Updated on 2022/05/23

写真a

 
OHNO, Kinji
 
Organization
Graduate School of Medicine Center for Neural Disease and Cancer Division Professor
Graduate School
Graduate School of Medicine
Undergraduate School
School of Medicine
Title
Professor

Degree 1

  1. 医学博士 ( 1992.3   名古屋大学 ) 

Research Interests 1

  1. congenital myasthenic syndromes, oxidative stress-mediated diseases, pre-mRNA splicing, splicing cis-elements, splicing trans-factors

Research Areas 3

  1. Others / Others  / Applied Genome Science

  2. Others / Others  / Neurology

  3. Others / Others

Research History 10

  1. Nagoya University   Director

    2020.4

  2. Vice Dean, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine

    2009.4

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    Country:Japan

  3. Professor, Neurogenetics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine

    2004.9

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    Country:Japan

  4. Senior Research Associate, Dept of Neurology, Mayo Clinic

    2001.4 - 2004.8

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    Country:United States

  5. Assistant Professor, Mayo Medical School

    1998.4 - 2004.8

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    Country:United States

  6. Research Associate, Dept of Neurology, Mayo Clinic

    1996.4 - 2001.3

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    Country:United States

  7. Research Fellow, Dept of Neurology, Mayo Clinic

    1993.4 - 1996.3

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    Country:United States

  8. JSPS Postdoctoral fellow, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine

    1992.4 - 1993.3

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    Country:Japan

  9. Neurology Resident and Staff, Nagoya National University

    1985.4 - 1988.3

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    Country:Japan

  10. Intern, Nagoya National Hospital

    1983.6 - 1985.3

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    Country:Japan

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Education 2

  1. Nagoya University   Graduate School, Division of Medical Sciences

    1988.4 - 1992.3

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    Country: Japan

  2. Nagoya University   Faculty of Medicine

    1977.4 - 1983.3

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    Country: Japan

Professional Memberships 10

  1. Society for Neuroscience

  2. American Society of Human Genetics

  3. RNA Society

  4. 日本分子生物学会

  5. 日本神経学会   評議員

  6. 日本内科学会

  7. 日本RNA学会

  8. 分子状水素医学シンポジウム   評議員

  9. 日本神経化学会   評議員

  10. JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR BACTERIOLOGY

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Awards 1

  1. Neurology Research Award

    1995   Mayo Clinic  

 

Papers 381

  1. Extremely low-frequency pulses of faint magnetic field induce mitophagy to rejuvenate mitochondria.

    Toda T, Ito M, Takeda JI, Masuda A, Mino H, Hattori N, Mohri K, Ohno K

    Communications biology   Vol. 5 ( 1 ) page: 453   2022.5

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

    DOI: 10.1038/s42003-022-03389-7

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  2. Possible Repositioning of an Oral Anti-Osteoporotic Drug, Ipriflavone, for Treatment of Inflammatory Arthritis via Inhibitory Activity of KIAA1199, a Novel Potent Hyaluronidase.

    Koike H, Nishida Y, Shinomura T, Ohkawara B, Ohno K, Zhuo L, Kimata K, Ushida T, Imagama S

    International journal of molecular sciences   Vol. 23 ( 8 )   2022.4

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:International Journal of Molecular Sciences  

    KIAA1199 has a strong hyaluronidase activity in inflammatory arthritis. This study aimed to identify a drug that could reduce KIAA1199 activity and clarify its effects on inflammatory arthritis. Rat chondrosarcoma (RCS) cells were strongly stained with Alcian blue (AB). Its stainability was reduced in RCS cells, which were over-expressed with the KIAA1199 gene (RCS-KIAA). We screened the drugs that restore the AB stainability in RCS-KIAA. The effects of the drug were evaluated by particle exclusion assay, HA ELISA, RT-PCR, and Western blotting. We further evaluated the HA accumulation and the MMP1 and three expressions in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). In vivo, the effects of the drug on symptoms and serum concentration of HA in a collagen-induced arthritis mouse were evaluated. Ipriflavone was identified to restore AB stainability at 23%. Extracellular matrix formation was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner (p = 0.006). Ipriflavone increased the HA accumulation and suppressed the MMP1 and MMP3 expression on TNF-α stimulated FLS. In vivo, Ipriflavone significantly improved the symptoms and reduced the serum concentrations of HA. Conclusions: We identified Ipriflavone, which has inhibitory effects on KIAA1199 activity. Ipriflavone may be a therapeutic candidate based on its reduction of KIAA1199 activity in inflammatory arthritis.

    DOI: 10.3390/ijms23084089

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  3. Prediction of the splicing effects of SNVs affecting the first nucleotide G of an exon

    Joudaki Atefeh, Takeda Jun-ichi, Masuda Akio, Ohno Kinji

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS   Vol. 30 ( SUPPL 1 ) page: 498 - 498   2022.4

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

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  4. Promethazine Downregulates Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling and Increases the Biomechanical Forces of the Injured Achilles Tendon in the Early Stage of Healing.

    Sakaguchi T, Ohkawara B, Kishimoto Y, Miyamoto K, Ishizuka S, Hiraiwa H, Ishiguro N, Imagama S, Ohno K

    The American journal of sports medicine   Vol. 50 ( 5 ) page: 1317 - 1327   2022.4

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:American Journal of Sports Medicine  

    Background: Wnt/β-catenin signaling suppresses the differentiation of cultured tenocytes, but its roles in tendon repair remain mostly elusive. No chemical compounds are currently available to treat tendon injury. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling would accelerate tendon healing. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Tendon-derived cells (TDCs) were isolated from rat Achilles tendons. The right Achilles tendon was injured via a dermal punch, while the left tendon was sham operated. A Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor, IWR-1, and an antihistamine agent, promethazine (PH), were locally and intramuscularly injected, respectively, for 2 weeks after surgery. The healing tendons were histologically and biomechanically evaluated. Results: The amount of β-catenin protein was increased in the injured tendons from postoperative weeks 0.5 to 2. Inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by IWR-1 in healing tendons improved the histological abnormalities and decreased β-catenin, but it compromised the biomechanical properties. As we previously reported that antihistamine agents suppressed Wnt/β-catenin signaling in human chondrosarcoma cells, we examined the effects of antihistamines on TDCs. We found that a first-generation antihistamine agent, PH, increased the expression of the tendon marker genes Mkx and Tnmd in TDCs. Intramuscular injection of PH did not improve histological abnormalities, but it decreased β-catenin in healing tendons and increased the peak force and stiffness of the healing tendons on postoperative week 2. On postoperative week 8, however, the biomechanical properties of vehicle-treated tendons became similar to those of PH-treated tendons. Conclusion: IWR-1 and PH suppressed Wnt/β-catenin signaling and improved the histological abnormalities of healing tendons. IWR-1, however, compromised the biomechanical properties of healing tendons, whereas PH improved them. Clinical Relevance: PH is a candidate repositioned drug that potentially accelerates tendon repair.

    DOI: 10.1177/03635465221077116

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  5. Molecular Hydrogen Enhances Proliferation of Cancer Cells That Exhibit Potent Mitochondrial Unfolded Protein Response.

    Hasegawa T, Ito M, Hasegawa S, Teranishi M, Takeda K, Negishi S, Nishiwaki H, Takeda JI, LeBaron TW, Ohno K

    International journal of molecular sciences   Vol. 23 ( 5 )   2022.3

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:International Journal of Molecular Sciences  

    Molecular hydrogen ameliorates pathological states in a variety of human diseases, animal models, and cell models, but the effects of hydrogen on cancer have been rarely reported. In addition, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of hydrogen remain mostly unelucidated. We found that hydrogen enhances proliferation of four out of seven human cancer cell lines (the responders). The proliferation-promoting effects were not correlated with basal levels of cellular reactive oxygen species. Expression profiling of the seven cells showed that the responders have higher gene expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) molecules than the non-responders. In addition, the responders have higher mitochondrial mass, higher mitochondrial superoxide, higher mitochondrial membrane potential, and higher mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity than the non-responders. In the responders, hydrogen provoked mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mtUPR). Suppression of cell proliferation by rotenone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial ETC complex I, was rescued by hydrogen in the responders. Hydrogen triggers mtUPR and induces cell proliferation in cancer cells that have high basal and spare mitochondrial ETC activities.

    DOI: 10.3390/ijms23052888

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  6. Meclozine ameliorates skeletal muscle pathology and increases muscle forces in mdx mice.

    Kawamura Y, Hida T, Ohkawara B, Matsushita M, Kobayashi T, Ishizuka S, Hiraiwa H, Tanaka S, Tsushima M, Nakashima H, Ito K, Imagama S, Ito M, Masuda A, Ishiguro N, Ohno K

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications   Vol. 592   page: 87 - 92   2022.2

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications  

    We screened pre-approved drugs for the survival of the Hu5/KD3 human myogenic progenitors. We found that meclozine, an anti-histamine drug that has long been used for motion sickness, promoted the proliferation and survival of Hu5/KD3 cells. Meclozine increased expression of MyoD, but reduced expression of myosin heavy chain and suppressed myotube formation. Withdrawal of meclozine, however, resumed the ability of Hu5/KD3 cells to differentiate into myotubes. We examined the effects of meclozine on mdx mouse carrying a nonsense mutation in the dystrophin gene and modeling for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Intragastric administration of meclozine in mdx mouse increased the body weight, the muscle mass in the lower limbs, the cross-sectional area of the paravertebral muscle, and improved exercise performances. Previous reports show that inhibition of phosphorylation of ERK1/2 improves muscle functions in mouse models for Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and cancer cachexia, as well as in mdx mice. We and others previously showed that meclozine blocks the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in cultured cells. We currently showed that meclozine decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in muscles in mdx mice but not in wild-type mice. This was likely to be one of the underlying mechanisms of the effects of meclozine on mdx mice.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2022.01.003

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  7. Altered gut microbiota in Parkinson's disease patients with motor complications.

    Takahashi K, Nishiwaki H, Ito M, Iwaoka K, Takahashi K, Suzuki Y, Taguchi K, Yamahara K, Tsuboi Y, Kashihara K, Hirayama M, Ohno K, Maeda T

    Parkinsonism & related disorders   Vol. 95   page: 11 - 17   2022.2

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Parkinsonism and Related Disorders  

    Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with gut dysbiosis. However, whether gut dysbiosis can cause motor complications is unclear. Methods: Subjects were enrolled from four independent movement disorder centers in Japan. We performed 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis of gut microbiota. Relative abundance of gut microbiota and relationships between them and clinical characteristics were statistically analyzed. Analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) was used to assess altered gut microbiota associated with wearing-off or dyskinesia. Results: We enrolled 223 patients with PD. Wearing-off was noted in 47.5% of patients and dyskinesia in 21.9%. We detected 98 genera of bacteria. Some changes in the gut microbiota were observed in patients with PD and motor complications. After Bonferroni correction, patients with wearing-off showed decreased relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae Blautia (p < 0.0001) and increased relative abundance of Lactobacillaceae Lactobacillus (p < 0.0001), but patients with dyskinesia no longer showed significant changes in the gut microbiota. Adjustment with two models of confounding factors followed by ANCOVA revealed that age (p < 0.0001), disease duration (p = 0.01), and wearing-off (p = 0.0004) were independent risks for the decreased relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae Blautia, and wearing-off (p = 0.009) was the only independent risk factor for the increased relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae Lactobacillus. Conclusion: Relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae Blautia and Lactobacillaceae Lactobacillus was significantly decreased and increased, respectively, in the gut microbiota of PD patients with motor complications. This indicates that an altered gut microbiota is associated with the development of motor complications in patients with advanced PD.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2021.12.012

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  8. Enhancement of ethanol production and cell growth in budding yeast by direct irradiation of low-temperature plasma

    Tanaka Hiromasa, Matsumura Shogo, Ishikawa Kenji, Hashizume Hiroshi, Ito Masafumi, Nakamura Kae, Kajiyama Hiroaki, Kikkawa Fumitaka, Ito Mikako, Ohno Kinji, Okazaki Yasumasa, Toyokuni Shinya, Mizuno Masaaki, Hori Masaru

    JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS   Vol. 61 ( SA )   2022.1

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Japanese Journal of Applied Physics  

    Ethanol production by budding yeast was compared between direct and indirect plasma irradiation. We observed enhancement of ethanol production and cell growth not by indirect plasma irradiation but by direct plasma irradiation. Glucose consumption was increased in budding yeast by direct plasma irradiation. Extracellular flux analysis revealed that glycolytic activity in the budding yeast was elevated by direct plasma irradiation. These results suggest that direct plasma irradiation enhances ethanol production in budding yeast by elevating the glycolytic activity.

    DOI: 10.35848/1347-4065/ac2037

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  9. Reply to the Letter to the Editor "The Microbiota in Parkinson's Disease: Ranking the Risk of Heart Disease".

    Hirayama M, Ohno K

    Annals of nutrition & metabolism   Vol. 78 ( 2 ) page: 119 - 120   2022

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism  

    DOI: 10.1159/000521993

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  10. A computational model of the epidermis with the deformable dermis and its application to skin diseases

    Ohno K., Kobayashi Y., Uesaka M., Gotoda T., Denda M., Kosumi H., Watanabe M., Natsuga K., Nagayama M.

    Scientific Reports   Vol. 11 ( 1 )   2021.12

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Scientific Reports  

    The skin barrier is provided by the organized multi-layer structure of epidermal cells, which is dynamically maintained by a continuous supply of cells from the basal layer. The epidermal homeostasis can be disrupted by various skin diseases, which often cause morphological changes not only in the epidermis but in the dermis. We present a three-dimensional agent-based computational model of the epidermis that takes into account the deformability of the dermis. Our model can produce a stable epidermal structure with well-organized layers. We show that its stability depends on the cell supply rate from the basal layer. Modeling the morphological change of the dermis also enables us to investigate how the stiffness of the dermis affects the structure and barrier functions of the epidermis. Besides, we show that our model can simulate the formation of a corn (clavus) by assuming hyperproliferation and rapid differentiation. We also provide experimental data for human corn, which supports the model assumptions and the simulation result.

    DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-92540-1

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  11. Regulated splicing of large exons is linked to phase-separation of vertebrate transcription factors.

