi Ota, Masanobu Ozaki, Frits Paerels, StPhane Paltani, Robert Petre, Ciro Pinto, Frederick S. Porter, Katja Pottschmidt, Christopher S. Reynolds, Samar Safi-Harb, Shinya Saito, Kazuhiro Sakai, Toru Sasaki, Goro Sato, Kosuke Sato, Rie Sato, Makoto Sawada, Norbert Schartel, Peter J. Serlemitsos, Hiromi Seta, Megumi Shidatsu, Aurora Simionescu, Randall K. Smith, Yang Soong, Lukasz Stawarz, Yasuharu Sugawara, Satoshi Sugita, Andrew Szymkowiak, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shin'ichiro Takeda, Yoh Takei, Toru Tamagawa, Takayuki Tamura, Takaaki Tanaka, Yasuo Tanaka, Yasuyuki T. Tanaka, Makoto S. Tashiro, Yuzuru Tawara, Yukikatsu Terada, Yuichi Terashima, Francesco Tombesi, Hiroshi Tomida, Yohko Tsuboi, Masahiro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Takeshi Go Tsuru, Hiroyuki Uchida, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shutaro Ueda, Yoshihiro Ueda, Shin'ichiro Uno, C. Megan Urry, Eugenio Ursino, Cor P. de Vries, Shin Watanabe, Norbert Werner, Daniel R. Wik, Dan R. Wilkins, Brian J. Williams, Shinya Yamada, Hiroya Yamaguchi, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Noriko Y. Yamasaki, Makoto Yamauchi, Shigeo Yamauchi, Tahir Yaqoob, Yoichi Yatsu, Daisuke Yonetoku, Irina Zhuravleva, Abderahmen Zoghbi

    NATURE   Vol. 551 ( 7681 ) page: 478 - +   2017.11

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    The metal abundance of the hot plasma that permeates galaxy clusters represents the accumulation of heavy elements produced by billions of supernovae(1). Therefore, X-ray spectroscopy of the intracluster medium provides an opportunity to investigate the nature of supernova explosions integrated over cosmic time. In particular, the abundance of the iron-peak elements (chromium, manganese, iron and nickel) is key to understanding how the progenitors of typical type Ia supernovae evolve and explode(2-6). Recent X-ray studies of the intracluster medium found that the abundance ratios of these elements differ substantially from those seen in the Sun(7-11), suggesting differences between the nature of type Ia supernovae in the clusters and in the Milky Way. However, because the K-shell transition lines of chromium and manganese are weak and those of iron and nickel are very close in photon energy, highresolution spectroscopy is required for an accurate determination of the abundances of these elements. Here we report observations of the Perseus cluster, with statistically significant detections of the resonance emission from chromium, manganese and nickel. Our measurements, combined with the latest atomic models, reveal that these elements have near-solar abundance ratios with respect to iron, in contrast to previous claims. Comparison between our results and modern nucleosynthesis calculations(12-14) disfavours the hypothesis that type Ia supernova progenitors are exclusively white dwarfs with masses well below the Chandrasekhar limit (about 1.4 times the mass of the Sun). The observed abundance pattern of the iron-peak elements can be explained by taking into account a combination of near-and sub-Chandrasekhar-mass type Ia supernova systems, adding to the mounting evidence that both progenitor types make a substantial contribution to cosmic chemical enrichment(5,15,16).

    DOI: 10.1038/nature24301

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  82. Suzaku Wide-band All-sky Monitor (WAM) observations of GRBs and SGRs Reviewed

    Kazutaka Yamaoka, Masanori Ohno, Makoto S. Tashiro, Kevin Hurley, Hans A. Krimm, Amy Y. Lien, Norisuke Ohmori, Satoshi Sugita, Yuji Urata, Tetsuya Yasuda, Junichi Enomoto, Takeshi Fujinuma, Yasushi Fukazawa, Yoshitaka Hanabata, Wataru Iwakiri, Takafumi Kawano, Ryuuji Kinoshita, Motohide Kokubun, Kazuo Makishima, Shunsuke Matsuoka, Tsutomu Nagayoshi, Yujin Nakagawa, Souhei Nakaya, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Yusuke Nishioka, Takanori Sakamoto, Tadayuki Takahashi, Sawako Takeda, Yukikatsu Terada, Seiya Yabe, Makoto Yamauchi, Hiraku Yoshida

    PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   Vol. 69 ( 3 )   2017.6

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    We will review results for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and soft gamma repeaters (SGRs), obtained from the Suzaku Wide-band All-sky Monitor (WAM) which operated for about 10 years from 2005 to 2015. The WAM is a BGO (bismuth germanate: Bi4Ge3O12) lateral shield for the Hard X-ray Detector (HXD),used mainly for rejecting its detector background, but it also works as an all-sky monitor for soft gamma-ray transients in the 50-5000 keV range thanks to its large effective area (similar to 600 cm(2) at 1MeV for one detector) and wide field of view (about half of the entire sky). The WAM actually detected more than 1400 GRBs and 300 bursts from SGRs, and this detection number is comparable to that of other GRB-specific instruments. Based on the 10 years of operation, we describe timing and spectral performance for short GRBs, weak GRBs with high redshifts, and time-resolved pulses with good statistics.

    DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psx026

    Web of Science

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  83. A hard-to-soft state transition of Aquila X-1 observed with Suzaku Reviewed

    Ko Ono, Kazuo Makishima, Soki Sakurai, Zhongli Zhang, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Kazuhiro Nakazawa

    PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   Vol. 69 ( 2 )   2017.4

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    The recurrent soft X-ray transient Aquila X-1 was observed with Suzaku for a gross duration of 79.9 ks, on 2011 October 21 when the object was in a rising phase of an outburst. During the observation, the source exhibited a clear spectral transition from the hard state to the soft state, on a time scale of similar to 30 ks. Across the transition, the 0.8-10 keV X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer count rate increased by a factor similar to 3, that of Hard X-ray Detector PIN (HXD-PIN) in 15-60 keV decreased by a similar factor, and the unabsorbed 0.1-100 keV luminosity increased from 3.5 x 10(37) erg s(-1) to 5.1 x 10(37) erg s(-1). The broadband spectral shape changed continuously, from a power-law-like one with a high-energy cut-off to a more convex one. Throughout the transition, the 0.8-60 keV spectra were successfully described with a model consisting of a multi-color blackbody and a Comptonized blackbody, which are considered to arise from a standard accretion disk and a closer vicinity of the neutron star, respectively. All the model parameters were confirmed to change continuously, from those typical in the hard state to those typical of the soft state. More specifically, the inner disk radius decreased from 31 km to 18 km, the effects of Comptonization on the blackbody photons weakened, and the electron temperature of Comptonization decreased from 10 keV to 3 keV. The derived parameters imply that the Comptonizing corona shrinks towards the final soft state, and/or the radial infall velocity of the corona decreases. These results reinforce the view that the soft and hard states of Aql X-1 (and of similar objects) are described by the same "disk plus Comptonized blackbody" model, but with considerably different parameters.

    DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psw126

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  84. Hitomi Constraints on the 3.5 keV Line in the Perseus Galaxy Cluster Reviewed