    Kawachi T, Masuda A, Yamashita Y, Takeda JI, Ohkawara B, Ito M, Ohno K

    The EMBO journal   Vol. 40 ( 22 ) page: e107485   2021.11

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    Although large exons cannot be readily recognized by the spliceosome, many are evolutionarily conserved and constitutively spliced for inclusion in the processed transcript. Furthermore, whether large exons may be enriched in a certain subset of proteins, or mediate specific functions, has remained unclear. Here, we identify a set of nearly 3,000 SRSF3-dependent large constitutive exons (S3-LCEs) in human and mouse cells. These exons are enriched for cytidine-rich sequence motifs, which bind and recruit the splicing factors hnRNP K and SRSF3. We find that hnRNP K suppresses S3-LCE splicing, an effect that is mitigated by SRSF3 to thus achieve constitutive splicing of S3-LCEs. S3-LCEs are enriched in genes for components of transcription machineries, including mediator and BAF complexes, and frequently contain intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). In a subset of analyzed S3-LCE-containing transcription factors, SRSF3 depletion leads to deletion of the IDRs due to S3-LCE exon skipping, thereby disrupting phase-separated assemblies of these factors. Cytidine enrichment in large exons introduces proline/serine codon bias in intrinsically disordered regions and appears to have been evolutionarily acquired in vertebrates. We propose that layered splicing regulation by hnRNP K and SRSF3 ensures proper phase-separation of these S3-LCE-containing transcription factors in vertebrates.

    DOI: 10.15252/embj.2020107485

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  12. Development of a powder wettability evaluation technique by analyzing the increase in internal pressure due to capillary suction of closed powder bed -effect of powder-bed-preparation method and powder surface area estimation method

    Mori T., Ohno K., Suzuki T., Satone H., Tsubaki J.

    Materials Transactions   Vol. 62 ( 10 ) page: 1510 - 1518   2021.10

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Materials Transactions  

    Evaluation of powder wettability is important to prepare well dispersed slurries. Therefore, in this study, a technique for evaluating powder wettability was developed to analyze the increase in the internal pressure of a closed powder bed due to capillary suction to determine the contact angle of the powder. The effect of the powder-bed-preparation method and powder surface area estimation method on the determined value of the contact angle was discussed. We demonstrated that the improved air permeation test proposed in this research can accurately determine the powder surface area, resulting in a faithful determination of the contact angle of the powder. It was also shown that compression under the shearing method could result in a denser and more homogeneous powder bed when compared to the conventional tapping method, indicating high reproducibility for estimating the contact angle.

    DOI: 10.2320/matertrans.MT-Y2021002

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  13. Plasma-activated Ringer's lactate solution inhibits the cellular respiratory system in HeLa cells

    Tanaka Hiromasa, Maeda Shogo, Nakamura Kae, Hashizume Hiroshi, Ishikawa Kenji, Ito Mikako, Ohno Kinji, Mizuno Masaaki, Motooka Yashiro, Okazaki Yasumasa, Toyokuni Shinya, Kajiyama Hiroaki, Kikkawa Fumitaka, Hori Masaru

    PLASMA PROCESSES AND POLYMERS   Vol. 18 ( 10 )   2021.10

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Plasma Processes and Polymers  

    Nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma has enabled a variety of new applications in medicine, agriculture, and other industries. It is particularly noteworthy that plasma itself and/or plasma-activated culture medium have been shown to preferentially kill various cancer cells. We have previously developed a plasma-activated Ringer's lactate solution (PAL) for use as a new cancer treatment. In this study, behaviors of extracellular and intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the cellular respiratory system of PAL-treated HeLa cells were investigated using an extracellular flux analyzer and a probe to measure mitochondrial membrane potential. In PAL-treated HeLa cells, extracellular hydrogen peroxide in PAL was found to be responsible for the induction of intracellular hydrogen peroxide and apoptosis, while other components in PAL are responsible for the induction of non-H2O2 intracellular ROS and non-apoptotic cell death, which should be clarified by further experiments. We believe that these are long-lived species derived from plasma-activated lactates. Furthermore, we found that the plasma-activated lactates inhibited glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, but not the electron transport chain in HeLa cells. These results suggest that PAL induces multiple modes of cell death, including apoptosis through hydrogen peroxide, and non-apoptotic cell death associated with the impairment of mitochondrial functions (glycolysis and TCA cycle). These findings shed light on the novel mechanism underlying plasma-activated lactate-induced cell death.

    DOI: 10.1002/ppap.202100056

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  14. Relationship of hemoglobin level and plasma coproporphyrin-I concentrations as an endogenous probe for phenotyping OATP1B

    Suzuki Y., Sasamoto Y., Koyama T., Yoshijima C., Oda A., Nakatochi M., Kubo M., Momozawa Y., Uehara R., Ohno K.

    Clinical and Translational Science   Vol. 14 ( 4 ) page: 1403 - 1411   2021.7

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Clinical and Translational Science  

    Plasma coproporphyrin-I (CP-I) concentration is used as a sensitive and selective endogenous probe for phenotyping organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B (OATP1B) activity in many studies. CP-I is produced in the process of heme synthesis, but the relationship between plasma CP-I concentrations and heme synthesis activity is unknown. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between plasma CP-I concentration and hemoglobin level as a biomarker of heme synthesis activity. The data of 391 subjects selected from the Japanese general population were analyzed. One hundred twenty-six participants had OATP1B1*15 allele, 11 of whom were homozygous (OATP1B1*15/*15). Multiple regression analysis identified hemoglobin level as an independent variable associated with plasma CP-I concentration (p < 0.0001). A significant positive correlation was observed between hemoglobin level and plasma CP-I concentration in participants without OATP1B1*15 allele (n = 265; rs = 0.35, p < 0.0001) and with OATP1B1*15 allele (n = 126; rs =0.27, p = 0.0022). However, Kruskal–Wallis test showed no large difference in Kruskal–Wallis statistics between the distribution of plasma CP-I concentrations and that of ratio of plasma CP-I to hemoglobin among six OATP1B1 polymorphism groups. These findings suggest that the hemoglobin level seems to reflect biosynthesis of CP-I. However, correction by hemoglobin level is not required when using basal plasma CP-I concentration for phenotyping OATP1B activity.

    DOI: 10.1111/cts.12996

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  15. IntSplice2: Prediction of the Splicing Effects of Intronic Single-Nucleotide Variants Using LightGBM Modeling.

    Takeda JI, Fukami S, Tamura A, Shibata A, Ohno K

    Frontiers in genetics   Vol. 12   page: 701076   2021

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    Prediction of the effect of a single-nucleotide variant (SNV) in an intronic region on aberrant pre-mRNA splicing is challenging except for an SNV affecting the canonical GU/AG splice sites (ss). To predict pathogenicity of SNVs at intronic positions −50 (Int-50) to −3 (Int-3) close to the 3’ ss, we developed light gradient boosting machine (LightGBM)-based IntSplice2 models using pathogenic SNVs in the human gene mutation database (HGMD) and ClinVar and common SNVs in dbSNP with 0.01 ≤ minor allelic frequency (MAF) < 0.50. The LightGBM models were generated using features representing splicing cis-elements. The average recall/sensitivity and specificity of IntSplice2 by fivefold cross-validation (CV) of the training dataset were 0.764 and 0.884, respectively. The recall/sensitivity of IntSplice2 was lower than the average recall/sensitivity of 0.800 of IntSplice that we previously made with support vector machine (SVM) modeling for the same intronic positions. In contrast, the specificity of IntSplice2 was higher than the average specificity of 0.849 of IntSplice. For benchmarking (BM) of IntSplice2 with IntSplice, we made a test dataset that was not used to train IntSplice. After excluding the test dataset from the training dataset, we generated IntSplice2-BM and compared it with IntSplice using the test dataset. IntSplice2-BM was superior to IntSplice in all of the seven statistical measures of accuracy, precision, recall/sensitivity, specificity, F1 score, negative predictive value (NPV), and matthews correlation coefficient (MCC). We made the IntSplice2 web service at https://www.med.nagoya-u.ac.jp/neurogenetics/IntSplice2.

    DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2021.701076

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  16. Parkinson's Disease and Gut Microbiota.

    Hirayama M, Ohno K

    Annals of nutrition & metabolism   Vol. 77 Suppl 2 ( SUPPL 2 ) page: 28 - 35   2021

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    Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by abnormal aggregation of α-synuclein fibrils, called the Lewy bodies, in the central nervous system. Accumulating knowledge points to the notion that α-synuclein fibrils start from the dorsal vagal nucleus and ascend to the locus ceruleus and the substantia nigra (SN). Even in healthy elderly subjects without motor or cognitive impairment, α-synuclein fibrils are frequently observed in the brain and sometimes in the intestinal neural plexus. Enteroendocrine cells have a direct synapse to the vagal afferents, and the vagal nucleus has synaptic pathways to the SN and the striatum. Intestinal bacteria are likely to be involved in the formation of intestinal α-synuclein fibrils. Summary: A nonparametric meta-analysis of intestinal microbiota in PD in 5 countries, as well as scrutinization of the other reports from the other countries, indicates that mucin-degrading Akkermansia is increased in PD and that short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria are decreased in PD. Both dysbiosis should increase the intestinal permeability, which subsequently facilitates exposure of the intestinal neural plexus to toxins like lipopolysaccharide and pesticide, which should lead to abnormal aggregation of α-synuclein fibrils. Decreased SCFA also downregulates regulatory T cells and fails to suppress neuronal inflammation. Key Messages: Therapeutic intervention may be able to be established against these mechanisms. Additional biochemical, cellular, and animal studies are required to further dissect the direct association between intestinal microbiota and PD.

    DOI: 10.1159/000518147

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  17. Intestinal Collinsella may mitigate infection and exacerbation of COVID-19 by producing ursodeoxycholate.

    Hirayama M, Nishiwaki H, Hamaguchi T, Ito M, Ueyama J, Maeda T, Kashihara K, Tsuboi Y, Ohno K

    PloS one   Vol. 16 ( 11 ) page: e0260451   2021

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    The mortality rates of COVID-19 vary widely across countries, but the underlying mechanisms remain unelucidated. We aimed at the elucidation of relationship between gut microbiota and the mortality rates of COVID-19 across countries. Raw sequencing data of 16S rRNA V3-V5 regions of gut microbiota in 953 healthy subjects in ten countries were obtained from the public database. We made a generalized linear model (GLM) to predict the COVID- 19 mortality rates using gut microbiota. GLM revealed that low genus Collinsella predicted high COVID-19 mortality rates with a markedly low p-value. Unsupervised clustering of gut microbiota in 953 subjects yielded five enterotypes. The mortality rates were increased from enterotypes 1 to 5, whereas the abundances of Collinsella were decreased from enterotypes 1 to 5 except for enterotype 2. Collinsella produces ursodeoxycholate. Ursodeoxycholate was previously reported to inhibit binding of SARS-CoV-2 to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6; have antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects; and increase alveolar fluid clearance in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Ursodeoxycholate produced by Collinsella may prevent COVID-19 infection and ameliorate acute respiratory distress syndrome in COVID-19 by suppressing cytokine storm syndrome.

    DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0260451

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  18. Meclozine Attenuates the MARK Pathway in Mammalian Chondrocytes and Ameliorates FGF2-Induced Bone Hyperossification in Larval Zebrafish.

    Takemoto G, Matsushita M, Okamoto T, Ito T, Matsuura Y, Takashima C, Chen-Yoshikawa TF, Ebi H, Imagama S, Kitoh H, Ohno K, Hosono Y

    Frontiers in cell and developmental biology   Vol. 9   page: 694018   2021

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology  

    Meclozine has been developed as an inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) to treat achondroplasia (ACH). Extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation was attenuated by meclozine in FGF2-treated chondrocyte cell line, but the site of its action has not been elucidated. Although orally administered meclozine promoted longitudinal bone growth in a mouse model of ACH, its effect on craniofacial bone development during the early stage remains unknown. Herein, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed using murine chondrocytes from FGF2-treated cultured tibiae, which was significantly elongated by meclozine treatment. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that FGF2 significantly increased the enrichment score of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family signaling cascades in chondrocytes; however, meclozine reduced this enrichment. Next, we administered meclozine to FGF2-treated larval zebrafish from 8 h post-fertilization (hpf). We observed that FGF2 significantly increased the number of ossified vertebrae in larval zebrafish at 7 days post-fertilization (dpf), while meclozine delayed vertebral ossification in FGF2-induced zebrafish. Meclozine also reversed the FGF2-induced upregulation of ossified craniofacial bone area, including ceratohyal, hyomandibular, and quadrate. The current study provided additional evidence regarding the inhibitory effect of meclozine on the FGF2-induced upregulation of MAPK signaling in chondrocytes and FGF2-induced development of craniofacial and vertebral bones.

    DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2021.694018

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  19. A set of random forest models for each amino acid substitution to predict pathogenicity of missense variants in the human genome

    Takeda J., Nanatsue K., Yamagishi R., Ito M., Ohno K.

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS   Vol. 28 ( SUPPL 1 ) page: 1003 - 1003   2020.12

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)  

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  20. Molecular Hydrogen Manages Mitochondrial Proteostatic Stress and Induces Cellular Response

    Hasegawa Tomoya, Ito Mikako, Hasegawa Satoru, Takeda Kouki, Nishiwaki Hiroshi, Negishi Shuto, Ohno Kinji

    FASEB JOURNAL   Vol. 34   2020.4

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    DOI: 10.1096/fasebj.2020.34.s1.09226

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  21. SRSF3 and hnRNP K Antagonistically Regulate Splicing of Large Exons

    Kawachi Toshihiko, Masuda Akio, Takeda Jun-ichi, Ito Mikako, Hamaguchi Tomonari, Ohno Kinji

    FASEB JOURNAL   Vol. 34   2020.4

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    DOI: 10.1096/fasebj.2020.34.s1.09562

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  22. Inhalation of hydrogen gas elevates urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanine in Parkinson's disease.

    Hirayama M, Ito M, Minato T, Yoritaka A, LeBaron TW, Ohno K

    Medical gas research   Vol. 8 ( 4 ) page: 144 - 149   2018.10

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    Hyposmia is one of the earliest and the most common symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). The benefits of hydrogen water on motor deficits have been reported in animal PD models and PD patients, but the effects of hydrogen gas on PD patients have not been studied. We evaluated the effect of inhalation of hydrogen gas on olfactory function, non-motor symptoms, activities of daily living, and urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanine (8-OHdG) levels by a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with an 8-week washout period in 20 patients with PD. Patients inhaled either 1.2-1.4% hydrogen-air mixture or placebo for 10 minutes twice a day for 4 weeks. Inhalation of low dose hydrogen did not significantly influence the PD clinical parameters, but it did increase urinary 8-OHdG levels by 16%. This increase in 8-OHdG is markedly less than the over 300% increase in diabetes, and is more comparable to the increase after a bout of strenuous exercise. Although increased reactive oxygen species is often associated with toxicity and disease, they also play essential roles in mediating cytoprotective cellular adaptations in a process known as hormesis. Increases of oxidative stress by hydrogen have been previously reported, along with its ability to activate the Nrf2, NF-κB pathways, and heat shock responses. Although we did not observe any beneficial effect of hydrogen in our short trial, we propose that the increased 8-OHdG and other reported stress responses from hydrogen may indicate that its beneficial effects are partly or largely mediated by hormetic mechanisms. The study was approved by the ethics review committee of Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (approval number 2015-0295). The clinical trial was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network (identifier UMIN000019082).

    DOI: 10.4103/2045-9912.248264

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  23. Recent advances in congenital myasthenic syndromes

    Ohno K., Ohkawara B., Ito M.

    Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology   Vol. 7 ( 3 ) page: 246 - 259   2016.8

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    Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are heterogeneous disorders caused by germline mutations in genes expressed at the neuromuscular junction. Mutations have been identified in 24 genes encoding acetylcholine receptor subunits (CHRNA1, CHRNB1, CHRND, CHRNE and CHRNG), skeletal muscle sodium channel (SCN4A), signaling molecules driving acetylcholine receptor subunits clustering (AGRN, LRP4, MUSK and DOK7), synaptic structural proteins (COLQ, LAMB2 and COL13A1), postsynaptic structural proteins (RAPSN and PLEC), presynaptic molecules (CHAT, SYT2), glycosylation enzymes (GFPT1, DPAGT1, ALG2, ALG14 and GMPPB), and other less characterized molecules (PREPL and SCL25A1). CMS are recessive disorders, except for slow channel CMS and synaptotagmin 2 (SYT2)-CMS. Onsets are largely less than 2 years, but adult-onset is not rare, especially in slow-channel CMS and limb-girdle type CMS caused by glycosylation defects and by DOK7 mutations. Clinical features include fatigable muscle weakness, amyotrophy and minor facial anomalies. Eye, facial and bulbar muscles are frequently affected, but sparing of these muscles is observed, especially in limb-girdle type CMS. Serum creatine kinase levels are frequently elevated in slow-channel CMS, glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase 1 (GFPT1)-CMS, and guanosine diphosphate mannose pyrophosphorylase B (GMPPB)-CMS. Electrophysiological findings supporting compromised neuromuscular signal transmission are a prerequisite for diagnosing CMS. Most CMS patients are likely to be underdiagnosed, and recognition of CMS in undiagnosed muscle weakness and/or amyotrophy is critical for diagnosing CMS.

    DOI: 10.1111/cen3.12316

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  24. Regulation of mRNA length by FUS

    Masuda A., Ohno K.

    Seikagaku   Vol. 88 ( 2 ) page: 244 - 247   2016

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    DOI: 10.14952/SEIKAGAKU.2016.880244

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  25. FABP4 is secreted from adipocytes by adenyl cyclase-PKA- and guanylyl cyclase-PKG-dependent lipolytic mechanisms

    Mita T., Furuhashi M., Hiramitsu S., Ishii J., Hoshina K., Ishimura S., Fuseya T., Watanabe Y., Tanaka M., Ohno K., Akasaka H., Ohnishi H., Yoshida H., Saitoh S., Shimamoto K., Miura T.

    Obesity   Vol. 23 ( 2 ) page: 359 - 367   2015.2

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    Objective Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) is expressed in adipocytes, and elevated plasma FABP4 level is associated with obesity-mediated metabolic phenotype. Postprandial regulation and secretory signaling of FABP4 has been investigated. Methods Time courses of FABP4 levels were examined during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n = 53) or a high-fat test meal eating (n = 35). Effects of activators and inhibitors of adenyl cyclase (AC)-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling and guanylyl cyclase (GC)-protein kinase G (PKG) signaling on FABP4 secretion from mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes were investigated. Results FABP4 level significantly declined after the OGTT or a high-fat meal eating, while insulin level was increased. Treatment with low and high glucose concentration or palmitate for 2 h did not affect FABP4 secretion from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. FABP4 secretion was increased by stimulation of lipolysis using isoproterenol, a β3-adrenoceptor agonist (CL316243), forskolin, dibutyryl-cAMP and atrial natriuretic peptide, and the induced FABP4 secretion was suppressed by insulin or an inhibitor of PKA (H-89), PKG (KT5823) or hormone sensitive lipase (CAY10499). Conclusions FABP4 is secreted from adipocytes in association with lipolysis regulated by AC-PKA- and GC-PKG-mediated signal pathways. Plasma FABP4 level declines postprandially, and suppression of FABP4 secretion by insulin-induced anti-lipolytic signaling may be involved in this decline in FABP4 level.

    DOI: 10.1002/oby.20954

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  26. Effects of environmental factors on the conversion efficiency of solar thermoelectric co-generators comprising parabola trough collectors and thermoelectric modules without evacuated tubular collector

    Li C., Zhang M., Miao L., Zhou J., Kang Y.P., Fisher C.A.J., Ohno K., Shen Y., Lin H.

    Energy Conversion and Management   Vol. 86   page: 944 - 951   2014.10

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    Solar thermoelectric co-generators (STECGs) are an attractive means of supplying electric power and heat simultaneously and economically. Here we examine the effects of environmental factors on the conversion efficiencies of a new type of STECG comprising parabolic trough concentrators and thermoelectric modules (TEMs). Each TEM array was bonded with a solar selective absorber plate and directly positioned on the focal axis of the parabolic concentrator. Glass tubular collectors were not used to encase the TEMs. Although this makes the overall system simpler, the environmental effects become significant. Simulations show that the performance of such a system strongly depends on ambient conditions such as solar insolation, atmospheric temperature and wind velocity. As each of these factors increases, the thermal losses of the STECG system also increase, resulting in reduced solar conversion efficiency, despite the increased radiation absorption. However, the impact of these factors is relatively complicated. Although the electrical efficiency of the system increases with increasing solar insolation, it decreases with increasing ambient temperature and wind velocity. These results serve as a useful guide to the selection and installation of STECGs, particularly in Guangzhou or similar climate region. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2014.06.010

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  27. Epstein-barr virus-infected cells in IgG4-related lymphadenopathy with comparison with extranodal IgG4-related disease

    Takeuchi M., Sato Y., Yasui H., Ozawa H., Ohno K., Takata K., Gion Y., Orita Y., Tachibana T., Itoh T., Asano N., Nakamura S., Swerdlow S.H., Yoshino T.

    American Journal of Surgical Pathology   Vol. 38 ( 7 ) page: 946 - 955   2014.7

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    IgG4-related lymphadenopathy with increased numbers of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells has been reported but not fully described. We analyzed 31 cases of IgG4-related lymphadenopathy and 24 cases of extranodal IgG4-related diseases for their possible relationship with EBV. Other types of reactive lymph nodes (22) and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) (10) were also studied for comparison. EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) in situ hybridization revealed EBER + cells in 18 of 31 cases (58%) of IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. Increased EBER+ cells were found in only 4 of 22 (18.1%) non-IgG4-related reactive lymphoid hyperplasia in patients of a similar age (P=0.002) and in only 5 of 24 (21%) extranodal IgG4-related biopsies (P=0.006). Interestingly, all patients with EBER+ progressively transformed germinal center-type IgG4-related lymphadenopathy had systemic lymphadenopathy and/or extranodal involvement. AITL also is associated with EBV, and IgG4-related lymphadenopathy sometimes mimics the morphology of AITL; however, the number of IgG4+ cells in AITL was significantly less than that in IgG4-related lymphadenopathy (P<0.001). Increased numbers of regulatory T cells are seen in IgG4-related disease; however, there was not a significant difference between the EBER+ and EBER- cases. In conclusion, the presence of increased numbers of EBV-infected cells in IgG4-related lymphadenopathy, compared with other reactive lymphadenopathy or extranodal IgG4-related disease, suggests that there may be a relationship at least between nodal IgG4-related disease and EBV. It is important to avoid overdiagnosing these cases as malignant lymphomas or EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorders. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

    DOI: 10.1097/PAS.0000000000000206

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  28. Sensor observation area compensating path planning for avoiding collisions with unknown obstacles

    Sugawara N., Takeuchi E., Ohno K., Tadokoro S.

    2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics, IEEE ROBIO 2014     page: 843 - 848   2014.4

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    In this paper, we propose a path-planning algorithm for mobile robots having sensors with a limited field of view. The proposed method predicts the observable region in the planning phase and minimizes incursions into unobservable regions. The path-planning process of the proposed method not only involves the actions required for reaching a destination but also the actions required for obtaining information about obstacles on the path depending on the sensor's viewing angle. Using the proposed method, robots can detect obstacles before collision. In this paper, the effectiveness of the method is confirmed by simulated and real-world experiments.

    DOI: 10.1109/ROBIO.2014.7090437

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  29. [Beneficial effects of 3,4-diaminopyridine in a 26-year-old woman with DOK7 congenital myasthenic syndrome who was originally diagnosed with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy].

    Nishikawa A, Mori-Yoshimura M, Okamoto T, Oya Y, Nakata T, Ohno K, Murata M

    Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology   Vol. 54 ( 7 ) page: 561 - 4   2014

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    We report a 26-year-old woman who had respiratory dysfunction and muscle weakness at birth and was diagnosed with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy at the age of 5. The extent of muscle weakness fluctuated daily or weekly and deteriorated in menstrual periods. At the age of 12, she noted improvements in symptoms when taking procaterol hydrochloride and began to take it regularly. After that, her condition stabilized. At the age of 26, she visited our hospital presenting with ptosis, muscle weakness in the face, trunk, and proximal limbs, and easy fatigability. Serum CK was normal; anti-acetylcholine receptor and anti-muscle specific tyrosine kinase antibodies were negative. A repetitive stimulation test in the trapezius muscle showed a waning phenomenon. Gene analysis for congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) revealed a new mutation in the DOK7 gene; the diagnosis of CMS was confirmed. Her symptoms worsened with ambenonium chloride but improved with 3,4-diaminopyridine. Our findings suggest that daily or weekly fluctuation and worsening with a menses in muscle weakness is an important diagnostic feature of CMS.

    DOI: 10.5692/clinicalneurol.54.561

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  30. Erratum: Position-dependent FUS-RNA interactions regulate alternative splicing events and transcriptions (Scientific Reports (2012) 2 (0529) DOI: 10.1038/srep00529)

    Ishigaki S., Masuda A., Fujioka Y., Iguchi Y., Katsuno M., Shibata A., Urano F., Sobue G., Ohno K.

    Scientific Reports   Vol. 3   2013.12

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    DOI: 10.1038/srep03301

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  31. A simple analytical method involving the use of a monolithic silica disk-packed spin column and HPLC-ECD for determination of l-DOPA in plasma of patients with Parkinson's disease

    Tsunoda M., Hirayama M., Ohno K., Tsuda T.

    Analytical Methods   Vol. 5 ( 19 ) page: 5161 - 5164   2013.10

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    l-DOPA (l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) is commonly used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Monitoring the concentration of l-DOPA in human plasma will enable dose optimization, but is rarely performed because current quantification methods are tedious and time-consuming. In this study, a simple method for the determination of l-DOPA in the plasma of patients with Parkinson's disease was developed. A monolithic silica disk-packed spin column with a phenylboronate moiety, which forms stable anionic complexes with the cis-hydroxyl groups of l-DOPA, was used to extract l-DOPA from plasma with extraction recoveries exceeding 90%. The extracted l-DOPA was then separated on a reversed-phase column and detected electrochemically with a boron-doped diamond electrode. The method, which has a limit of detection of 10 fmol, was then successfully applied for the determination of l-DOPA in the plasma of healthy volunteers and patients with Parkinson's disease. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

    DOI: 10.1039/c3ay40934a

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  32. Clinicopathologic analysis of IgG4-related skin disease

    Sato Y., Takeuchi M., Takata K., Ohno K., Iwaki N., Orita Y., Goto N., Hida A.I., Iwamoto T., Asano N., Ito T., Hanakawa H., Yanai H., Yoshino T.

    Modern Pathology   Vol. 26 ( 4 ) page: 523 - 532   2013.4

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    IgG4-related disease is a recently recognized systemic syndrome characterized by mass-forming lesions with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, increase in the number of IgG4 + cells in affected tissues and elevation of serum IgG4 levels. In 2009, we were the first to report skin lesions in patients with IgG4-related disease, but no large case series has been reported and clinicopathological findings remain unclear. To clarify these features, we herein report 10 patients (9 men and 1 woman; median age, 64 years; age range, 46-81 years) with IgG4-related skin disease. All patients had erythematous and itchy plaques or subcutaneous nodules on the skin of the head and neck, particularly in the periauricular, cheek, and mandible regions, except for one patient, whose forearm and waist skin were affected. In addition, eight patients had extracutaneous lesions: these were found on the lymph nodes in six patients, the lacrimal glands in three patients, the parotid glands in three patients, and the kidney in one patient. Histologically examined extracutaneous lesions were consistent with IgG4-related disease; five of six lymph node lesions showed progressively transformed germinal centers-type IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. Cases of IgG4-related skin disease were classified into two histological patterns: those exhibiting a nodular dermatitis pattern and those with a subcutaneous nodule pattern. The infiltrate was rich in plasma cells, small lymphocytes, and eosinophils; the majority of the plasma cells were IgG4 +. The IgG4 + cell count was 49-396 per high-power field (mean±s.d., 172±129), with an IgG4 +/IgG + cell ratio ranging from 62 to 92%. Serum IgG4 levels were elevated in all examined patients. In conclusion, patients with IgG4-related skin disease had uniform clinicopathology. Lesions were frequently present on the skin of the periauricular, cheek, and mandible regions, and were frequently accompanied by IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. © 2013 USCAP, Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1038/modpathol.2012.196

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  33. Reaction behavior during heating biomass materials and iron oxide composites

    Ueki Yasuaki, Yoshiie Ryo, Naruse Ichiro, Ohno Ko-ichiro, Maeda Takayuki, Nishioka Kold, Shimizu Masakata

    FUEL   Vol. 104   page: 58 - 61   2013.2

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    Effective utilization of biomass materials as a reducing agent in the ironmaking process is one of the key technologies for environmental protection. In this work, in order to study the possibility of effective use of woody biomass as a reducing agent in the carbon composite method, we carried out experiments of the thermal decomposition of woody powder and reduction of mixture of woody powder and iron oxide. Conversion ratio into H2 from woody powder was almost the same between thermal decomposition of woody powder and reduction of the mixture sample. Conversion ratio into CO by reduction was larger than that by thermal decomposition. The final reduction degrees of mixture samples at the temperature from 1273 to 1573 K were 100%. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2010.09.019

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  34. Availability of color calibration for consistent color display in medical images and optimization of reference brightness for clinical use

    Iwai Daiki, Suganami Haruka, Hosoba Minoru, Ohno Kazuko, Emoto Yutaka, Tabata Yoshito, Matsui Norihisa

    MEDICAL IMAGING 2013: IMAGE PERCEPTION, OBSERVER PERFORMANCE, AND TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT   Vol. 8673   2013

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering  

    Color image consistency has not been accomplished yet except the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) Supplement 100 for implementing a color reproduction pipeline and device independent color spaces. Thus, most healthcare enterprises could not check monitor degradation routinely. To ensure color consistency in medical color imaging, monitor color calibration should be introduced. Using simple color calibration device . chromaticity of colors including typical color (Red, Green, Blue, Green and White) are measured as device independent profile connection space value called u' v' before and after calibration. In addition, clinical color images are displayed and visual differences are observed. In color calibration, monitor brightness level has to be set to quite lower value 80 cd/m2according to sRGB standard. As Maximum brightness of most color monitors available currently for medical use have much higher brightness than 80 cd/m2, it is not seemed to be appropriate to use 80 cd/m2 level for calibration. Therefore, we propose that new brightness standard should be introduced while maintaining the color representation in clinical use. To evaluate effects of brightness to chromaticity experimentally, brightness level is changed in two monitors from 80 to 270cd/m2 and chromaticity value are compared with each brightness levels. As a result, there are no significant differences in chromaticity diagram when brightness levels are changed. In conclusion, chromaticity is close to theoretical value after color calibration. Moreover, chromaticity isn't moved when brightness is changed. The results indicate optimized reference brightness level for clinical use could be set at high brightness in current monitors. © 2013 SPIE.