    F. A. Aharonian, H. Akamatsu, F. Akimoto, S. W. Allen, L. Angelini, K. A. Arnaud, M. Audard, H. Awaki, M. Axelsson, A. Bamba, M. W. Bautz, R. D. Blandford, E. Bulbul, L. W. Brenneman, G. V. Brown, E. M. Cackett, M. Chernyakova, M. P. Chiao, P. Coppi, E. Costantini, J. de Plaa, J. -W. den Herder, C. Done, T. Dotani, K. Ebisawa, M. E. Eckart, T. Enoto, Y. Ezoe, A. C. Fabian, C. Ferrigno, A. R. Foster, R. Fujimoto, Y. Fukazawa, A. Furuzawa, M. Galeazzi, L. C. Gallo, P. Gandhi, M. Giustini, A. Goldwurm, L. Gu, M. Guainazzi, Y. Haba, K. Hagino, K. Hamaguchi, I. Harrus, I. Hatsukade, K. Hayashi, T. Hayashi, K. Hayashida, J. Hiraga, A. E. Hornschemeier, A. Hoshino, J. P. Hughes, Y. Ichinohe, R. Iizuka, H. Inoue, S. Inoue, Y. Inoue, K. Ishibashi, M. Ishida, K. Ishikawa, Y. Ishisaki, M. Itoh, M. Iwai, N. Iyomoto, J. S. Kaastra, T. Kallman, T. Kamae, E. Kara, J. Kataoka, S. Katsuda, J. Katsuta, M. Kawaharada, N. Kawai, R. L. Kelley, D. Khangulyan, C. A. Kilbourne, A. L. King, T. Kitaguchi, S. Kitamoto, T. Kitayama, T. Kohmura, M. Kokubun, S. Koyama, K. Koyama, P. Kretschmar, H. A. Krimm, A. Kubota, H. Kunieda, P. Laurent, F. Lebrun, S. -H. Lee, M. A. Leutenegger, O. Limousin, M. Loewenstein, K. S. Long, D. H. Lumb, G. M. Madejski, Y. Maeda, D. Maier, K. Makishima, M. Markevitch, H. Matsumoto, K. Matsushita, D. McCammon, B. R. McNamara, M. Mehdipour, E. D. Miller, J. M. Miller, S. Mineshige, K. Mitsuda, I. Mitsuishi, T. Miyazawa, T. Mizuno, H. Mori, K. Mori, H. Moseley, K. Mukai, H. Murakami, T. Murakami, R. F. Mushotzky, T. Nakagawa, H. Nakajima, T. Nakamori, T. Nakano, S. Nakashima, K. Nakazawa, K. Nobukawa, M. Nobukawa, H. Noda, M. Nomachi, S. L. O'Dell, H. Odaka, T. Ohashi, M. Ohno, T. Okajima, N. Ota, M. Ozaki, F. Paerels, S. Paltani, A. Parmar, R. Petre, C. Pinto, M. Pohl, F. S. Porter, K. Pottschmidt, B. D. Ramsey, C. S. Reynolds, H. R. Russell, S. Safi-Harb, S. Saito, K. Sakai, H. Sameshima, T. Sasaki, G. Sato, K. Sato, R. Sato, M. Sawada, N. Schartel, P. J. Serlemitsos, H. Seta, M. Shidatsu, A. Simionescu, R. K. Smith, Y. Soong, L. Stawarz, Y. Sugawara, S. Sugita, A. E. Szymkowiak, H. Tajima, H. Takahashi, T. Takahashi, S. Takeda, Y. Takei, T. Tamagawa, K. Tamura, T. Tamura, T. Tanaka, Yasuo Tanaka, Yasuyuki Tanaka, M. Tashiro, Y. Tawara, Y. Terada, Y. Terashima, F. Tombesi, H. Tomida, Y. Tsuboi, M. Tsujimoto, H. Tsunemi, T. Tsuru, H. Uchida, H. Uchiyama, Y. Uchiyama, S. Ueda, Y. Ueda, S. Ueno, S. Uno, C. M. Urry, E. Ursino, C. P. de Vries, S. Watanabe, N. Werner, D. R. Wik, D. R. Wilkins, B. J. Williams, S. Yamada, H. Yamaguchi, K. Yamaoka, N. Y. Yamasaki, M. Yamauchi, S. Yamauchi, T. Yaqoob, Y. Yatsu, D. Yonetoku, A. Yoshida, I. Zhuravleva, A. Zoghbi

    ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS   Vol. 837 ( 1 ) page: 668 - 672   2017.3

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    X-ray spectroscopy with Hitomi was expected to resolve the origin of the faint unidentified E approximate to 3.5 keV emission line reported in several low-resolution studies of various massive systems, such as galaxies and clusters, including the Perseus cluster. We have analyzed the Hitomi first-light observation of the Perseus cluster. The emission line expected for Perseus based on the XMM-Newton signal from the large cluster sample under the dark matter decay scenario is too faint to be detectable in the Hitomi data. However, the previously reported 3.5 keV flux from Perseus was anomalously high compared to the sample-based prediction. We find no unidentified line at the reported high flux level. Taking into account the XMM measurement uncertainties for this region, the inconsistency with Hitomi is at a 99% significance for a broad dark matter line and at 99.7% for a narrow line from the gas. We do not find anomalously high fluxes of the nearby faint K line or the Ar satellite line that were proposed as explanations for the earlier 3.5 keV detections. We do find a hint of a broad excess near the energies of high-n transitions of S XVI (E similar or equal to 3.44 keV rest-frame)-a possible signature of charge exchange in the molecular nebula and another proposed explanation for the unidentified line. While its energy is consistent with XMM pn detections, it is unlikely to explain the MOS signal. A confirmation of this interesting feature has to wait for a more sensitive observation with a future calorimeter experiment.

    DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aa61fa

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  85. Suzaku and Chandra observations of CIZA J1700.8-3144, a cluster of galaxies in the Zone of Avoidance Reviewed

    Hideyuki Mori, Yoshitomo Maeda, Yoshihiro Ueda, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Yuzuru Tawara

    PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   Vol. 69 ( 1 )   2017.2

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    We present the Chandra and Suzaku observations of 1RXS J170047.8-314442, located towards the Galactic bulge, to reveal a wide-band (0.3-10 keV) X-ray morphology and spectrum of this source. With the Chandra observation, no point source was found at the position of 1RXSJ170047.8-314442. Instead, we revealed the presence of diffuse X-ray emission, via the wide-band X-ray image obtained from the Suzaku XIS. Although the X-ray emission had a nearly circular shape with a spatial extent of similar to 3'.5, the surface brightness profile was not axisymmetric; a bright spot-like emission was found at similar to 1' away in the northwestern direction from the center. The radial profile of the surface brightness, except for this spot-like emission, was reproduced with a single beta-model; beta and the core radius were found to be 1.02 and 1'.51, respectively. The X-ray spectrum of the diffuse emission showed an emission line at similar to 6 keV, indicating an origin of a thermal plasma. The spectrum was well explained with an absorbed, optically-thin thermal plasma model with a temperature of 6.2 keV and a redshift parameter of z = 0.1 +/- 0.01. Hence, the X-ray emission was considered to arise from the hot gas associated with a cluster of galaxies. Our spectroscopic result confirmed the optical identification of 1RXSJ170047.8-314442 by Kocevski et al. (2007, ApJ, 662, 224): CIZA J1700.8-3144, a member of the cluster catalogue in the Zone of Avoidance. The estimated bolometric X-ray luminosity of 5.9 x 10(44) erg s(-1) was among the lowest with this temperature, suggesting that this cluster is far from relaxed.

    DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psw106

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  86. Suzaku observations of spectral variations of the ultra-luminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 Reviewed

    Shogo B. Kobayashi, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Kazuo Makishima

    PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF JAPAN   Vol. 69 ( 1 )   2017.2

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    Observations of the ultra-luminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg IX X-1 were carried out with Suzaku twice, once on 2012 April 13 and then on 2012 October 24, with exposures of 180 ks and 217 ks, respectively. The source showed a hard power-law shaped spectrum with a mild cutoff at similar to 8 keV, which is typical of ULXs when they are relatively dim. On both occasions, the 0.6-11 keV spectrum was explained successfully in terms of a cool (similar to 0.2 keV) multi-color disk blackbody emission model and thermal Comptonization emission produced by an electron cloud with a relatively low temperature and high optical depth, assuming that a large fraction of the disk-blackbody photons are Comptonized whereas the rest are observed directly. The 0.5-10 keV luminosity was 1.2 x 10(40) erg s(-1) in April, and similar to 14% higher in October. This brightening was accompanied by spectral softening in &gt;= 2 keV, with little change in the &lt;= 2 keV spectral shape. This behavior can be understood if the accretion disk remains unchanged while the electron cloud covers a variable fraction of the disk. The absorbing column density was consistent with the galactic line-of sight value, and did not vary by more than 1.6 x 10(21) cm(-2). Together with the featureless spectra, these properties may not be reconciled easily with the supercritical accretion scenario of this source.

    DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psw108

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  87. NuSTAR Observations of the Dwarf Nova GK Persei in 2015: Comparison between Outburst and Quiescent Phases

    Wada Yuuki, Yuasa Takayuki, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Makishima Kazuo, Hayashi Takayuki, Ishida Manabu

    20TH EUROPEAN WHITE DWARF WORKSHOP   Vol. 509   page: 509 - 514   2017

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  88. NuSTAR Observations of the Dwarf Nova GK Persei in 2015: Comparison between Outburst and Quiescent Phases Reviewed

    Yuuki Wada, Takayuki Yuasa, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Kazuo Makishima, Takayuki Hayashi, Manabu Ishida

    20TH EUROPEAN WHITE DWARF WORKSHOP   Vol. 509   page: 509 - 514   2017

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (international conference proceedings)   Publisher:ASTRONOMICAL SOC PACIFIC  

    We report on NuSTAR observations of the intermediate polar GK Persei which also behaves as a dwarf nova. It exhibited a dwarf nova outburst in 2015 March April. The object was observed in 3-79 keV X-rays with NuSTAR, once at the outburst peak, and again in 2015 September during quiescence. The 5-50 keV flux during the outburst was 26 times higher than that during the quiescence. With a multi-temperature emission model and a reflection model, we derived the post-shock temperature as 19.2 +/- 0.7 keV in the outburst, and 38.5(-3.6)(+4.1) keV in the quiescence. This temperature difference is considered to reflect changes in the radius at which the accreting matter, forming an accretion disk, is captured by the magnetosphere of the white dwarf (WD). Assuming that this radius scales as the power of -2/7 of the mass accretion rate, and utilizing the two temperature measurements, as well as the standard mass-radius relation of WDs, we determined the WD mass in GK Persei as 0.90 +/- 0.06 solar masses. The magnetic field is estimated as 4 x 10(5) G.

    Web of Science

  89. The status of DECIGO Reviewed

    Shuichi Sato, Seiji Kawamura, Masaki Ando, Takashi Nakamura, Kimio Tsubono, Akito Araya, Ikkoh Funaki, Kunihito Ioka, Nobuyuki Kanda, Shigenori Moriwaki, Mitsuru Musha, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Kenji Numata, Shin Ichiro Sakai, Naoki Seto, Takeshi Takashima, Takahiro Tanaka, Kazuhiro Agatsuma, Koh Suke Aoyanagi, Koji Arai, Hideki Asada, Yoichi Aso, Takeshi Chiba, Toshikazu Ebisuzaki, Yumiko Ejiri, Motohiro Enoki, Yoshiharu Eriguchi, Masa Katsu Fujimoto, Ryuichi Fujita, Mitsuhiro Fukushima, Toshifumi Futamase, Katsuhiko Ganzu, Tomohiro Harada, Tatsuaki Hashimoto, Kazuhiro Hayama, Wataru Hikida, Yoshiaki Himemoto, Hisashi Hirabayashi, Takashi Hiramatsu, Feng Lei Hong, Hideyuki Horisawa, Mizuhiko Hosokawa, Kiyotomo Ichiki, Takeshi Ikegami, Kaiki T. Inoue, Koji Ishidoshiro, Hideki Ishihara, Takehiko Ishikawa, Hideharu Ishizaki, Hiroyuki Ito, Yousuke Itoh, Nobuki Kawashima, Fumiko Kawazoe, Naoko Kishimoto, Kenta Kiuchi, Shiho Kobayashi, Kazunori Kohri, Hiroyuki Koizumi, Yasufumi Kojima, Keiko Kokeyama, Wataru Kokuyama, Kei Kotake, Yoshihide Kozai, Hideaki Kudoh, Hiroo Kunimori, Hitoshi Kuninaka, Kazuaki Kuroda, Kei Ichi Maeda, Hideo Matsuhara, Yasushi Mino, Osamu Miyakawa, Shinji Miyoki, Mutsuko Y. Morimoto, Tomoko Morioka, Toshiyuki Morisawa, Shinji Mukohyama, Shigeo Nagano, Isao Naito, Kouji Nakamura, Hiroyuki Nakano, Kenichi Nakao, Shinichi Nakasuka, Yoshinori Nakayama, Erina Nishida, Kazutaka Nishiyama, Atsushi Nishizawa, Yoshito Niwa, Taiga Noumi, Yoshiyuki Obuchi, Masatake Ohashi, Naoko Ohishi, Masashi Ohkawa, Norio Okada, Kouji Onozato, Kenichi Oohara, Norichika Sago, Motoyuki Saijo, Masaaki Sakagami, Shihori Sakata, Misao Sasaki

    Journal of Physics: Conference Series   Vol. 840 ( 1 )   2017

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    © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd. DECIGO (DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory) is the planned Japanese space gravitational wave antenna, aiming to detect gravitational waves from astrophysically and cosmologically significant sources mainly between 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz and thus to open a new window for gravitational wave astronomy and for the universe. DECIGO will consists of three drag-free spacecraft arranged in an equilateral triangle with 1000 km arm lengths whose relative displacements are measured by a differential Fabry-Perot interferometer, and four units of triangular Fabry-Perot interferometers are arranged on heliocentric orbit around the sun. DECIGO is vary ambitious mission, we plan to launch DECIGO in era of 2030s after precursor satellite mission, B-DECIGO. B-DECIGO is essentially smaller version of DECIGO: B-DECIGO consists of three spacecraft arranged in an triangle with 100 km arm lengths orbiting 2000 km above the surface of the earth. It is hoped that the launch date will be late 2020s for the present..

    DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/840/1/012010

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  90. Improvement of scintillator's reflector toward the improvement of the performance for Compton scattering type polarimeter

    Saito Yo, Gunji Shuichi, Nakamori Takeshi, Okumura Akira, Nakazawa Kazuhiro, Kurosawa Shunsuke, Watanabe Naoki, Karube Atsuhito

    Meeting Abstracts of the Physical Society of Japan   Vol. 72.2 ( 0 ) page: 414 - 414   2017

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    DOI: 10.11316/jpsgaiyo.72.2.0_414

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Books 3

  1. 銀河団同士の衝突による巨大衝撃波の誕生を捉えた

    加藤祐一, 中澤知洋( Role: Joint author)

    天文月報  2016.11 

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    Language:Japanese

  2. X 線、γ線で探る宇宙の構造と進化

    高橋忠幸, 中澤知洋( Role: Joint author)

    応用物理学会誌  2012 

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    Language:Japanese

  3. 宇宙科学のすばらしさを伝える

    中澤知洋,前田良知,内山泰伸,大島泰,川崎正寛,穴吹直久, 他,宇宙科学研究所X線天文グループ( Role: Joint author)

    天文月報,  2002.7 

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    Language:Japanese

MISC 68

  1. 超小型衛星による,宇宙空間からの太陽中性子の観測(III)

    山岡和貴, 田島宏康, 宮田喜久子, 稲守孝哉, 野橋大輝, 宇佐見雅己, 中澤知洋, 増田智, 伊藤和也, 松下幸司, 高橋弘充, 渡邉恭子

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2021   2021

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  2. multiple long burst that terminated by lightning on January 2020

    久富章平, 中澤知洋, 辻結菜, 榎戸輝揚, 和田有希, 湯浅孝行, 土屋晴文, 篠田太郎, 一方井祐子, 三宅晶子

    日本物理学会講演概要集(CD-ROM)   Vol. 75 ( 2 )   2020

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  3. Gamma-ray Observation of Winter Thundercloud: Progress of multi-point observation in 2019

    久富章平, 中澤知洋, 辻結菜, FABIANI Alexia, 榎戸輝揚, 和田有希, 和田有希, 湯浅孝行, 古田禄大, 土屋晴文, 一方井祐子, 三宅晶子

    日本物理学会講演概要集(CD-ROM)   Vol. 75 ( 1 )   2020

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  4. A wide-band X-ray observatory FORCE: Science study and proposal status update

    中澤知洋, 森浩二, 鶴剛, 上田佳宏, 石田学, 松本浩典, 粟木久光, 村上弘志, 寺田幸功, 久保田あや, 榎戸輝揚, 馬場彩, 小高裕和, 谷津陽一, 小林翔悟, 幸村孝由, 萩野浩一, 内山泰伸, 北山哲, 高橋忠幸, 渡辺伸, 飯塚亮, 山口弘悦, 大橋隆哉, 中嶋大, 古澤彰浩, 田中孝明, 内田裕之, 野田博文, 常深博, 伊藤真之, 信川正順, 信川久実子, 太田直美, 寺島雄一, 深沢泰司, 水野恒史, 高橋弘充, 大野雅功, 赤松弘規, HORNSCHEMEIER A.E, 岡島崇, ZHANG W.W.