    DOI: 10.1117/12.2007169

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  35. Effective estimation of distribution algorithm for stochastic job shop scheduling problem

    Hao X., Lin L., Gen M., Ohno K.

    Procedia Computer Science   Vol. 20   page: 102 - 107   2013

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    This paper propose an effective estimation of distribution algorithm (EDA), which solves the stochastic job-shop scheduling problem (S-JSP) with the uncertainty of processing time, to minimize the expected average makespan within a reasonable amount of calculation time. With the framework of proposed EDA, the probability model of operation sequence is estimated firstly. For sampling the processing time of each operation with the Monte Carlo methods, we use allocation method to decide the operation sequence then the expected makespan of each sampling is evaluated. Subsequently, updating mechanism of the probability models is proposed with the best solutions to obtain. Finally, for comparing with some existing algorithms by numerical experiments on the benchmark problems, we demonstrate the proposed effective estimation of distribution algorithm can obtain acceptable solution in the aspects of schedule quality and computational efficiency. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.procs.2013.09.246

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  36. A proposal for standardized analysis of the results of microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm

    Kondo A., Date I., Endo S., Fujii K., Fujii Y., Fujimaki T., Hasegawa M., Hatayama T., Hongo K., Inoue T., Ishikawa M., Ito M., Kayama T., Kohmura E., Matsushima T., Munemoto S., Nagahiro S., Ohno K., Okamura T., Ryu H., Shigeno T., Shirane R., Tagusagawa Y., Tanabe H., Yamada K., Yamakami I.

    Acta Neurochirurgica   Vol. 154 ( 5 ) page: 773 - 778   2012.5

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    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate and analyze overall postoperative results from microvascular decompression (MVD) by combining the cure rate of symptoms with the complication rate. A new scoring system for obtaining objective surgical results from MVD for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and hemifacial spasm (HFS) is proposed to document treatment results using consistent criteria in a standardized manner. Method Surgical results combining complications , if any, were obtained from a questionnaire sent to patients who had under- gone surgery for TN or HFS in recent years and had been followed-up for more than 1 year after surgery (TN patients, n054; HFS patients, n081)When surgical outcome is complete resolution of symptoms, the efficacy of surgery (E) is designated E-0, but when moderate symptoms are still persist postoperatively, the score is designated E-2. When no complications are seen after surgery, the complication score (C) is C-0, while the score is C-2 if troublesome complications remain. In addition, total evaluation of the results (T) is judged by combining the E and C scores. For example, when E is 0, and C is C-2, the total evaluation is scored as T- 2, which is diagnosed as fair. Findings The response rate of the questionnaire was 80.7% (109/135). Overall surgical data were evaluated and analyzed using our new scoring system. Analysis of the collected data revealed an outcome of T-0 was 70% (35/50 patients) and T-1 was 24% (12/50) and T-2 was 6% (3/50) in TN, whereas in HFS, T-0 was 61% (36/59) and T-1 was 27.1% (16/59) and T- 2 was 6.8% (4/59) and T-3 was 5.1% (3/59). Conclusion The total results of MVD should be evaluated and analyzed by combining the cure rate of symptoms together with the complication rate. This new scoring system could allow much more objective analysis of the results of following MVD. Adopting this scoring system to objectively judge treatment results for TN and HFS, individual surgeons can compare their own overall surgical results with those of other institutes. Comparative results of MVD can also be provided to patients considering therapy to allow informed decision-making on the basis of good quality evidence. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

    DOI: 10.1007/s00701-012-1277-5

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  37. Distinction between the literal and intended meanings of sentences: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of metaphor and sarcasm

    Uchiyama H.T., Saito D.N., Tanabe H.C., Harada T., Seki A., Ohno K., Koeda T., Sadato N.

    Cortex   Vol. 48 ( 5 ) page: 563 - 583   2012.5

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    To comprehend figurative utterances such as metaphor or sarcasm, a listener must both judge the literal meaning of the statement and infer the speaker's intended meaning (mentalizing; Amodio and Frith, 2006). To delineate the neural substrates of pragmatic comprehension, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 20 normal adult volunteers. Participants read short stories followed by a target sentence. Depending on the context provided by the preceding stories, the target sentences were classified as follows: (1) metaphor versus literally coherent; (2) metaphor versus literally incoherent; (3) sarcasm versus literally coherent; and (4) sarcasm versus literally incoherent. For each task pair, we directly compared the activations evoked by the same target sentences in the different contexts. The contrast images were incorporated into a 2 (metaphor and sarcasm) × 2 (literal coherency and incoherency) design. Metaphor-specific activation was found in the head of the caudate, which might be involved in associating statements with potential meanings, and restricting sentence meanings within a set of possible candidates for what the speaker intended. Sarcasm-specific activation was found in the left amygdala, which is an important component of the neural substrates of social behavior. Conjunction analysis revealed that both metaphor and sarcasm activated the anterior rostral medial frontal cortex (arMFC), which is a key node of mentalizing. A distinct literal coherency effect was found in the orbital MFC, which is thought to be involved in monitoring. These mesial frontal areas are jointly involved in monitoring literal coherency and mentalizing within social contexts in order to comprehend the pragmatic meanings of utterances. © 2011 Elsevier Srl.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.cortex.2011.01.004

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  38. Optimal production sequencing problem to minimise line stoppage time in a mixed-model assembly line

    Tamura T., Okumura T., Singh Dhakar T., Ohno K.

    International Journal of Production Research   Vol. 49 ( 14 ) page: 4299 - 4315   2011.7

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:International Journal of Production Research  

    Mixed-model assembly line is utilised to assemble many product variants on a single line in automobile and other industries. In just-in-time production system, the automation (Jidoka) allows workers to stop a conveyor line whenever they fail to complete their assembly operations within predetermined process times. Given this situation, it becomes important to determine the production sequence to minimise the total conveyor stoppage time in the mixed-model assembly line. In this article, we propose an explicit and complete formulation of the production sequencing problem for the mixed-model line, in which the objective function is to minimise the total line stoppage time. Some important properties are derived and by relaxing the integer constraints in the formulation, a branch and bound algorithm is developed. The performance of a commercial mathematical programming package is discussed by solving several numerical examples using the formulation. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

    DOI: 10.1080/00207543.2010.528061

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  39. Genetic defects and disorders at the neuromuscular junction

    Kinji Ohno

    Brain and Nerve   Vol. 63 ( 7 ) page: 669 - 78   2011.7

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    Genetic defects in molecules expressed at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) cause congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs), which are characterized by muscle weakness, abnormal fatigability, amyotrophy, and minor facial anomalies. Muscle weakness mostly develops under 2 years but is also sometimes seen in adults. Mutations identified to date include (i) muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunits, (ii) rapsyn that anchors and clusters AChRs at the neuromuscular junction, (iii) agrin that is released from the nerve terminal and induces AChR clustering by stimulating the downstream LRP4/MuSK/Dok-7/ rapsyn/AChR pathway, (iv) muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) that transmits the AChR-clustering signal from agrin/LRP4 to rapsyn/AChR, (v) Dok-7 that transmits the AChR-clustering signal from agrin/LRP4/MuSK to rapsyn/AChR, (vi) skeletal muscle sodium channel type 1.4 (Nav1.4) that spreads the depolarization potential from the endplate throughout muscle fibers, (vii) collagen Q that anchors acetylcholinesterase to the synaptic basal lamina, and (viii) choline acetyltransferase that resynthesizes acetylcholine from recycled choline at the nerve terminal. In addition, mutations in the heparin sulfate proteoglycan perlecan, which binds to many molecules including collagen Q and dystroglycan, causes Schwartz-Jampel syndrome. Interestingly, mutations in LRP4 cause Cenani-Lenz syndactyly syndrome but not CMS. AChR, MuSK, and LRP4 are also targets of auto-antibodies in myasthenia gravis. In addition, molecules at the NMJ are targets of many other disease states AChRs are blocked by the snake toxin alpha-bungarotoxin and the plant poison curare. The presynaptic SNARE complex is attacked by botulinum toxin. Acetylcholinesterase is inhibited by the nerve gas sarin and by organophosphate pesticides. This review focuses on the molecular bases underlying defects of AChR, rapsyn, Nav1.4, collagen Q, and choline acetyltransferase.

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  40. Effect of Iron ore and coal properties on reduction and gasification behavior of carbon composite iron ore briquette

    Nishioka K., Osuga K., Ueki Y., Ohno K.I., Maeda T., Shimizu M.

    5th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Ironmaking, ICSTI 2009     page: 1326 - 1330   2009.12

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    Language:Japanese   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:5th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Ironmaking, ICSTI 2009  

    The effects of coal and iron oxide properties on the reaction behavior of carbon composite iron ore briquettes were investigated at the temperatures of 1273-1473K in N2 atmosphere. Four kinds of carbon composite iron briquettes were prepared in combination with two iron ores (hematite ore, magnetite ore) and two coals (high fluidity coal, low fluidity coal). The gasification rates and reduction rates of the samples contain high fluidity coal were faster than those of the samples contain low fluidity coal because of the better adhesiveness between iron ore and coal. The reduction rates of the samples contain hematite ore were faster than those of the samples contain magnetite ore because the reduction rate of hematite is faster than that of magnetite. The reaction rate of the sample consists of hematite ore and high fluidity coal was the fastest in the samples.

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  41. Molecular bases and therapeutic strategies of defective neuromuscular transmissions: Lessons learned from a prototypical synapse

    Kinji Ohno, Mikako Ito, Akio Masuda

    Japanese Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology   Vol. 29 ( 4 ) page: 145 - 51   2009.8

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    Neuromuscular junction is a prototypical synapse, and most synaptic molecules expressed in the central nervous system have been first identified at the neuromuscular junction. Congenital myasthenic syndromes are caused by genetic defects of molecules expressed at the neuromuscular junction. We have identified and characterized five defective molecules. (1) Defects in choline acetyltransferase reduce acetylcholine contents at the nerve terminal. (2) Collagen Q (ColQ) anchors acetylcholinesterase at the synaptic basal lamina, and its defects cause endplate acetylcholinesterase deficiency. ColQ has an anchoring signal to the synaptic basal lamina. ColQ expressed in a limited number of muscle cells efficiently ameliorates myasthenic symptoms in mice. (3) Loss-of-function mutations of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) cause either endplate AChR deficiency or fast channel syndrome. Gain-of-function mutations cause slow channel syndrome, in which calcium overloading provokes endplate myopathy. (4) Rapsyn clusters AChR at the endplate, and its defects cause endplate AChR deficiency. (5) Loss-of-function mutations of skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel cause myasthenia by abrogating the propagation of muscle action potentials. We need to further pursue the molecular bases and the therapeutic strategies of defective neuromuscular transmissions, and hopefully expand our analysis to defective synapse transmissions in the central nervous system.

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  42. A relaxin-like peptide purified from radial nerves induces oocyte maturation and ovulation in the starfish, Asterina pectinifera

    Mita M., Yoshikuni M., Ohno K., Shibata Y., Paul-Prasanth B., Pitchayawasin S., Isobe M., Nagaham Y.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America   Vol. 106 ( 23 ) page: 9507 - 9512   2009.6

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    Gonad-stimulating substance (GSS) of starfish is the only known invertebrate peptide hormone responsible for final gamete maturation, rendering it functionally analogous to the vertebrate luteinizing hormone (LH). Here, we purified GSS of starfish, Asterina pectinifera, from radial nerves and determined its amino acid sequence. The purified GSS was a heterodimer composed of 2 different peptides, A and B chains, with disulfide cross-linkages. Based on its cysteine motif, starfish GSS was classified as a member of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/relaxin superfamily. The cDNA of GSS encodes a preprohormone sequence with a C peptide between the A and B chains. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that starfish GSS was a relaxin-like peptide. Chemically synthesized GSS induced not only oocyte maturation and ovulation in isolated ovarian fragments, but also unique spawning behavior, followed by release of gametes shortly after the injection. Importantly, the action of the synthetic GSS on oocyte maturation and ovulation was mediated through the production of cAMP by isolated ovarian follicle cells, thereby producing the maturation-inducing hormone of this species, 1-methyladenine. In situ hybridization showed the transcription of GSS to occur in the periphery of radial nerves at the side of tube feet. Together, the structure, sequence, and mode of signal transduction strongly suggest that GSS is closely related to the vertebrate relaxin.

    DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0900243106

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  43. Bilateral middle cerebral artery infarctions following mild varicella infection: A case report

    Okanishi T., Kondo A., Inoue T., Maegaki Y., Ohno K., Togari H.

    Brain and Development   Vol. 31 ( 1 ) page: 86 - 89   2009.1

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    We report a two-year and one-month-old immunocompetent boy who developed aphasia and right hemiparesis eight months after mild varicella with only a few vesicles. Magnetic resonance images and angiography demonstrated mixed acute and old infarctions of the bilateral middle cerebral arteries. VZV-DNA was detected on polymerase chain reaction analysis of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). He was treated with intravenous acyclovir and edaravone, and his speech and motor functions had almost recovered after two months. Cerebral lesions of the bilateral middle cerebral artery territories and virus DNA detection from CSF are rare in VZV-related vasculopathy and suggest incomplete immunoresponse to varicella in this patient. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.braindev.2008.08.004

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  44. Formulation of an optimal production sequencing problem in a complex free flow assembly line

    Tamura T., Yamazaki M., Dhakar T., Ohno K.

    Journal of Japan Industrial Management Association   Vol. 59 ( 3 ) page: 205 - 213   2008.12

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    Instead of conventional constant speed assembly lines, complex free flow assembly lines are sometimes utilized to assemble many product variants in automobile and other industries. In such assembly lines, a job is transferred to the next stage when the transfer is permissible and the next stage is vacant. Two types of buffers, series and parallel, are used along the line. A series buffer can be considered as a stage with a zero processing time. With a parallel buffer, some work can be postponed, i.e., the production sequence can be changed after the parallel buffer. In this paper, we will formulate a production sequencing problem explicitly for a complex free flow assembly line with bypass stages as well as parallel buffers. We validate the formulation by solving some examples using mathematical software. This formulation will be useful to evaluate the objective function value more efficiently than executing a simulation in meta-heuristic algorithms, although the way how to evaluate the objective value using the formulation is not discussed in the paper.

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  45. Underlying neurologic disorders and recurrence rates of status epilepticus in childhood

    Okanishi T., Maegaki Y., Ohno K., Togari H.

    Brain and Development   Vol. 30 ( 10 ) page: 624 - 628   2008.11

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    Background: The underlying neurologic disorders of status epilepticus (SE) in childhood remain poorly characterized. Methods: We reviewed 249 consecutive patients with SE, aged 1 month to 18 years, who were referred to Tottori University Hospital from 1984 to 2002. After exclusion of SE patients with acute symptomatic etiology and progressive encephalopathy, such as acute encephalitis/encephalopathy, meningitis, head trauma, or metabolic disorders, we analyzed 112 patients, aged 3 months to 14 years, and focused on the epilepsy classification and perinatal brain damage in these patients. Results: Major underlying neurologic disorders were non-symptomatic epilepsy (41 patients, 36.6%), perinatal brain damage (15 patients, 13.4%), non-syndromic mental retardation (17 patients, 15.2%), and congenital disorders including chromosomal abnormalities (13 patients, 11.6%). In non-symptomatic epilepsy, childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms (Panayiotopoulos syndrome, 11 patients) and severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (SMEI, 6 patients) were common and had high recurrence rates (81.8% and 66.7%, respectively). In patients with a history of perinatal brain damage, preterm birth, neonatal seizure, asphyxia, and neonatal hypoglycemia were frequent. Neonatal hypoglycemia and neonatal seizure were related to the recurrence of SE (100% and 87.5%, respectively). They were mostly diagnosed as symptomatic occipital lobe epilepsy. Parieto-occipital paroxysms were associated with a high recurrence rate of SE (80.6%). Conclusions: Although the underlying neurologic disorders of SE are heterogeneous, three specific epileptic syndromes (Panayiotopoulos syndrome, SMEI, and symptomatic occipital lobe epilepsy secondary to neonatal hypoglycemia and neonatal seizure) were the most common causes of SE and were associated with higher recurrence rates. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.braindev.2008.02.003

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  46. Long-Term Weekly ACTH Therapy for Relapsed West Syndrome

    Okanishi T., Sugiura C., Saito Y., Maegaki Y., Ohno K., Togari H.

    Pediatric Neurology   Vol. 38 ( 6 ) page: 445 - 449   2008.6

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    Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) therapy is an established treatment for West syndrome. However, some patients may relapse after this therapy, for whom there is no established treatment. We describe 3 patients with symptomatic West syndrome and multiple, poor prognostic factors who relapsed after initial ACTH therapy. They were treated with a second round of ACTH therapy, i.e., daily intramuscular injection for 2-3 weeks and subsequent withdrawal, alternative days for 1 or 2 weeks, every 3 days for 1 or 2 weeks, followed by weekly or biweekly for ≥1 year. Clinical seizures and hypsarrhythmia resolved in all 3 patients within 4 weeks, and these clinical improvements continued through a second round of ACTH therapy. Two patients developed other types of seizures and aggravation of paroxysms on electroencephalography, but no hypsarrhythmia, soon after termination of ACTH therapy. In the other patient, although electroencephalographic findings remained normal during weekly ACTH therapy, focal sharp waves with irregular slow waves appeared after the injection interval became biweekly. After a second round of ACTH therapy, all patients exhibited developmental progress, particularly in gross motor development and visual functions. No serious adverse events occurred during treatment. Long-term weekly ACTH therapy is a potentially effective treatment option for relapsed West syndrome. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2008.02.009

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  47. Growth behavior of TiO<inf>2</inf> particles via the liquid phase deposition process

    Katagiri K., Ohno K., Masuda Y., Koumoto K.

    Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan   Vol. 115 ( 1348 ) page: 831 - 834   2007.12

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    TiO2 particles were obtained from aqueous solutions by the liquid phase deposition (LPD) method. The crystalline anatase TiO2 particles could be prepared below 100°C directly from aqueous solutions. The growth behavior of TiO2 particles via the LPD process was investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurement and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From DLS measurement, the particle growth process shows a sigmoidal curve and can be divided into three stages, i.e., the initial stage, the acceleration stage, and the completion stage. TEM measurements revealed that the primary particles with a diameter of ca. 50 nm were deposited at the initial stage. At the acceleration stage, these primary particles were assembled to form raspberry-like particles with a diameter of ca. 300 nm. Finally, the particles were precipitated by further aggregation with the micrometer size at the completion stage.

    DOI: 10.2109/jcersj2.115.831

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  48. RNA pathologies in neurological disorders

    Ohno K.

    Clinical Neurology   Vol. 47 ( 11 ) page: 801 - 804   2007.11

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    RNA is not a simple intermediate between DNA and proteins. RNA is widely transcribed from a variety of genomic regions, and researchers are extensively exploring the functional roles and the regulations of non-coding RNAs and small RNAs including siRNAs and mRNAs. In addition, the human genome project disclosed that we humans carry as few as -22,000 genes. Humans employ tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific alternative splicing to generate a large variety of proteins in a specific cell at a specific developmental stage. Neurological disorders are not the exceptions that can escape from aberrations of the splicing machinery. A large variety of neurological disorders is causally associated with RNA pathologies, but this lecture was mostly focused on aberrant splicings due to pathological alterations of splicing cis- and trans-elements. The neurological diseases covered include congenital myasthenic syndromes, genetic forms of Parkinson's disease, spastic paraplegia, myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2, sporadic Alzheimer's disease, facioscapulohumeral dystrophy, fragile X-associated tremor/ ataxia syndrome, Rett syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, spinocerebellar atrophy type 8, and Waardenburg-Shah syndrome. Potential therapeutic modalities targeting RNA are addressed on congenital myasthenic syndromes, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, and familial dysautonomia.

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  49. Effects of preceding sialadenitis on the development of autoimmunity against salivary gland

    Ohno K., Hattori T., Kagami H., Ueda M.

    ORAL DISEASES   Vol. 13 ( 2 ) page: 158 - 162   2007.3

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    Objective: The mechanism underlying the onset and development of autoimmune diseases such as Sjogren's syndrome is not well understood. Here, we examined the effects of preceding inflammation of the salivary gland at the onset of autoimmunity against the salivary gland. Materials and methods: One side of the submandibular gland duct was ligated in mice and the effect on the contralateral gland was investigated. After histological evaluation with hematoxylin and eosin staining, the presence of autoantibodies and immune compounds was examined. Results: In all five strains of mice that were used, the salivary gland of the ligated side showed severe inflammation and atrophic change. In two mouse strains (SJL/J and PL/J), mild sialadenitis was observed on the non-ligated side 8 weeks after ligation. Autoantibodies reacting to the salivary gland were detected in three mouse strains (C3H/He, SJL/J, and PL/J). Immune complex was also detected in the duct basement membrane. Conclusion: The results indicate that the autoimmune mechanism is activated by the transient inflammation in the salivary gland under a specific genetic background. © 2007 Blackwell Munksgaard.

    DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2005.01219.x

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  50. Angiographic guidewire with measuring markers: Design and clinical experience

    Kamei Seiji, Ishiguchi Tsuneo, Murata Katsuhito, Matsuda Joe, Ohno Ryota, Kimura Junko, Nakamura Atsushi, Ohno Kazuko, Kawamura Toshiki, Ikeda Mitsuru

    CARDIOVASCULAR AND INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY   Vol. 29 ( 6 ) page: 981 - 985   2006.12

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    Purpose: We have developed an angiographic guidewire with measuring markers to determine accurately how far a guidewire is inserted within a catheter. We investigated whether use of this guidewire reduces the risk of vascular injury and the fluoroscopic time during guidewire manipulations. Methods: Four markers were put on the surface of the guidewire at 80, 100, 110, and 120 cm from the tip. The actual lengths of 54 catheters from seven manufacturers were measured and compared with the nominal lengths. Sixty consecutive patients who underwent angiography were randomized into two groups: in one group guidewires with surface markers were used (marker group) and in the other group, conventional guidewires (control group). For each guidewire insertion, the fluoroscopic time before the guidewire was pushed forward into the vessel lumen was recorded. The number of occasions on which unintentionally the guidewire had already been pushed out of the catheter at the start of fluoroscopy was also evaluated. Results: The actual lengths of all catheters were greater than the nominal lengths by 1.0-11.0 cm. Mean fluoroscopic time for each guidewire insertion was 3.3 sec in the marker group and 5.7 sec in the control group (p < 0.05). Guidewires were unintentionally pushed out of the catheters without fluoroscopy three times (3.6%), in each case in the control group. Conclusion: The guidewire with measuring markers is effective for enhancing safety and in reducing fluoroscopic radiation during angiographic procedures. It is recommended that operators be aware that actual lengths of catheters may vary significantly from the nominal lengths listed; they should be aware of this with any guidewire, but particularly with the angiographic measuring guidewire. © 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

    DOI: 10.1007/s00270-005-0294-7

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  51. Raman spectra and conformational analyses for a series of diethyl ether and its organosilicon derivatives, CH<inf>3</inf>MH<inf>2</inf>OM′H<inf>2</inf>CH<inf>3</inf> (M, M′=C and Si), by density functional theory

    Taga K., Kawasaki K., Yamamoto Y., Yoshida T., Ohno K., Matsuura H.

    Journal of Molecular Structure   Vol. 788 ( 1-3 ) page: 159 - 175   2006.5

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    The molecular structures of a series of diethyl ether and its organosilicon derivatives of CH3MH2OM′H2CH3 (M, M′=C and Si) have been studied by Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP/6-31G* and 6-311+G** methods. Raman spectra for these molecules were measured in the liquid and solid states. Normal vibrations and calculated Raman spectra were also obtained by using the Raman activities and the scaled wavenumbers from the B3LYP/6-311+G** method. For diethyl ether, CH3CH2OCH2CH3, the trans-trans (TT) and trans-gauche (TG) forms were the stable conformers in the liquid state, while only the TT form existed in the solid state. Additionally, two solid states were obtained and the conformer in both the stable and metastable solids was the TT. For bis(methylsilyl) ether, CH3SiH2OSiH2CH3, geometry optimization and the DFT calculation showed that only the TT and skew-skew (SS) forms existed in the liquid state and the SS form existed in the solid state. While, for ethyl methylsilyl ether, CH3CH2OSiH2CH3, the TT, TG and GT forms coexisted in the liquid state and only the TT form existed in the solid state. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.molstruc.2005.10.049

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  52. Congenital myasthenic syndromes

    Ohno K., Engel A.G.

    Neuro-Ophthalmology Japan   Vol. 22 ( 3 ) page: 326 - 335   2005.11

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    Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are caused by genetic defects of molecules expressed at the neuromuscular junction. Mutations identified to date include (1) MuSK, a receptor for neural agrin that plays a pivotal role in formation of the neuromuscular junction, (2) choline acetyltransferase that resynthesizes acetylcholine at the nerve terminal, (3) collagen Q that anchors acetylcholinesterase at the synaptic basal lamina, (4) rapsyn that clusters acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the endplate, (5) AChR subunits, and (6) skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel (Na v1.4). Mutations in the AChR subunit genes cause slow-channel syndrome in which channel opening events are prolonged, fast-channel syndrome that is characterized by short channel opening events, and/or endplate AChR deficiency. Slow channel syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder, whereas the others are all caused by autosomal recessive mutations. Adult-onset cases of CMS are most commonly observed in slow channel syndrome, but are also observed in other types of CMS. CMS are frequently associated with muscle atrophy, and/or mild orofacial anomalies. CMS should be considered in diagnosing not only myasthenia gravis but also other types of myopathies. Low- and high-frequency repetitive nerve stimulations to any patient that exhibits muscle weakness are highly recommended for diagnosing CMS.

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  53. Splicing abnormalities in congenital myasthenic syndromes

    Kinji Ohno, Andrew G. Engel

    Acta Myologica   Vol. 24 ( 2 ) page: 50 - 4   2005.10

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    A total of 173 mutations has been reported to date in eight genes in congenital myasthenic syndromes. Sixteen intronic and five exonic mutations in three genes affect pre-mRNA splicing. Eight of these are of particular interest, and are reviewed in this article. An A-to-G mutation at intron position +3 results in exon skipping only when there are mismatched nucleotides to U1 snRNA at positions +4 to +6. Similarly, a mutation at the last nucleotide of an exon causes exon skipping when a nucleotide at position +6 is not complementary to U1 snRNA. We observe the similar compensation mechanisms for mismatches to U1 snRNA at 179,917 native human splice donor sites. A 7-bp deletion in CHRNE exon 7 causes skipping of the preceding 101-bp exon 6. We found in general that the nonsense-mediated altered splicing of a remote exon (NASRE) is mediated by inherent weak splicing signals flanking the skipped exon and degradation of a normally spliced transcript by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). A 16-bp duplication spanning the CHRNE intron 10/exon 11 boundary generates two copies of 3′ splice sites, and the downstream copy is exclusively silenced. Analysis of a series of artificial mutants conforms to the scanning model of recognition of the 3′ splice site that predicts that the first 'ag' more than 13 nucleotides downstream of the branch point is selected for splicing. Splicing mutations may be more frequent than suspected, and one must always be aware of possible splicing abnormalities when analyzing human mutations.

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  54. Congenital myasthenic syndromes:gene mutations.

    Ohno K, Engel AG

    Neuromuscular disorders : NMD   Vol. 13 ( 10 ) page: 854 - 7   2003.12

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    DOI: 10.1016/s0960-8966(03)00210-4

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  55. Congenital myasthenic syndromes.

    Ohno K, Engel AG

    European journal of paediatric neurology : EJPN : official journal of the European Paediatric Neurology Society   Vol. 7 ( 5 ) page: 227 - 8   2003

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    DOI: 10.1016/s1090-3798(03)00078-3

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  56. [Electron transfer flavoprotein in mitochondria].

    Ohno K, Tanaka M, Sahashi K

    Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine   Vol. 60 Suppl 4 ( - ) page: 113 - 7   2002.4

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  57. Congenital myasthenic syndromes: genetic defects of the neuromuscular junction.