    日本物理学会講演概要集(CD-ROM)   Vol. 75 ( 2 )   2020

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  5. Development of solar neutron and gamma-ray detector for 3U CubeSat

    野橋大輝, 山岡和貴, 田島宏康, 宮田喜久子, 稲守孝哉, PARK Ji Hyun, 中澤知洋, 増田智, 伊藤和也, 松下幸司, 高橋弘充, 渡邉恭子

    日本物理学会講演概要集(CD-ROM)   Vol. 75 ( 1 )   2020

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  6. Gamma-ray Observation of Winter Thunderclouds: the progress of multi - point observation in 2019

    久富章平, 中澤知洋, 辻結菜, FABIANI Alexia, 榎戸輝揚, 和田有希, 和田有希, 湯浅孝行, 古田禄大, 土屋晴文, 一方井祐子, 三宅晶子

    日本地球惑星科学連合大会予稿集(Web)   Vol. 2020   2020

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  7. 世界最高感度を実証した「ひとみ」搭載の硬X線撮像検出器HXI

    中澤知洋, 萩野浩一

    日本天文学会誌 天文月報   Vol. 112   page: 471 - 473   2019.7

  8. 雷活動に由来するガンマ線の観測プロジェクト:多地点観測の進展と大気電場・電波との協同観測

    和田有希, 和田有希, 榎戸輝揚, 松元崇弘, 中澤知洋, 古田禄大, 湯浅孝行, 鴨川仁, BOWERS G. S, 中村佳敬, 森本健志, 玉川徹, 牧島一夫, 牧島一夫, 土屋晴文, 久保守, 松木篤, 米徳大輔, 澤野達哉, SMITH D. M

    日本物理学会講演概要集(CD-ROM)   Vol. 74 ( 1 ) page: ROMBUNNO.14aK407‐11   2019.3

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    J-GLOBAL

  9. 冬季の雷放電と同期したガンマ線フラッシュの定量評価

    和田有希, 和田有希, 榎戸輝揚, 中澤知洋, 古田禄大, 湯浅孝行, 中村佳敬, 森本健志, 松元崇弘, 牧島一夫, 牧島一夫, 土屋晴文

    日本原子力学会春の年会予稿集(CD-ROM)   Vol. 2019   page: ROMBUNNO.1H07   2019.3

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    J-GLOBAL

  10. 冬季雷における高エネルギー現象の観測プロジェクトの進展

    和田有希, 和田有希, 榎戸輝揚, 松元崇弘, 中澤知洋, 古田禄大, 湯浅孝行, 土屋晴文, 米徳大輔, 澤野達哉, 牧島一夫, 牧島一夫, 鴨川仁, 中村佳敬, 森本健志, 佐藤光輝, 酒井英男, 南戸秀仁, 牛尾知雄

    日本地球惑星科学連合大会予稿集(Web)   Vol. 2019   page: ROMBUNNO.MIS27‐10 (WEB ONLY)   2019

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    J-GLOBAL

  11. 超小型衛星による,宇宙空間からの太陽中性子の観測(III)

    山岡和貴, 田島宏康, 宮田喜久子, 稲守孝哉, PARK Ji Hyun, 野橋大輝, 中澤知洋, 増田智, 伊藤和也, 松下幸司, 高橋弘充, 渡邉恭子

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2019   2019

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  12. 3Uキューブサットによる太陽中性子・ガンマ線観測

    山岡和貴, 田島宏康, 宮田喜久子, 稲守孝哉, 佐々井義矩, 中澤知洋, 増田智, 松下幸司, 伊藤和也, 高橋弘充, 渡邉恭子

    日本地球惑星科学連合大会予稿集(Web)   Vol. 2019   2019

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  13. 超小型衛星による,宇宙空間からの太陽中性子の観測(II)

    山岡和貴, 田島宏康, 佐々井義矩, 宮田喜久子, 稲守孝哉, 中澤知洋, 増田智, 伊藤和也, 松下幸司, 高橋弘充, 渡邉恭子

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2019   2019

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  14. Detection of polarized gamma-ray emission from the Crab nebula with Hitomi Soft Gamma-ray Detector

    Hitomi Collaboration, Felix Aharonian, Hiroki Akamatsu, Fumie Akimoto, Steven W. Allen, Lorella Angelini, Marc Audard, Hisamitsu Awaki, Magnus Axelsson, Aya Bamba, Marshall, W. Bautz, Roger Blandford, Laura W. Brenneman, Gregory V. Brown, Esra Bulbul, Edward M. Cackett, Maria Chernyakova, Meng P. Chiao, Paolo S. Coppi, Elisa Costantini, Jelle de Plaa, Cor P. de Vries, Jan-Willem den Herder, Chris Done, Tadayasu Dotani, Ken Ebisawa, Megan E. Eckart, Teruaki Enoto, Yuichiro Ezoe, Andrew C. Fabian, Carlo Ferrigno, Adam R. Foster, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Yasushi Fukazawa, Akihiro Furuzawa, Massimiliano Galeazzi, Luigi C. Gallo, Poshak Gandhi, Margherita Giustini, Andrea Goldwurm, Liyi Gu, Matteo Guainazzi, Yoshito Haba, Kouichi Hagino, Kenji Hamaguchi, Ilana M. Harrus, Isamu Hatsukade, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Takayuki Hayashi, Kiyoshi Hayashida, Junko S. Hiraga, Ann Hornschemeier, Akio Hoshino, John, P. Hughes, Yuto Ichinohe, Ryo Iizuka, Hajime Inoue, Yoshiyuki Inoue, Manabu Ishida, Kumi Ishikawa, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Masachika Iwai, Jelle Kaastra, Tim Kallman, Tsuneyoshi Kamae, Jun Kataoka, Satoru Katsuda, Nobuyuki Kawai, Richard L. Kelley, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Takao Kitaguchi, Shunji Kitamoto, Tetsu Kitayama, Takayoshi Kohmura, Motohide Kokubun, Katsuji Koyama, Shu Koyama, Peter Kretschmar, Hans A. Krimm, Aya Kubota, Hideyo Kunieda, Philippe Laurent, Shiu-Hang Lee, Maurice A. Leutenegger, Olivier Limousin, Michael Loewenstein, Knox S. Long, David Lumb, Greg Madejski, Yoshitomo Maeda, Daniel Maier, Kazuo Makishima, Maxim Markevitch, Hironori Matsumoto, Kyoko Matsushita, Dan McCammon, Brian R. McNamara, Missagh Mehdipour, Eric D. Miller, Jon M. Miller, Shin Mineshige, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Ikuyuki Mitsuishi, Takuya Miyazawa, Tsunefumi Mizuno, Hideyuki Mori, Koji Mori, Koji Mukai, Hiroshi Murakami, Richard, F. Mushotzky, Takao Nakagawa, Hiroshi Nakajima, Takeshi Nakamori, Shinya Nakashima, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Kumiko K. Nobukawa, Masayoshi Nobukawa, Hirofumi Noda, Hirokazu Odaka, Takaya Ohashi, Masanori Ohno, Takashi Okajima, Naomi Ota, Masanobu Ozaki, Frits Paerels, Stephane Paltani, Robert Petre, Ciro Pinto, Frederick S. Porter, Katja Pottschmidt, Christopher S. Reynolds, Samar Safi-Harb, Shinya Saito, Kazuhiro Sakai, Toru Sasaki, Goro Sato, Kosuke Sato, Rie Sato, Makoto Sawada, Norbert Schartel, Peter J. Serlemtsos, Hiromi Seta, Megumi Shidatsu, Aurora Simionescu, Randall K. Smith, Yang Soong, Lukasz Stawarz, Yasuharu Sugawara, Satoshi Sugita, Andrew Szymkowiak, Hiroyasu Tajima, Hiromitsu Takahashi, Tadayuki Takahashi, Shin'ichiro Takeda, Yoh Takei, Toru Tamagawa, Takayuki Tamura, Takaaki Tanaka, Yasuo Tanaka, Yasuyuki T. Tanaka, Makoto S. Tashiro, Yuzuru Tawara, Yukikatsu Terada, Yuichi Terashima, Francesco Tombesi, Hiroshi Tomida, Yohko Tsuboi, Masahiro Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Tsunemi, Takeshi Go Tsuru, Hiroyuki Uchida, Hideki Uchiyama, Yasunobu Uchiyama, Shutaro Ueda, Yoshihiro Ueda, Shin'ichiro Uno, C. Megan Urry, Eugenio Ursino, Shin Watanabe, Norbert Werner, Dan R. Wilkins, Brian J. Williams, Shinya Yamada, Hiroya Yamaguchi, Kazutaka Yamaoka, Noriko Y. Yamasaki, Makoto Yamauchi, Shigeo Yamauchi, Tahir Yaqoob, Yoichi Yatsu, Daisuke Yonetoku, Irina Zhuravleva, Abderahmen Zoghbi, Yuusuke Uchida

        2018.10

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    We present the results from the Hitomi Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD)<br />
    observation of the Crab nebula. The main part of SGD is a Compton camera, which<br />
    in addition to being a spectrometer, is capable of measuring polarization of<br />
    gamma-ray photons. The Crab nebula is one of the brightest X-ray / gamma-ray<br />
    sources on the sky, and, the only source from which polarized X-ray photons<br />
    have been detected. SGD observed the Crab nebula during the initial test<br />
    observation phase of Hitomi. We performed the data analysis of the SGD<br />
    observation, the SGD background estimation and the SGD Monte Carlo simulations,<br />
    and, successfully detected polarized gamma-ray emission from the Crab nebula<br />
    with only about 5 ks exposure time. The obtained polarization fraction of the<br />
    phase-integrated Crab emission (sum of pulsar and nebula emissions) is (22.1<br />
    $\pm$ 10.6)% and, the polarization angle is 110.7$^o$ + 13.2 / $-$13.0$^o$ in<br />
    the energy range of 60--160 keV (The errors correspond to the 1 sigma<br />
    deviation). The confidence level of the polarization detection was 99.3%. The<br />
    polarization angle measured by SGD is about one sigma deviation with the<br />
    projected spin axis of the pulsar, 124.0$^o$ $\pm$0.1$^o$.

    arXiv

  15. 炭素繊維強化プラスチック(CFRP)へのX線反射面形成法の開発

    粟木久光, 大上千智, 吉田鉄生, 岩切駿, 相田望, 松本浩典, 三石郁之, 大塚康司, 清水貞行, 田村啓輔, 中澤知洋, 石田学, 石田直樹

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2018   page: 227   2018.8

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  16. 銀河面からの軟X線背景放射(5)

    石原雅士, 三石郁之, 中澤知洋

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2018   page: 156   2018.8

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  17. 軟X線から硬X線の広帯域を高感度で撮像分光する小型衛星計画FORCEの現状(7)

    中澤知洋, 森浩二, 鶴剛, 上田佳宏, 松本浩典, 粟木久光, 石田学, 寺島雄一, 常深博, 中嶋大, 田中孝明, 内田裕之, 伊藤真之, 寺田幸功, 久保田あや, 馬場彩, 小高裕和, 高橋忠幸, 谷津陽一, 幸村孝由, 萩野浩一, 小林翔悟, 北山哲, 村上弘志, 信川正順, 太田直美, 深沢泰司, 水野恒史, 高橋弘充, 大野雅功, 古澤彰浩, 武田彩希, 中島真也, 内山泰伸, 渡辺伸, 飯塚亮, 岡島崇, 山口弘悦, 森英之

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2018   page: 220   2018.8

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  18. Discovery of recombining plasma from the faintest GeV SNR HB 21 and a possible scenario of the cosmic ray escaping from SNR shocks

    Hiromasa Suzuki, Aya Bamba, Kazuhiro Nakazawa, Yoshihiro Furuta, Makoto Sawada, Ryo Yamazaki, Katsuji Koyama

        2018.5

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    We present an X-ray study of the GeV gamma-ray supernova remnant (SNR) HB 21<br />
    with Suzaku. HB 21 is interacting with molecular clouds and the faintest in the<br />
    GeV band among known GeV SNRs. We discovered strong radiative recombination<br />
    continua of Si and S from the center of the remnant, which provide the direct<br />
    evidence of a recombining plasma (RP). The total emission can be explained with<br />
    the RP and ionizing plasma components. The electron temperature and<br />
    recombination timescale of the RP component were estimated as 0.17 (0.15-0.18)<br />
    keV and 3.2 (2.0-4.8) $\times$ 10$^{11}$ s cm$^{-3}$, respectively. The<br />
    estimated age of the RP (RP age; $\sim$ 170 kyr) is the longest among known<br />
    recombining GeV SNRs, because of very low density of electrons ($\sim$ 0.05<br />
    cm$^{-3}$). We have examined dependencies of GeV spectral indices on each of RP<br />
    ages and SNR diameters for nine recombining GeV SNRs. Both showed possible<br />
    positive correlations, indicating that both the parameters can be good<br />
    indicators of properties of accelerated protons, for instance, degree of escape<br />
    from the SNR shocks. A possible scenario for a process of proton escape is<br />
    introduced; interaction with molecular clouds makes weaker magnetic turbulence<br />
    and cosmic-ray protons escape, simultaneously cooling down the thermal<br />
    electrons and generate an RP.

    DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psy069

    arXiv

  19. X線衛星「ひとみ」搭載軟ガンマ線検出器(SGD)によるかに星雲のガンマ線偏光観測

    渡辺伸, 渡辺伸, 内田悠介, 内田悠介, 田島宏康, 深沢泰司, 一戸悠人, 内山秀樹, 内山泰伸, 榎戸輝揚, 太田方之, 大野雅功, 小高裕和, 片岡淳, 勝田隼一郎, 北口貴雄, 国分紀秀, GOLDWURM A, 斉藤新也, 佐藤悟朗, 佐藤理江, 高橋忠幸, 高橋忠幸, 高橋弘充, 武田伸一郎, 田中孝明, 田中康之, 寺田幸功, 中澤知洋, 中澤知洋, 中野俊男, 中森健之, 野田博文, 萩野浩一, 林克洋, 林克洋, BLANDFORD R, 牧島一夫, MADEJSKI G, 水野恒史, 森國城, 谷津陽一, 山岡和貴, 湯浅孝行, 米徳大輔, LAURENT P, LIMOUSIN O, LEBRUN F

    日本物理学会講演概要集(CD-ROM)   Vol. 73 ( 1 ) page: ROMBUNNO.25pK307‐5   2018.3

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  20. 大型CsI結晶を用いた冬季雷雲由来ガンマ線検出器の量産とそれを用いたマッピング観測

    松元崇弘, 和田有希, 和田有希, 古田禄大, 清野愛海, 中澤知洋, 中澤知洋, 榎戸輝揚, 湯浅孝行, 牧島一夫, 中野俊男, 土屋晴文

    日本物理学会講演概要集(CD-ROM)   Vol. 73 ( 1 ) page: ROMBUNNO.22aK307‐7   2018.3

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  21. 雷雲ガンマ線の観測プロジェクトと雷での光核反応の検出

    榎戸輝揚, 和田有希, 和田有希, 古田禄大, 中澤知洋, 湯浅孝行, 奥田和史, 牧島一夫, 佐藤光輝, 佐藤陽祐, 中野俊男, 楳本大悟, 土屋晴文, 土屋晴文

    日本物理学会講演概要集(CD-ROM)   Vol. 73 ( 1 ) page: ROMBUNNO.22pK305‐7   2018.3

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  22. 落雷による光核反応の発見:地上観測による中性子と陽電子の検出

    和田有希, 和田有希, 古田禄大, 榎戸輝揚, 中澤知洋, 中澤知洋, 湯浅孝行, 奥田和史, 牧島一夫, 佐藤光輝, 佐藤陽祐, 中野俊男, 楳本大悟, 土屋晴文

    日本物理学会講演概要集(CD-ROM)   Vol. 73 ( 1 ) page: ROMBUNNO.22aK308‐7   2018.3

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  23. 落雷による光核反応の発見:シミュレーションによるデータ解釈

    古田禄大, 和田有希, 和田有希, 榎戸輝揚, 中澤知洋, 湯浅孝行, 奥田和史, 牧島一夫, 佐藤光輝, 佐藤陽祐, 中野俊男, 楳本大悟, 土屋晴文

    日本物理学会講演概要集(CD-ROM)   Vol. 73 ( 1 ) page: ROMBUNNO.22aK308‐8   2018.3

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  24. 日本海沿岸における冬の雷や雷雲に伴う放射線観測

    土屋晴文, 榎戸輝揚, 和田有希, 和田有希, 古田禄大, 中澤知洋, 湯浅孝行, 奥田和史, 牧島一夫, 中野俊男, 楳本大悟

    日本原子力学会春の年会予稿集(CD-ROM)   Vol. 2018   page: ROMBUNNO.3E01   2018.3

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  25. GRB位置決定のための小型衛星搭載用大型CsIシンチレータのMPPC読み出し性能評価