    Ohno K, Engel AG

    Current neurology and neuroscience reports   Vol. 2 ( 1 ) page: 78 - 88   2002.1

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    DOI: 10.1007/s11910-002-0057-7

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  58. [Respiratory arrests caused by congenital myasthenia gravis syndrome].

    Byring RF, Ohno K, Pihko H, Gustafsson B, Hackman P, Engel A, Udd B

    Duodecim; laaketieteellinen aikakauskirja   Vol. 118 ( 22 ) page: 2323 - 6   2002

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  59. Congenital myasthenic syndromes.

    Engel AG, Ohno K

    Advances in neurology   Vol. 88 ( - ) page: 203 - 15   2002

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  60. Zonisamide upregulates neuregulin-1 expression and enhances acetylcholine receptor clustering at the in vitro neuromuscular junction. International journal

    Taro Inoue, Bisei Ohkawara, Samira Bushra, Shunsuke Kanbara, Hiroaki Nakashima, Hiroyuki Koshimizu, Hiroyuki Tomita, Mikako Ito, Akio Masuda, Naoki Ishiguro, Shiro Imagama, Kinji Ohno

    Neuropharmacology   Vol. 195   page: 108637 - 108637   2021.9

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    Decreased acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering compromises signal transmission at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in myasthenia gravis, congenital myasthenic syndromes, and motor neuron diseases. Although the enhancement of AChR clustering at the NMJ is a promising therapeutic strategy for these maladies, no drug is currently available for this enhancement. We previously reported that zonisamide (ZNS), an anti-epileptic and anti-Parkinson's disease drug, enhances neurite elongation of the primary spinal motor neurons (SMNs). As nerve sprouting occurs to compensate for the loss of AChR clusters in human diseases, we examined the effects of ZNS on AChR clustering at the NMJ. To this end, we established a simple and quick co-culture system to reproducibly make in vitro NMJs using C2C12 myotubes and NSC34 motor neurons. ZNS at 1-20 μM enhanced the formation of AChR clusters dose-dependently in co-cultured C2C12 myotubes but not in agrin-treated single cultured C2C12 myotubes. We observed that molecules that conferred responsiveness to ZNS were not secreted into the co-culture medium. We found that 10 μM ZNS upregulated the expression of neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) in co-cultured cells but not in single cultured C2C12 myotubes or single cultured NSC34 motor neurons. In accordance with this observation, inhibition of the Nrg1/ErbB signaling pathways nullified the effect of 10 μM ZNS on the enhancement of AChR clustering in in vitro NMJs. Although agrin was not induced by 10 μM ZNS in co-cultured cells, anti-agrin antibody attenuated ZNS-mediated enhancement of AChR clustering. We conclude that ZNS enhances agrin-dependent AChR-clustering by upregulating the Nrg1/ErbB signaling pathways in the presence of NMJs.

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  61. Desloratadine inhibits heterotopic ossification by suppression of BMP2-Smad1/5/8 signaling. International journal

    Taiki Kusano, Masashi Nakatani, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno, Naoki Yamamoto, Mitsuhiro Morita, Harumoto Yamada, Akiyoshi Uezumi, Kunihiro Tsuchida

    Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society   Vol. 39 ( 6 ) page: 1297 - 1304   2021.6

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    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a pathological condition in which ectopic bone forms within soft tissues such as skeletal muscle. Human platelet-derived growth factor receptor α positive (PDGFRα+) cells, which were proved to be the original cells of HO were incubated in osteogenic differentiation medium with Food and Drug Administration-approved compounds. Alkaline phosphatase activity was measured as a screening to inhibit osteogenic differentiation. For the compounds which inhibited osteogenic differentiation of PDGFRα+ cells, we examined dose dependency of its effect using alizarin red S staining and its cell toxicity using WST-8. In addition, regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)-Smad signaling which is the major signal of osteogenic differentiation was investigated by Western blotting to elucidate the mechanism of osteogenesis inhibitory effect by the compound. In vivo experiment, complete transverse incision of Achilles tendons in mice was made and mice were fed the compound by mixing with drinking water after operation. Ten weeks after operation, we assessed and quantified HO by micro-computed tomography scan. Intriguingly, we discovered desloratadine inhibited osteogenic differentiation of PDGFRα+ cells using the drug repositioning method. Desloratadine inhibited osteogenic differentiation of the cells dose dependently without cell toxicity. Desloratadine suppressed phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 induced by BMP2 in PDGFRα+ cells. In Achilles tenotomy mice model, desloratadine treatment significantly inhibited ectopic bone formation compared with control. In conclusion, we discovered desloratadine inhibited osteogenic differentiation using human PDGFRα+ cells and proved its efficacy using Achilles tenotomy ectopic bone formation model in vivo. Our study paved the way to inhibit HO in early clinical use because of its guaranteed safety.

    DOI: 10.1002/jor.24625

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  62. Rapidly Growing Protein-Centric Technologies to Extensively Identify Protein-RNA Interactions: Application to the Analysis of Co-Transcriptional RNA Processing. International journal

    Akio Masuda, Toshihiko Kawachi, Kinji Ohno

    International journal of molecular sciences   Vol. 22 ( 10 )   2021.5

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    During mRNA transcription, diverse RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are recruited to RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) transcription machinery. These RBPs bind to distinct sites of nascent RNA to co-transcriptionally operate mRNA processing. Recent studies have revealed a close relationship between transcription and co-transcriptional RNA processing, where one affects the other's activity, indicating an essential role of protein-RNA interactions for the fine-tuning of mRNA production. Owing to their limited amount in cells, the detection of protein-RNA interactions specifically assembled on the transcribing RNAP II machinery still remains challenging. Currently, cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) has become a standard method to detect in vivo protein-RNA interactions, although it requires a large amount of input materials. Several improved methods, such as infrared-CLIP (irCLIP), enhanced CLIP (eCLIP), and target RNA immunoprecipitation (tRIP), have shown remarkable enhancements in the detection efficiency. Furthermore, the utilization of an RNA editing mechanism or proximity labeling strategy has achieved the detection of faint protein-RNA interactions in cells without depending on crosslinking. This review aims to explore various methods being developed to detect endogenous protein-RNA interaction sites and discusses how they may be applied to the analysis of co-transcriptional RNA processing.

    DOI: 10.3390/ijms22105312

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  63. Efficacy of salbutamol monotherapy in slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome caused by a novel mutation in CHRND. International journal

    Nozomu Tawara, Satoshi Yamashita, Koutaro Takamatsu, Yoshimune Yamasaki, Akihiro Mukaino, Shunya Nakane, Paniz Farshadyeganeh, Kinji Ohno, Yukio Ando

    Muscle & nerve   Vol. 63 ( 4 ) page: E30 - E32   2021.4

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    DOI: 10.1002/mus.27166

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  64. Secreted Signaling Molecules at the Neuromuscular Junction in Physiology and Pathology. International journal

    Bisei Ohkawara, Mikako Ito, Kinji Ohno

    International journal of molecular sciences   Vol. 22 ( 5 ) page: 1 - 16   2021.2

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    : Signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is affected in many human diseases, including congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS), myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, Isaacs' syndrome, Schwartz-Jampel syndrome, Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and sarcopenia. The NMJ is a prototypic cholinergic synapse between the motor neuron and the skeletal muscle. Synaptogenesis of the NMJ has been extensively studied, which has also been extrapolated to further understand synapse formation in the central nervous system. Studies of genetically engineered mice have disclosed crucial roles of secreted molecules in the development and maintenance of the NMJ. In this review, we focus on the secreted signaling molecules which regulate the clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at the NMJ. We first discuss the signaling pathway comprised of neural agrin and its receptors, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (Lrp4) and muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK). This pathway drives the clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) to ensure efficient signal transduction at the NMJ. We also discuss three secreted molecules (Rspo2, Fgf18, and connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf)) that we recently identified in the Wnt/β-catenin and fibroblast growth factors (FGF) signaling pathways. The three secreted molecules facilitate the clustering of AChRs by enhancing the agrin-Lrp4-MuSK signaling pathway.

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  65. Hierarchical non-negative matrix factorization using clinical information for microbial communities. International journal

    Ko Abe, Masaaki Hirayama, Kinji Ohno, Teppei Shimamura

    BMC genomics   Vol. 22 ( 1 ) page: 104 - 104   2021.2

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    BACKGROUND: The human microbiome forms very complex communities that consist of hundreds to thousands of different microorganisms that not only affect the host, but also participate in disease processes. Several state-of-the-art methods have been proposed for learning the structure of microbial communities and to investigate the relationship between microorganisms and host environmental factors. However, these methods were mainly designed to model and analyze single microbial communities that do not interact with or depend on other communities. Such methods therefore cannot comprehend the properties between interdependent systems in communities that affect host behavior and disease processes. RESULTS: We introduce a novel hierarchical Bayesian framework, called BALSAMICO (BAyesian Latent Semantic Analysis of MIcrobial COmmunities), which uses microbial metagenome data to discover the underlying microbial community structures and the associations between microbiota and their environmental factors. BALSAMICO models mixtures of communities in the framework of nonnegative matrix factorization, taking into account environmental factors. We proposes an efficient procedure for estimating parameters. A simulation then evaluates the accuracy of the estimated parameters. Finally, the method is used to analyze clinical data. In this analysis, we successfully detected bacteria related to colorectal cancer. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that the method not only accurately estimates the parameters needed to analyze the connections between communities of microbiota and their environments, but also allows for the effective detection of these communities in real-world circumstances.

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  66. Zonisamide ameliorates neuropathic pain partly by suppressing microglial activation in the spinal cord in a mouse model. International journal

    Hiroyuki Koshimizu, Bisei Ohkawara, Hiroaki Nakashima, Kyotaro Ota, Shunsuke Kanbara, Taro Inoue, Hiroyuki Tomita, Akira Sayo, Sumiko Kiryu-Seo, Hiroyuki Konishi, Mikako Ito, Akio Masuda, Naoki Ishiguro, Shiro Imagama, Hiroshi Kiyama, Kinji Ohno

    Life sciences   Vol. 263   page: 118577 - 118577   2020.12

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    Neuropathic pain is caused by a lesion or a functional impairment of the sensory nervous system and allodynia is one of the frequently observed symptoms in neuropathic pain. Allodynia represents abnormal pain due to a non-noxious stimulus that does not normally provoke pain. Cellular mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain remain mostly elusive, and partial pain relief can be achieved in a limited number of patients by antidepressants, anticonvulsants topical anesthetics, and others. Zonisamide (ZNS) is widely used as an anti-epileptic and anti-Parkinson's disease drug. A recent report shows that ZNS suppresses neuropathic pain associated with diabetes mellitus in a mouse model. We made a mouse model of neuropathic pain in the hindlimb by cutting the nerve at the intervertebral canal at lumbar level 4 (L4). At 28 days after nerve injury, ZNS ameliorated allodynic pain, and reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines and the nerve injury-induced increase of Iba1-positive microglia in the spinal dorsal horn at L4. In BV2 microglial cells, ZNS reduced the number of lipopolysaccharide-induced amoeboid-shaped cells, representing activated microglia. These results suggest that ZNS is a potential therapeutic agent for neuropathic pain partly by suppressing microglia-mediated neuroinflammation.

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  67. Short-Chain Fatty Acid-Producing Gut Microbiota Is Decreased in Parkinson's Disease but Not in Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder. International journal

    Hiroshi Nishiwaki, Tomonari Hamaguchi, Mikako Ito, Tomohiro Ishida, Tetsuya Maeda, Kenichi Kashihara, Yoshio Tsuboi, Jun Ueyama, Teppei Shimamura, Hiroshi Mori, Ken Kurokawa, Masahisa Katsuno, Masaaki Hirayama, Kinji Ohno

    mSystems   Vol. 5 ( 6 )   2020.12

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    Gut dysbiosis has been repeatedly reported in Parkinson's disease (PD) but only once in idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) from Germany. Abnormal aggregation of α-synuclein fibrils causing PD possibly starts from the intestine, although this is still currently under debate. iRBD patients frequently develop PD. Early-stage gut dysbiosis that is causally associated with PD is thus expected to be observed in iRBD. We analyzed gut microbiota in 26 iRBD patients and 137 controls by 16S rRNA sequencing (16S rRNA-seq). Our iRBD data set was meta-analyzed with the German iRBD data set and was compared with gut microbiota in 223 PD patients. Unsupervised clustering of gut microbiota by LIGER, a topic model-based tool for single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis, revealed four enterotypes in controls, iRBD, and PD. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria were conserved in an enterotype observed in controls and iRBD, whereas they were less conserved in enterotypes observed in PD. Genus Akkermansia and family Akkermansiaceae were consistently increased in both iRBD in two countries and PD in five countries. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria were not significantly decreased in iRBD in two countries. In contrast, we previously reported that recognized or putative SCFA-producing genera Faecalibacterium, Roseburia, and Lachnospiraceae ND3007 group were consistently decreased in PD in five countries. In α-synucleinopathy, increase of mucin-layer-degrading genus Akkermansia is observed at the stage of iRBD, whereas decrease of SCFA-producing genera becomes obvious with development of PD.IMPORTANCE Twenty studies on gut microbiota in PD have been reported, whereas only one study has been reported on iRBD from Germany. iRBD has the highest likelihood ratio to develop PD. Our meta-analysis of iRBD in Japan and Germany revealed increased mucin-layer-degrading genus Akkermansia in iRBD. Genus Akkermansia may increase the intestinal permeability, as we previously observed in PD patients, and may make the intestinal neural plexus exposed to oxidative stress, which can lead to abnormal aggregation of prion-like α-synuclein fibrils in the intestine. In contrast to PD, SCFA-producing bacteria were not decreased in iRBD. As SCFA induces regulatory T (Treg) cells, a decrease of SCFA-producing bacteria may be a prerequisite for the development of PD. We propose that prebiotic and/or probiotic therapeutic strategies to increase the intestinal mucin layer and to increase intestinal SCFA potentially retard the development of iRBD and PD.

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  68. Identification of Qk as a Glial Precursor Cell Marker that Governs the Fate Specification of Neural Stem Cells to a Glial Cell Lineage. International journal

    Akihide Takeuchi, Yuji Takahashi, Kei Iida, Motoyasu Hosokawa, Koichiro Irie, Mikako Ito, J B Brown, Kinji Ohno, Kinichi Nakashima, Masatoshi Hagiwara

    Stem cell reports   Vol. 15 ( 4 ) page: 883 - 897   2020.10

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    During brain development, neural stem cells (NSCs) initially produce neurons and change their fate to generate glias. While the regulation of neurogenesis is well characterized, specific markers for glial precursor cells (GPCs) and the master regulators for gliogenesis remain unidentified. Accumulating evidence suggests that RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have significant roles in neuronal development and function, as they comprehensively regulate the expression of target genes in a cell-type-specific manner. We systematically investigated the expression profiles of 1,436 murine RBPs in the developing mouse brain and identified quaking (Qk) as a marker of the putative GPC population. Functional analysis of the NSC-specific Qk-null mutant mouse revealed the key role of Qk in astrocyte and oligodendrocyte generation and differentiation from NSCs. Mechanistically, Qk upregulates gliogenic genes via quaking response elements in their 3' untranslated regions. These results provide crucial directions for identifying GPCs and deciphering the regulatory mechanisms of gliogenesis from NSCs.