    鳥越健斗, 深沢泰司, 水野恒史, 高橋弘充, 大野雅功, 田中晃司, 内田和海, WERNER Norbert, WERNER Norbert, WERNER Norbert, PAL Andras, FREI Zsolt, KISS Laszlo, NORBERT Tarcai, 中澤知洋, 榎戸輝揚, 小高裕和, 一戸悠人

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2018   page: 239   2018.2

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  26. 「ひとみ」HXIを用いた軌道上中性子バックグラウンドの評価

    鈴木寛大, 中澤知洋, 萩野浩一, 国分紀秀, 佐藤悟朗, 高橋忠幸, 渡辺伸, 太田方之, 佐藤理江, 森國城, 村上浩章, 三宅克馬, 古田禄大, 馬場彩, 鶴剛, 田中孝明, 榎戸輝揚, 小林翔悟, 寺田幸功, 内山秀樹, 谷津洋一, 野田博文, 田島宏康, 山岡和貴, 林克洋, 林克洋, 深沢泰司, 水野恒史, 大野雅功, 高橋弘充, 勝田隼一郎, 中森健之, 内山泰伸, 斉藤新也, 牧島一夫, 小高裕和, 湯浅孝行, 中野俊男, 片岡淳, 三村健人, LEBRUN Francois, LIMOUSIN Olivier, LAURENT Philippe, MAIER Daniel, 武田伸一郎, 森浩二

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2018   page: 227   2018.2

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  27. X線衛星代替機XARMにおける科学運用計画

    寺田幸功, 田代信, 田代信, 海老沢研, 深沢泰司, 飯塚亮, 勝田哲, 北口貴雄, 久保田あや, 水野恒史, 中島真也, 中澤知洋, 信川正順, 大野雅功, 太田直美, 志達めぐみ, 菅原泰晴, 高橋弘充, 田村隆幸, 田中康之, 寺島雄一, 坪井陽子, 内山秀樹, 宇野伸一郎, 渡辺伸, 山内茂雄

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2018   page: 228   2018.2

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  28. X線天文衛星「ひとみ」搭載SGDによるかに星雲からの偏光ガンマ線の観測

    内田悠介, 渡辺伸, 田島宏康, 深沢泰司, 国分紀秀, 太田方之, 佐藤悟朗, 佐藤理江, 森國城, 高橋忠幸, 高橋忠幸, 水野恒史, 高橋弘充, 大野雅功, 田中康之, 勝田隼一郎, 中澤知洋, 牧島一夫, 小高裕和, 北口貴雄, 中野俊男, 湯浅孝行, 片岡淳, 一戸悠人, 内山秀樹, 内山泰伸, 斉藤新也, 榎戸輝揚, 田中孝明, GOLDWURM A, LAURENT P, LIMOUSIN O, LEBRUN F, 武田伸一郎, 寺田幸功, 中森健之, 野田博文, 萩野浩一, 山岡和貴, 林克洋, 林克洋, BLANDFORD R, MADEJSKI G, 谷津陽一, 米徳大輔

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2018   page: 148   2018.2

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  29. X線を用いたKepler超新星残骸中のFeの非等方な膨張構造解析

    春日知明, 佐藤寿紀, 佐藤寿紀, 森浩二, 山口弘悦, 山口弘悦, 馬場彩, 中澤知洋

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2018   page: 71   2018.2

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  30. 地上と宇宙から探る雷放電に同期する突発ガンマ線観測への取り組み

    中澤知洋, 榎戸輝揚, 和田有希, 和田有希, 古田禄大, 松元崇弘, 春日知明, 奥田和史, 湯浅孝行, 中野俊男, 楳本大悟, 加藤博, 牧島一夫, 佐藤光輝, 佐藤陽祐, 土屋晴文

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2018   page: 240   2018.2

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  31. 重力波対応天体の追観測を目指した超小型GRB観測衛星における位置決定精度の評価

    田中晃司, 深沢泰司, 水野恒史, 高橋弘充, 大野雅功, 内田和海, 鳥越健斗, WERNER Norbert, WERNER Norbert, WERNER Norbert, PAL Andras, FREI Zsolt, KISS Laszlo, NORBERT Tarcai, 中澤知洋, 榎戸輝揚, 小高裕和, 一戸悠人

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2018   page: 239   2018.2

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  32. 軟X線から硬X線の広帯域を高感度で撮像分光する小型衛星計画FORCEの現状(6)

    森浩二, 武田彩希, 村上弘志, 寺田幸功, 久保田あや, 中澤知洋, 馬場彩, 谷津陽一, 幸村孝由, 萩野浩一, 小高裕和, 中島真也, 内山泰伸, 斉藤新也, 北山哲, 高橋忠幸, 石田学, 渡辺伸, 飯塚亮, 古澤彰浩, 鶴剛, 上田佳宏, 田中孝明, 内田裕之, 小林翔悟, 松本浩典, 中嶋大, 常深博, 信川正順, 太田直美, 伊藤真之, 粟木久光, 寺島雄一, 深沢泰司, 水野恒史, 高橋弘充, 大野雅功, 岡島崇, 山口弘悦, 森英之

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2018   page: 231   2018.2

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  33. 狭輝線I型セイファート銀河Swift J2127.4+5654におけるディレイとハード一次成分

    三宅克馬, 野田博文, 山田真也, 清野愛海, 中澤知洋, 牧島一夫

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2018   page: 171   2018.2

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  34. GROWTH実験2014年度データを用いた雷雲ガンマ線イベントの探索法の改善

    楳本大悟, 土屋晴文, 中澤知洋, 湯浅孝行, 榎戸輝揚, 牧島一夫, 古田禄大, 玉川徹, 伊藤伸泰

    日本物理学会講演概要集(CD-ROM)   Vol. 72 ( 2 ) page: ROMBUNNO.13pU32‐6   2017.9

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  35. モンテカルロシミュレーションによる雷雲ガンマ線放射モデルの構築

    古田禄大, 中澤知洋, 和田有希, 楳本大悟, 榎戸輝揚, 湯浅孝行, 土屋晴文, 牧島一夫

    日本物理学会講演概要集(CD-ROM)   Vol. 72 ( 2 ) page: ROMBUNNO.15aU33‐4   2017.9

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  36. 雷雲ガンマ線の地上観測の現状と2017年のGROWTH実験計画

    中澤知洋, 榎戸輝揚, 和田有希, 古田禄大, 楳本大悟, 清野愛海, 樋口裕真, 湯浅孝行, 土屋晴文, 牧島一夫, 中野俊男

    日本物理学会講演概要集(CD-ROM)   Vol. 72 ( 2 ) page: ROMBUNNO.15aU33‐5   2017.9

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  37. 散乱型偏光度検出器の性能向上を目指したシンチレーターの反射材の改良

    齋藤耀, 郡司修一, 中森健之, 奥村曉, 中澤知洋, 黒澤俊介, 黒澤俊介, 渡邊直輝, 軽部敦人

    日本物理学会講演概要集(CD-ROM)   Vol. 72 ( 2 ) page: ROMBUNNO.15aU33‐6   2017.9

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  38. X線衛星「すざく」を用いたガンマ線連星LS5039のX線パルス探索

    松元崇弘, 榎戸輝揚, 村上浩章, 牧島一夫, 中澤知洋, 馬場彩

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2017   page: 262   2017.8

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  39. 「ひとみ(ASTRO‐H)」搭載軟ガンマ線検出器における軌道上バックグラウンドの理解

    大野雅功, 深沢泰司, 水野恒史, 高橋弘充, 北口貴雄, 田中康之, 勝田隼一郎, 河野貴文, 幅田翔, 岡田千穂, 大橋礼恵, 寺前拓人, 田中晃司, 高橋忠幸, 国分紀秀, 渡辺伸, 佐藤悟朗, 太田方之, 内田悠介, 都丸亮太, 米田浩基, 小高裕和, 小高裕和, 中澤知洋, 村上浩章, 田島宏康, 木下将臣, 山岡和貴, 林克洋

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2017   page: 246   2017.8

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  40. 「すざく」によるKepler超新星残骸の膨張速度測定

    春日知明, 馬場彩, 中澤知洋, 佐藤寿紀

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2017   page: 147   2017.8

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  41. 分子雲衝突に起因する超新星残骸からの宇宙線逃亡シナリオの観測的検証

    鈴木寛大, 馬場彩, 中澤知洋, 山崎了

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2017   page: 148   2017.8

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  42. 銀河団衝突で発生した若い衝撃波の観測研究

    加藤佑一, 中澤知洋, GU Lyli, 赤堀卓也, 滝沢元和, 藤田裕, SIMIONESCU Aurora, 牧島一夫

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2017   page: 186   2017.8

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  43. 銀河団中心部でのプラズマの二温度構造:「ひとみ」の測定結果の意義

    牧島一夫, 中島真也, GU Lily, 川原田円, 中澤知洋

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2017   page: 184   2017.8

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  44. 軟X線から硬X線の広帯域を高感度で撮像分光する小型衛星計画FORCEの現状(5)

    森浩二, 武田彩希, 村上弘志, 寺田幸功, 久保田あや, 中澤知洋, 馬場彩, 谷津陽一, 幸村孝由, 萩野浩一, 小高裕和, 中島真也, 内山泰伸, 斉藤新也, 北山哲, 高橋忠幸, 石田学, 渡辺伸, 飯塚亮, 古澤彰浩, 鶴剛, 上田佳宏, 田中孝明, 内田裕之, 小林翔悟, 松本浩典, 中嶋大, 常深博, 信川正順, 太田直美, 粟木久光, 寺島雄一, 深沢泰司, 水野恒史, 高橋弘充, 大野雅功, 岡島崇, 山口弘悦, 森英之

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2017   page: 242   2017.8

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  45. 矮新星GK PerseiのX線スペクトル解析による白色矮星質量の推定

    和田有希, 和田有希, 湯浅孝行, 中澤知洋, 牧島一夫, 林多佳由, 林多佳由, 石田学

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2017   page: 275   2017.8

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  46. 狭輝線I型セイファート銀河NGC4051における一次放射成分の時間変動

    三宅克馬, 野田博文, 山田真也, 清野愛海, 中澤知洋, 牧島一夫

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2017   page: 175   2017.8

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  47. 将来の硬X線・ガンマ線衛星に向けたシンチレータ反射材の改良

    清野愛海, 奥田和史, 中澤知洋, 奥村曉, 郡司修一, 牧島一夫

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2017   page: 242   2017.8

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  48. 多波長観測から迫る銀河団RXC J1053.7+5453の衝突過程と粒子加速

    板花まどか, 滝沢元和, 赤松弘規, VAN WEEREN R. J, 河原創, 深沢泰司, KAASTRA J. S, 中澤知洋, 大橋隆哉, 太田直美, ROETTGERING H. J. A, VINK J, ZANDANEL F

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2017   page: 186   2017.8

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  49. 1‐80keVの広帯域X線を高感度で撮像分光する次世代の小型科学衛星計画FORCE:2017年のステータス

    中澤知洋, 森浩二, 村上弘志, 久保田あや, 寺田幸功, 谷津陽一, 馬場彩, 幸村孝由, 内山泰伸, 斉藤新也, 北山哲, 高橋忠幸, 渡辺伸, 中島真也, 萩野浩一, 松本浩典, 古澤彰浩, 鶴剛, 上田佳宏, 田中孝明, 内田裕之, 武田彩希, 常深博, 中嶋大, 信川正順, 太田直美, 粟木久光, 寺島雄一, 深沢泰司, 高橋弘充, 大野雅功, 岡島崇, 山口弘悦, 森英之, 小高裕和

    日本物理学会講演概要集(CD-ROM)   Vol. 72 ( 1 ) page: ROMBUNNO.20aK21‐5   2017.3

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  50. GROWTH実験:モンテカルロシミュレーションを用いた,雷雲ガンマ線放射の広がりの解釈

    古田禄大, 楳本大悟, 中澤知洋, 奥田和史, 和田有希, 榎戸輝揚, 湯浅孝行, 土屋晴文, 牧島一夫

    日本物理学会講演概要集(CD-ROM)   Vol. 72 ( 1 ) page: ROMBUNNO.19pK41‐8   2017.3

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  51. GROWTH実験:コリメーターを用いた雷雲由来ガンマ線の角度分布の測定

    奥田和史, 中澤知洋, 古田禄大, 和田有希, 湯浅孝行, 榎戸輝揚, 鈴木寛大, 楳本大悟, 土屋晴文, 牧島一夫

    日本物理学会講演概要集(CD-ROM)   Vol. 72 ( 1 ) page: ROMBUNNO.19pK41‐9   2017.3

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  52. GROWTH実験:10年間の継続観測に基づく冬季雷雲由来ガンマ線の研究

    楳本大悟, 土屋晴文, 土屋晴文, 榎戸輝揚, 湯浅孝行, 古田禄大, 奥田和史, 和田有希, 玉川徹, 岡野眞治, 川原田円, 北口貴雄, 岩田憲一, 加藤博, 国分紀秀, 牧島一夫, 牧島一夫, 中澤知洋

    日本物理学会講演概要集(CD-ROM)   Vol. 72 ( 1 ) page: ROMBUNNO.19pK41‐7   2017.3

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  53. 長周期の連星X線パルサーは10<sup>13</sup>Gの超強磁場をもつか?

    牧島一夫, 高木利紘, 高木利紘, 笹野理, 三原建弘, 杉崎睦, 谷田部史尭, 谷田部史尭, 中島基樹, 中澤知洋

    日本物理学会講演概要集(CD-ROM)   Vol. 72 ( 1 ) page: ROMBUNNO.17pK41‐8   2017.3

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  54. GeVガンマ線超新星残骸HB21のX線観測による過電離プラズマの発見

    鈴木寛大, 馬場彩, 中澤知洋, 澤田真理, 小山勝二

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2017   page: 141   2017.2

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  55. すざく衛星によるTriangulum Australis銀河団の超高温領域と非熱的X線放射の探査

    鷹箸颯太, 滝沢元和, 板花まどか, 中澤知洋

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2017   page: 190   2017.2

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  56. 「すざく」を用いたLMXBのスペクトル状態遷移の研究 II

    小野光, 牧島一夫, ZHANG Zhongli, 中澤知洋

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2017   page: 259   2017.2

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  57. 「すざく」で観測した近傍銀河団・銀河群のエントロピー分布

    佐々木亨, 松下恭子, 佐藤浩介, 横田佳奈, 栗山翼, 菅野祐, 赤松弘規, 藤田裕, 中澤知洋, 岡部信広, 大橋隆哉, 太田直美, 田村隆幸, 滝沢元和

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2017   page: 186   2017.2

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  58. SWIFT J2127.4+5654における時間変動を用いたモデル依存しない成分分解

    三宅克馬, 野田博文, 山田真也, 清野愛海, 中澤知洋, 牧島一夫

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2017   page: 179   2017.2

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  59. 狭輝線1型セイファート銀河NGC 4051のX線時間変動解析 II

    清野愛海, 野田博文, 三宅克馬, 中澤知洋, 牧島一夫

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2017   page: 180   2017.2

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  60. 長周期X線パルサーX Perseiが>10<sup>13</sup>Gの超強磁場をもつ可能性

    牧島一夫, 高木利紘, 三原建弘, 杉崎睦, 谷田部史尭, 笹野理, 中澤知洋, 中島基樹

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2017   page: 250   2017.2

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  61. 軟X線から硬X線の広帯域を高感度で撮像分光する小型衛星計画FORCEの現状(4)

    森浩二, 村上弘志, 寺田幸功, 久保田あや, 中澤知洋, 馬場彩, 谷津陽一, 幸村孝由, 内山泰伸, 斉藤新也, 北山哲, 高橋忠幸, 渡辺伸, 中島真也, 萩野浩一, 松本浩典, 古澤彰浩, 鶴剛, 上田佳宏, 田中孝明, 内田裕之, 武田彩希, 常深博, 中嶋大, 信川正順, 太田直美, 粟木久光, 寺島雄一, 深沢泰司, 高橋弘充, 大野雅功, 岡島崇, 山口弘悦, 森英之, 小高裕和

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2017   page: 233   2017.2

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  62. 超新星残骸SN1006における衝撃波直下での電子加熱と電離速度

    加藤佑一, 勝田哲, 馬場彩, 中澤知洋

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2017   page: 55   2017.2

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  63. 衝突銀河団CIZA J1358.9‐4750領域の広がった電波放射の探査