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  69. Meta-Analysis of Gut Dysbiosis in Parkinson's Disease. Reviewed International journal

    Hiroshi Nishiwaki, Mikako Ito, Tomohiro Ishida, Tomonari Hamaguchi, Tetsuya Maeda, Kenichi Kashihara, Yoshio Tsuboi, Jun Ueyama, Teppei Shimamura, Hiroshi Mori, Ken Kurokawa, Masahisa Katsuno, Masaaki Hirayama, Kinji Ohno

    Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society   Vol. 35 ( 9 ) page: 1626 - 1635   2020.9

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    BACKGROUND: PD may begin with the intestinal accumulation of α-synuclein fibrils, which can be causally associated with gut dysbiosis. The variability of gut microbiota across countries prevented us from identifying shared gut dysbiosis in PD. OBJECTIVES: To identify gut dysbiosis in PD across countries. METHODS: We performed 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing analysis of gut microbiota in 223 patients with PD and 137 controls, and meta-analyzed gut dysbiosis by combining our dataset with four previously reported data sets from the United States, Finland, Russia, and Germany. We excluded uncommon taxa from our analyses. For pathway analysis, we developed the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthology set enrichment analysis method. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounding factors (body mass index, constipation, sex, age, and catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor), genera Akkermansia and Catabacter, as well as families Akkermansiaceae, were increased, whereas genera Roseburia, Faecalibacterium, and Lachnospiraceae ND3007 group were decreased in PD. Catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor intake markedly increased family Lactobacillaceae. Inspection of these bacteria in 12 datasets that were not included in the meta-analysis revealed that increased genus Akkermansia and decreased genera Roseburia and Faecalibacterium were frequently observed across countries. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthology set enrichment analysis revealed changes in short-chain fatty acid metabolisms in our dataset. CONCLUSIONS: We report that intestinal mucin layer-degrading Akkermansia is increased and that short-chain fatty acid-producing Roseburia and Faecalibacterium are decreased in PD across countries. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

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  70. CTGF/CCN2 facilitates LRP4-mediated formation of the embryonic neuromuscular junction. Reviewed International journal

    Bisei Ohkawara, Akinori Kobayakawa, Shunsuke Kanbara, Takako Hattori, Satoshi Kubota, Mikako Ito, Akio Masuda, Masaharu Takigawa, Karen M Lyons, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno

    EMBO reports   Vol. 21 ( 8 ) page: e48462 - e48462   2020.8

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    At the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), lipoprotein-related receptor 4 (LRP4) mediates agrin-induced MuSK phosphorylation that leads to clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in the postsynaptic region of the skeletal muscle. Additionally, the ectodomain of LRP4 is necessary for differentiation of the presynaptic nerve terminal. However, the molecules regulating LRP4 have not been fully elucidated yet. Here, we show that the CT domain of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) directly binds to the third beta-propeller domain of LRP4. CTGF/CCN2 enhances the binding of LRP4 to MuSK and facilitates the localization of LRP4 on the plasma membrane. CTGF/CCN2 enhances agrin-induced MuSK phosphorylation and AChR clustering in cultured myotubes. Ctgf-deficient mouse embryos (Ctgf-/- ) have small AChR clusters and abnormal dispersion of synaptic vesicles along the motor axon. Ultrastructurally, the presynaptic nerve terminals have reduced numbers of active zones and mitochondria. Functionally, Ctgf-/- embryos exhibit impaired NMJ signal transmission. These results indicate that CTGF/CCN2 interacts with LRP4 to facilitate clustering of AChRs at the motor endplate and the maturation of the nerve terminal.

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  71. Zonisamide ameliorates progression of cervical spondylotic myelopathy in a rat model. International journal

    Shunsuke Kanbara, Bisei Ohkawara, Hiroaki Nakashima, Kyotaro Ohta, Hiroyuki Koshimizu, Taro Inoue, Hiroyuki Tomita, Mikako Ito, Akio Masuda, Naoki Ishiguro, Shiro Imagama, Kinji Ohno

    Scientific reports   Vol. 10 ( 1 ) page: 13138 - 13138   2020.8

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    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is caused by chronic compression of the spinal cord and is the most common cause of myelopathy in adults. No drug is currently available to mitigate CSM. Herein, we made a rat model of CSM by epidurally implanting an expanding water-absorbent polymer underneath the laminae compress the spinal cord. The CSM rats exhibited progressive motor impairments recapitulating human CSM. CSM rats had loss of spinal motor neurons, and increased lipid peroxidation in the spinal cord. Zonisamide (ZNS) is clinically used for epilepsy and Parkinson's disease. We previously reported that ZNS protected primary spinal motor neurons against oxidative stress. We thus examined the effects of ZNS on our rat CSM model. CSM rats with daily intragastric administration of 0.5% methylcellulose (n = 11) and ZNS (30 mg/kg/day) in 0.5% methylcellulose (n = 11). Oral administration of ZNS ameliorated the progression of motor impairments, spared the number of spinal motor neurons, and preserved myelination of the pyramidal tracts. In addition, ZNS increased gene expressions of cystine/glutamate exchange transporter (xCT) and metallothionein 2A in the spinal cord in CSM rats, and also in the primary astrocytes. ZNS increased the glutathione (GSH) level in the spinal motor neurons of CSM rats. ZNS potentially ameliorates loss of the spinal motor neurons and demyelination of the pyramidal tracts in patients with CSM.

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  72. [Relationship between Drug Metabolism and Intestinal Microbiota in Parkinson's Disease].

    Masaaki Hirayama, Kinji Ohno, Masahisa Katsuno

    Brain and nerve = Shinkei kenkyu no shinpo   Vol. 72 ( 7 ) page: 805 - 809   2020.7

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    The incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD) increases with age. PD is a neurodegenerative disease with an incidence of 1 in 200 individuals aged over 65 years. In patients with PD, α-synuclein may accumulate abnormally and damage cells in the substantia nigra. Abnormal proteins (α-synuclein) in peripheral tissues were recently found to be transferred to the brain rather than originating in the brain. Furthermore, changes in intestinal microbiota appear to be related to observed treatment effects and disease development in patients with PD. This review will report on recent studies of intestinal microbiota potentially involved in PD symptoms and progression.

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  73. InMeRF: prediction of pathogenicity of missense variants by individual modeling for each amino acid substitution. International journal

    Jun-Ichi Takeda, Kentaro Nanatsue, Ryosuke Yamagishi, Mikako Ito, Nobuhiko Haga, Hiromi Hirata, Tomoo Ogi, Kinji Ohno

    NAR genomics and bioinformatics   Vol. 2 ( 2 ) page: lqaa038   2020.6

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    In predicting the pathogenicity of a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variant (nsSNV), a radical change in amino acid properties is prone to be classified as being pathogenic. However, not all such nsSNVs are associated with human diseases. We generated random forest (RF) models individually for each amino acid substitution to differentiate pathogenic nsSNVs in the Human Gene Mutation Database and common nsSNVs in dbSNP. We named a set of our models 'Individual Meta RF' (InMeRF). Ten-fold cross-validation of InMeRF showed that the areas under the curves (AUCs) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and precision-recall curves were on average 0.941 and 0.957, respectively. To compare InMeRF with seven other tools, the eight tools were generated using the same training dataset, and were compared using the same three testing datasets. ROC-AUCs of InMeRF were ranked first in the eight tools. We applied InMeRF to 155 pathogenic and 125 common nsSNVs in seven major genes causing congenital myasthenic syndromes, as well as in VANGL1 causing spina bifida, and found that the sensitivity and specificity of InMeRF were 0.942 and 0.848, respectively. We made the InMeRF web service, and also made genome-wide InMeRF scores available online (https://www.med.nagoya-u.ac.jp/neurogenetics/InMeRF/).

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  74. tRIP-seq reveals repression of premature polyadenylation by co-transcriptional FUS-U1 snRNP assembly. Reviewed International journal

    Akio Masuda, Toshihiko Kawachi, Jun-Ichi Takeda, Bisei Ohkawara, Mikako Ito, Kinji Ohno

    EMBO reports   Vol. 21 ( 5 ) page: e49890 - e49890   2020.5

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    RNA processing occurs co-transcriptionally through the dynamic recruitment of RNA processing factors to RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). However, transcriptome-wide identification of protein-RNA interactions specifically assembled on transcribing RNAPII is challenging. Here, we develop the targeted RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (tRIP-seq) method that detects protein-RNA interaction sites in thousands of cells. The high sensitivity of tRIP-seq enables identification of protein-RNA interactions at functional subcellular levels. Application of tRIP-seq to the FUS-RNA complex in the RNAPII machinery reveals that FUS binds upstream of alternative polyadenylation (APA) sites of nascent RNA bound to RNAPII, which retards RNAPII and suppresses the recognition of the polyadenylation signal by CPSF. Further tRIP-seq analyses demonstrate that the repression of APA is achieved by a complex composed of FUS and U1 snRNP on RNAPII, but not by either one alone. Moreover, our analysis reveals that FUS mutations in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) that impair the FUS-U1 snRNP interaction aberrantly activate the APA sites. tRIP-seq provides new insights into the regulatory mechanism of co-transcriptional RNA processing by RNA processing factors.

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  75. tRIP-seq reveals repression of premature polyadenylation by co-transcriptional FUS-U1 snRNP assembly

    Masuda Akio, Kawachi Toshihiko, Takeda Jun-ichi, Ohkawara Bisei, Ito Mikako, Ohno Kinji

    EMBO REPORTS   Vol. 21 ( 5 )   2020.5

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  76. Congenital myasthenic syndrome-associated agrin variants affect clustering of acetylcholine receptors in a domain-specific manner. Reviewed International journal

    Bisei Ohkawara, XinMing Shen, Duygu Selcen, Mohammad Nazim, Vera Bril, Mark A Tarnopolsky, Lauren Brady, Sae Fukami, Anthony A Amato, Uluc Yis, Kinji Ohno, Andrew G Engel

    JCI insight   Vol. 5 ( 7 ) page: - - -   2020.4

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    Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are caused by mutations in molecules expressed at the neuromuscular junction. We report clinical, structural, ultrastructural, and electrophysiologic features of 4 CMS patients with 6 heteroallelic variants in AGRN, encoding agrin. One was a 7.9-kb deletion involving the N-terminal laminin-binding domain. Another, c.4744G>A - at the last nucleotide of exon 26 - caused skipping of exon 26. Four missense mutations (p.S1180L, p.R1509W, p.G1675S, and p.Y1877D) expressed in conditioned media decreased AChR clusters in C2C12 myotubes. The agrin-enhanced phosphorylation of MuSK was markedly attenuated by p.Y1877D in the LG3 domain and moderately attenuated by p.R1509W in the LG1 domain but not by the other 2 mutations. The p.S1180L mutation in the SEA domain facilitated degradation of secreted agrin. The p.G1675S mutation in the LG2 domain attenuated anchoring of agrin to the sarcolemma by compromising its binding to heparin. Anchoring of agrin with p.R1509W in the LG1 domain was similarly attenuated. Mutations of agrin affect AChR clustering by enhancing agrin degradation or by suppressing MuSK phosphorylation and/or by compromising anchoring of agrin to the sarcolemma of the neuromuscular junction.

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  77. Ubiquitination of DNA Damage-Stalled RNAPII Promotes Transcription-Coupled Repair. Reviewed International journal

    Yuka Nakazawa, Yuichiro Hara, Yasuyoshi Oka, Okiru Komine, Diana van den Heuvel, Chaowan Guo, Yasukazu Daigaku, Mayu Isono, Yuxi He, Mayuko Shimada, Kana Kato, Nan Jia, Satoru Hashimoto, Yuko Kotani, Yuka Miyoshi, Miyako Tanaka, Akira Sobue, Norisato Mitsutake, Takayoshi Suganami, Akio Masuda, Kinji Ohno, Shinichiro Nakada, Tomoji Mashimo, Koji Yamanaka, Martijn S Luijsterburg, Tomoo Ogi

    Cell   Vol. 180 ( 6 ) page: 1228 - 1244.e24   2020.3

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    Transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) is initiated by the stalling of elongating RNA polymerase II (RNAPIIo) at DNA lesions. The ubiquitination of RNAPIIo in response to DNA damage is an evolutionarily conserved event, but its function in mammals is unknown. Here, we identified a single DNA damage-induced ubiquitination site in RNAPII at RPB1-K1268, which regulates transcription recovery and DNA damage resistance. Mechanistically, RPB1-K1268 ubiquitination stimulates the association of the core-TFIIH complex with stalled RNAPIIo through a transfer mechanism that also involves UVSSA-K414 ubiquitination. We developed a strand-specific ChIP-seq method, which revealed RPB1-K1268 ubiquitination is important for repair and the resolution of transcriptional bottlenecks at DNA lesions. Finally, RPB1-K1268R knockin mice displayed a short life-span, premature aging, and neurodegeneration. Our results reveal RNAPII ubiquitination provides a two-tier protection mechanism by activating TC-NER and, in parallel, the processing of DNA damage-stalled RNAPIIo, which together prevent prolonged transcription arrest and protect against neurodegeneration.

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  78. [Electrophysiological evidence of impaired neuromuscular junction in a case of phosphoglucomutase 1 deficiency manifesting fluctuating muscle weakness].

    Yu Takenaka, Kenji Sekiguchi, Hiroaki Sekiya, Kinji Ohno, Hideo Sugie, Riki Matsumoto

    Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology   Vol. 60 ( 2 ) page: 152 - 156   2020.2

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    A 27 year-old Canadian man suffered from fluctuating muscle weakness in the past several years. The patient had a past history of intestinal bleeding, bifid uvula and hypothyroidism in his childhood. Repetitive nerve stimulation tests showed a decrement pattern in the left deltoid muscle. The single fiber electromyography of the left extensor digitorum muscle showed an increment of jitter. Both findings were improved by the edrophonium test. He was diagnosed as having phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1) deficiency, as the compound heterozygote mutation of the PGM1 gene was recognized in the whole-exome sequencing and the enzyme activity of PGM1 was defective in the biopsied muscle. Treatment with the galactose lead to improvement of the fluctuating muscle weakness and decremental pattern in the repetitive stimulation test. PGM1 deficiency should be listed in the differential diagnosis of the neuromuscular junction disorder, when the patient is seronegative for antibodies related with myasthenia gravis and shows symptoms or signs consistent with PGM1 deficiency.