    赤堀卓也, 加藤佑一, 中澤知洋, 小澤武揚, GU Lyli, 滝沢元和, 藤田裕, 中西裕之, 岡部信弘, 牧島一夫

    日本天文学会年会講演予稿集   Vol. 2017   page: 190   2017.2

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  64. In-orbit performance of the hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray instruments onboard Hitomi

        2017.1

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    17th Space Science Symposium (January 5-6, 2017. Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency(JAXA)(ISAS)Sagamihara Campus), Sagamihara, Kanagawa Japan

  65. 雷雲ガンマ線の多地点観測プロジェクト:可搬型検出器の開発と2016年度冬季の観測成果

    和田有希, 榎戸輝揚, 古田禄大, 湯浅孝行, 中澤知洋, 中野俊男, 土屋晴文, 鴨川仁, 米徳大輔, 澤野達哉

    日本地球惑星科学連合大会予稿集(Web)   Vol. 2017   page: ROMBUNNO.MIS18‐05 (WEB ONLY)   2017

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  66. Gamma-ray Observation of Accelerated Electrons in the Thunderstorm Electric Fields: Development of Data Acquisition System and Operation of Multipoint Observation in Hokuriku

    Wada Y., Makishima K., Kamogawa M., Takita M., Yonetoku D., Sawano T., Watarai K., Yoneguchi K., Kimura K., Kitano K., the GROWTH collaboration collaboration, Enoto T., Yuasa T., Nakazawa K., Tsuchiya H., Nakano T., Okuda K., Furuta Y., Umemoto D.

    Meeting Abstracts of the Physical Society of Japan   Vol. 72 ( 0 ) page: 503 - 503   2017

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    DOI: 10.11316/jpsgaiyo.72.1.0_503

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  67. Gamma-ray Observation of Accelerated Electrons in the Thunderstorm Electric Fields: New Development to A Multipoint Observation Network

    Enoto T., Makishima K., Kamogawa M., Takita M., Yonetoku D., Sawano T., Watarai K., Yoneguchi K., Kimura K., Kitano K., the GROWTH collaboration collaboration, Wada Y., Yuasa T., Nakazawa K., Tsuchiya H., Nakano T., Okuda K., Furuta Y., Umemoto D.

    Meeting Abstracts of the Physical Society of Japan   Vol. 72 ( 0 ) page: 502 - 502   2017

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    DOI: 10.11316/jpsgaiyo.72.1.0_502

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  68. 雷雲ガンマ線の多地点観測プロジェクトが拓く新展開

    榎戸輝揚, 和田有希, 古田禄大, 湯浅孝行, 中澤知洋, 中野俊男, 土屋晴文, 鴨川仁, 米徳大輔, 澤野達哉

    日本地球惑星科学連合大会予稿集(Web)   Vol. 2017   page: ROMBUNNO.MIS05‐02 (WEB ONLY)   2017

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Research Project for Joint Research, Competitive Funding, etc. 1

  1. 相対論的電子を生む自然界唯一の静電場加速器は雷雲のどこにあるのか?

    2020.4 - 2021.3

    研究助成 

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    Grant amount:\1000000

KAKENHI (Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research) 7

  1. High resolution study of MeV gamma-ray flashes from lightning discharges using high-speed semiconductor imagers

    Grant number:21H00166  2021.4 - 2023.3

    Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Research in a proposed research area)

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    Authorship:Principal investigator 

    Grant amount:\6630000 ( Direct Cost: \5100000 、 Indirect Cost:\1530000 )

  2. Opening of MeV astronomy with semiconductor Compton camera

    Grant number:20H00157  2020.4 - 2024.3

    Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)

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    Authorship:Principal investigator 

    Grant amount:\44850000 ( Direct Cost: \34500000 、 Indirect Cost:\10350000 )

  3. Study of high timing resolution imaging of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes from aircrafts

    Grant number:19K21899  2019.6 - 2021.3

    Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Research (Exploratory)

    Nakazawa Kazuhiro

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    Authorship:Principal investigator 

    Grant amount:\6370000 ( Direct Cost: \4900000 、 Indirect Cost:\1470000 )

    The Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF), a sudden MeV gamma ray synchronized with lightning discharges, is so powerful that it can be observed from satellites, and its observational understanding is important because the radiation dose of aircraft flying near the electron acceleration regions in thunderclouds can be large. Because of the extremely high luminosity, we have developed a new detector demonstrator that uses Cherenkov light instead of the conventional scintillator detector. The direction of incidence of gamma rays can also be determined by measuring both ends of the acrylic rod with the MPPC. Although we could not conduct experiments with a 10 MeV gamma-ray source due to COVID19, we verified the direction measurements using cosmic rays. We succeeded in establishing a compact, lightweight, and low-power-consumption prototype of the device.

  4. Investigation on photonuclear reactions associated with electron acceleration in lightning and thunderclouds

    Grant number:18H01236  2018.4 - 2021.3

    Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research  Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)

    TSUCHIYA Harufumi

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    Authorship:Coinvestigator(s) 

    Lightning and thunderclouds generate X rays by bremsstrahlung, similar to X-ray generators in the medical field. Recently, it has been found that in addition to the generation of X rays and gamma rays, high-energy bremsstrahlung photons from lightning collide with atomic nuclei, causing a photonuclear reaction in which neutrons are produced. In this study, we investigated the details of the gamma-ray flashes that cause photonuclear reactions. As a result, it was estimated that quintillion high-energy electrons contribute to the gamma-ray flash, and the produced neutrons spread over 1 km from the production point, with a decay time of about 50 milliseconds.

  5. Observing where the huge kinetic energy from merging clusters of galaxies goes

    Grant number:15H03639  2015.4 - 2018.3

    Nakazawa Kazuhiro

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    Authorship:Principal investigator 

    Grant amount:\16380000 ( Direct Cost: \12600000 、 Indirect Cost:\3780000 )

    Kinetic energy released in merging cluster of galaxies initiates, hot gas heating, turbulence, particle acceleration, and magnetic field amplification. To understand how the initial energy is converted into those non-thermal energies, we performed two research works. Firstly, we observed the early-phase merging cluster CIZA J1358.9-4750 with three X-ray observatories and GHz radio, and confirmed it is really in its early phase. Secondly, we aimed at observing such merging clusters with ASTRO-H satellite, capable of fine doppler imaging and high-temperature hottest gas detection. In this work, we performed optimization of detector operation and analysis parameters of the Hard X-ray Imager (HXI). After the launch in 2016/2. we verified the world's best sensitivity of the HXI in orbit. Right before actual observations start, the satellite was lost. Based on these achievements, we obtained a set of technical lessons to be used for future high-sensitivity hard X-ray survey.

  6. Observations of free precession of magnetars and estimation of their internal magnetic fields

    Grant number:15H03653  2015.4 - 2018.3

    Makishima Kazuo

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    Authorship:Coinvestigator(s) 

    Using the Suzaku observatory, we had discovered long-period phase-modulation effects in the hard X-ray pulses from two mangetars. This was interpreted as a result of free precession in neutron stars that are axially deformed by ultra-strong toroidal fields hidden in them. In the present study, we analyzed X-ray data of these two magnetars obtained with the US NuSTAR satellite, and successfully reconfirmed the pulse-phase modulation effects in both objects. However, the modulation amplitudes in these objects were considerably different from those measured with Suzaku. In another magnetar observed with Suzaku in 2010, a similar phase modulation phenomenon in the hard X-ray pulses was discovered at a period of 48 ksec. Using the X-ray data from the MAXI observatory, we studied relations between the X-ray intensities and pulse-peiriod derivatives of various binary X-ray pulsars. Then, the object named X Perses was found to have magnetic fields which are comparable to those of magnetars.

  7. Study of nonthermal phenomena of galaxy clusters through next generation multiwave obserbations and theoretical simulations

    Grant number:26400218  2014.4 - 2018.3

    Takizawa Motokazu

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    Authorship:Collaborating Investigator(s) (not designated on Grant-in-Aid) 

    We investigated the particle acceleration processes and physical status of the galaxy cluster radio relics through X-ray and radio observations, and constructed a theoretical model for them.In particular,we showed that the particle acceleration processes in the "toothbrush" radio relic cannot be explained by a simple diffusive shock acceleration model.We conducted SZ observations by ALMA with a spatial resolution of 5 arcsec, which is the highest ever, and found that the very high temperature component is located in the significantly different position from the X-ray peak. We contributed the PASJ invited review paper about the cosmic magnetism in low frequency radio astronomy as a coauther.

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