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  79. Author Correction: Mianserin suppresses R-spondin 2-induced activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in chondrocytes and prevents cartilage degradation in a rat model of osteoarthritis. Reviewed International journal

    Toshiaki Okura, Bisei Ohkawara, Yasuhiko Takegami, Mikako Ito, Akio Masuda, Taisuke Seki, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno

    Scientific reports   Vol. 10 ( 1 ) page: 2995 - 2995   2020.2

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    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

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  80. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs demethylates MeR2 enhancer and promotes Mbnl1 transcription in myogenic cells. Reviewed International journal

    Kun Huang, Akio Masuda, Guiying Chen, Samira Bushra, Masayoshi Kamon, Toshiyuki Araki, Masanobu Kinoshita, Bisei Ohkawara, Mikako Ito, Kinji Ohno

    Scientific reports   Vol. 10 ( 1 ) page: 2558 - 2558   2020.2

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    Muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1) is a ubiquitously expressed RNA-binding protein, which is highly expressed in skeletal muscle. Abnormally expanded CUG-repeats in the DMPK gene cause myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) by sequestration of MBNL1 to nuclear RNA foci and by upregulation of another RNA-binding protein, CUG-binding protein 1 (CUGBP1). We previously reported that a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), phenylbutazone, upregulates MBNL1 expression in DM1 mouse model by demethylation of MeR2, an enhancer element in Mbnl1 intron 1. NSAIDs inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX), which is comprised of COX-1 and COX-2 isoforms. In this study, we screened 29 NSAIDs in C2C12 myoblasts, and found that 13 NSAIDs enhanced Mbnl1 expression, where COX-1-selective NSAIDs upregulated Mbnl1 more than COX-2-selective NSAIDs. Consistently, knockdown of COX-1, but not of COX-2, upregulated MBNL1 expression in C2C12 myoblasts and myotubes, as well as in myotubes differentiated from DM1 patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Luciferase assay showed that COX-1-knockdown augmented the MeR2 enhancer activity. Furthermore, bisulfite sequencing analysis demonstrated that COX-1-knockdown suppressed methylation of MeR2. These results suggest that COX-1 inhibition upregulates Mbnl1 transcription through demethylation of the MeR2 enhancer. Taken together, our study provides new insights into the transcriptional regulation of Mbnl1 by the COX-1-mediated pathway.

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  81. Hydrogen water alleviates obliterative airway disease in mice.

    Naoki Ozeki, Aika Yamawaki-Ogata, Yuji Narita, Shinji Mii, Kaori Ushida, Mikako Ito, Shin-Ichi Hirano, Ryosuke Kurokawa, Kinji Ohno, Akihiko Usui

    General thoracic and cardiovascular surgery   Vol. 68 ( 2 ) page: 158 - 163   2020.2

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    OBJECTIVE: Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome arising from chronic airway inflammation is a leading cause of death following lung transplantation. Several studies have suggested that inhaled hydrogen can protect lung grafts from ischemia-reperfusion injury via anti-inflammatory and -oxidative mechanisms. We investigated whether molecular hydrogen-saturated water can preserve lung allograft function in a heterotopic tracheal allograft mouse model of obliterative airway disease METHODS: Obliterative airway disease was induced by heterotopically transplanting tracheal allografts from BALB/c donor mice into C57BL/6 recipient mice, which were subsequently administered hydrogen water (10 ppm) or tap water (control group) (n = 6 each) daily without any immunosuppressive treatment. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on days 7, 14, and 21. RESULTS: Hydrogen water decreased airway occlusion on day 14. No significant histological differences were observed on days 7 or 21. The cluster of differentiation 4/cluster of differentiation 3 ratio in tracheal allografts on day 14 was higher in the hydrogen water group than in control mice. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay performed on day 7 revealed that hydrogen water reduced the level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 and increased that of forkhead box P3 transcription factor, suggesting an enhancement of regulatory T cell activity. CONCLUSIONS: Hydrogen water suppressed the development of mid-term obliterative airway disease in a mouse tracheal allograft model via anti-oxidant and -inflammatory mechanisms and through the activation of Tregs. Thus, hydrogen water is a potential treatment strategy for BOS that can improve the outcome of lung transplant patients.

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  82. Freeze-drying enables homogeneous and stable sample preparation for determination of fecal short-chain fatty acids. International journal

    Jun Ueyama, Masaya Oda, Masaaki Hirayama, Kuniyo Sugitate, Norihiro Sakui, Risa Hamada, Mikako Ito, Isao Saito, Kinji Ohno

    Analytical biochemistry   Vol. 589   page: 113508 - 113508   2020.1

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    BACKGROUND: The analysis methods for fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have evolved considerably. Recently, the role of SCFAs in gastrointestinal physiology and their association with intestinal microbiota and disease were reported. However, the intra-fecal variability and storage stability of SCFAs have not been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to understand the limitations of the measurement of SCFAs in crude feces and develop a useful pre-examination procedure using the freeze-drying technique. METHODS: SCFAs in crude feces, obtained from healthy volunteers, and freeze-dried feces were determined by derivatization with isobutyl chloroformate, followed by liquid-liquid extraction with hexane, and separation and analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Among the SCFAS, the maximum intra-fecal variability was observed for iso-butyrate (coefficient of variation of 37.7%), but the freeze-drying procedure reduced this variability (coefficient of variation of 7.9%). Similar improvements were also observed for other SCFAs. Furthermore, significant decreases in the SCFA amounts were observed with storage at 4 °C for 24 h. CONCLUSIONS: The freeze-drying procedure affords fecal SCFA stability, even with storage at room temperature for 3 d. The freeze-drying procedure allows reliable SCFA measurements without labour-intensive processes. Therefore, the freeze-drying procedure can be applied in basic, clinical, and epidemiological studies.

    DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2019.113508

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  83. Gene Expression Profile at the Motor Endplate of the Neuromuscular Junction of Fast-Twitch Muscle. International journal

    Kun Huang, Jin Li, Mikako Ito, Jun-Ichi Takeda, Bisei Ohkawara, Tomoo Ogi, Akio Masuda, Kinji Ohno

    Frontiers in molecular neuroscience   Vol. 13   page: 154 - 154   2020

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    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a prototypic chemical synapse between the spinal motor neuron and the motor endplate. Gene expression profiles of the motor endplate are not fully elucidated. Collagen Q (ColQ) is a collagenic tail subunit of asymmetric forms of acetylcholinesterase and is driven by two distinct promoters. pColQ1 is active throughout the slow-twitch muscle, whereas pColQ1a is active at the motor endplate of fast-twitch muscle. We made a transgenic mouse line that expresses nuclear localization signal (NLS)-attached Cre recombinase under the control of pColQ1a (pColQ1a-Cre mouse). RiboTag mouse expresses an HA-tagged ribosomal subunit, RPL22, in cells expressing Cre recombinase. We generated pColQ1a-Cre:RiboTag mouse, and confirmed that HA-tagged RPL22 was enriched at the NMJ of tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. Next, we confirmed that Chrne and Musk that are specifically expressed at the NMJ were indeed enriched in HA-immunoprecipitated (IP) RNA, whereas Sox10 and S100b, markers for Schwann cells, and Icam1, a marker for vascular endothelial cells, and Pax3, a marker for muscle satellite cells, were scarcely detected. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of RNA-seq data showed that "phosphatidylinositol signaling system" and "extracellular matrix receptor interaction" were enriched at the motor endplate. Subsequent analysis revealed that genes encoding diacylglycerol kinases, phosphatidylinositol kinases, phospholipases, integrins, and laminins were enriched at the motor endplate. We first characterized the gene expression profile under translation at the motor endplate of TA muscle using the RiboTag technique. We expect that our gene expression profiling will help elucidate molecular mechanisms of the development, maintenance, and pathology of the NMJ.

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  84. Lewy小体病患者のメタメタ解析を用いた腸内細菌叢の関与の解明

    平山 正昭, 石田 智大, 九鬼 桃茄, 浜口 知成, 伊藤 美佳子, 上山 純, 島村 徹平, 阿部 興, 勝野 雅央, 大野 欽司

    臨床神経学   Vol. 59 ( Suppl. ) page: S301 - S301   2019.11

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  85. Perlecan分子からみたSchwartz-Jampel syndromeとDyssegmental dysplasia分類の検討

    山下 由莉, 山田 崇弘, 右田 王介, 大西 聡, 大橋 博文, 野中 里紗, 大野 欽司, 西村 玄, 池川 志郎, 服部 信孝, 平澤 恵理

    臨床神経学   Vol. 59 ( Suppl. ) page: S234 - S234   2019.11

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  86. 神経変性疾患における短鎖脂肪酸の役割

    九鬼 桃茄, 石田 智大, 浜口 知成, 伊藤 美佳子, 木村 郁夫, 長谷 耕二, 橋本 款, 大野 欽司, 平山 正昭

    パーキンソン病・運動障害疾患コングレスプログラム・抄録集   Vol. 13回   page: 102 - 102   2019.7

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  87. パーキンソン病(PD)における腸内細菌

    石田 智大, 九鬼 桃茄, 浜口 知成, 上山 純, 伊藤 美佳子, 柏原 健一, 前田 哲也, 坪井 義夫, 阿部 興, 島村 徹平, 森 宙史, 黒川 顕, 勝野 雅央, 大野 欽司, 平山 正昭

    パーキンソン病・運動障害疾患コングレスプログラム・抄録集   Vol. 13回   page: 102 - 102   2019.7

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  88. ENIGMA: an enterotype-like unigram mixture model for microbial association analysis. Reviewed International journal

    Ko Abe, Masaaki Hirayama, Kinji Ohno, Teppei Shimamura

    BMC genomics   Vol. 20 ( Suppl 2 ) page: 191 - 191   2019.4

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    BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges in microbial studies is detecting associations between microbial communities and a specific disease. A specialized feature of microbiome count data is that intestinal bacterial communities form clusters called as "enterotype", which are characterized by differences in specific bacterial taxa, making it difficult to analyze these data under health and disease conditions. Traditional probabilistic modeling cannot distinguish between the bacterial differences derived from enterotype and those related to a specific disease. RESULTS: We propose a new probabilistic model, named as ENIGMA (Enterotype-like uNIGram mixture model for Microbial Association analysis), which can be used to address these problems. ENIGMA enabled simultaneous estimation of enterotype-like clusters characterized by the abundances of signature bacterial genera and the parameters of environmental effects associated with the disease. CONCLUSION: In the simulation study, we evaluated the accuracy of parameter estimation. Furthermore, by analyzing the real-world data, we detected the bacteria related to Parkinson's disease. ENIGMA is implemented in R and is available from GitHub ( https://github.com/abikoushi/enigma ).

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  89. Mianserin suppresses R-spondin 2-induced activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in chondrocytes and prevents cartilage degradation in a rat model of osteoarthritis. Reviewed International journal

    Toshiaki Okura, Bisei Ohkawara, Yasuhiko Takegami, Mikako Ito, Akio Masuda, Taisuke Seki, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno

    Scientific reports   Vol. 9 ( 1 ) page: 2808 - 2808   2019.2

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    Aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway promotes the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). We previously reported that R-spondin 2 (Rspo2), an activator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling, facilitates differentiation of proliferating chondrocytes into hypertrophic chondrocytes by enhancing Wnt/β-catenin signaling in endochondral ossification. However, the role of Rspo2 in OA remains elusive. Here, we showed that the amounts of Rspo2 protein in synovial fluid were increased in OA patients. We searched for a preapproved drug that suppresses Rspo2-induced Wnt/β-catenin signaling in chondrogenic cells and reduces joint pathology in a rat model of OA. In Rspo2-treated ATDC5 cells, mianserin, a tetracyclic antidepressant, inhibited Wnt/β-catenin signaling, increased proteoglycan production, and upregulated chondrogenic marker genes. Mianserin suppressed Rspo2-induced accumulation of β-catenin and phosphorylation of Lrp6. We identified that mianserin blocked binding of Rspo2 to its receptor Lgr5. We also observed that intraarticular administration of mianserin suppressed β-catenin accumulation and prevented OA progression in a rat model of OA. We conclude that mianserin suppresses abnormally activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in OA by inhibiting binding of Rspo2 to Lgr5.

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  90. Editorial: RNA Diseases in Humans-From Fundamental Research to Therapeutic Applications. Reviewed International journal

    Naoyuki Kataoka, Akila Mayeda, Kinji Ohno

    Frontiers in molecular biosciences   Vol. 6   page: 53 - 53   2019

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    DOI: 10.3389/fmolb.2019.00053

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  91. A latent allocation model for the analysis of microbial composition and disease. Reviewed International journal

    Ko Abe, Masaaki Hirayama, Kinji Ohno, Teppei Shimamura

    BMC bioinformatics   Vol. 19 ( Suppl 19 ) page: 519 - 519   2018.12

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    BACKGROUND: Establishing the relationship between microbiota and specific diseases is important but requires appropriate statistical methodology. A specialized feature of microbiome count data is the presence of a large number of zeros, which makes it difficult to analyze in case-control studies. Most existing approaches either add a small number called a pseudo-count or use probability models such as the multinomial and Dirichlet-multinomial distributions to explain the excess zero counts, which may produce unnecessary biases and impose a correlation structure taht is unsuitable for microbiome data. RESULTS: The purpose of this article is to develop a new probabilistic model, called BERnoulli and MUltinomial Distribution-based latent Allocation (BERMUDA), to address these problems. BERMUDA enables us to describe the differences in bacteria composition and a certain disease among samples. We also provide a simple and efficient learning procedure for the proposed model using an annealing EM algorithm. CONCLUSION: We illustrate the performance of the proposed method both through both the simulation and real data analysis. BERMUDA is implemented with R and is available from GitHub ( https://github.com/abikoushi/Bermuda ).

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  92. Differential effects of spinal motor neuron-derived and skeletal muscle-derived Rspo2 on acetylcholine receptor clustering at the neuromuscular junction. Reviewed International journal

    Jin Li, Mikako Ito, Bisei Ohkawara, Akio Masuda, Kinji Ohno

    Scientific reports   Vol. 8 ( 1 ) page: 13577 - 13577   2018.9

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    We recently reported that R-spondin 2 (Rspo2), a secreted activator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, promotes acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation via its receptor, Lgr5. Rspo2 is expressed highly in spinal motor neurons (SMNs) and marginally in the skeletal muscle, but the origin of Rspo2 at the NMJ remains elusive. We rescued Rspo2-deficient (Rspo2-/-) mice by specifically expressing Rspo2 in the skeletal muscle and SMNs. SMN-specific Rspo2 mitigated or over-corrected abnormal features of the NMJs and AChR clusters observed in Rspo2-/- mice including (i) abnormal broadening of enlarged AChR clusters, (ii) three of six abnormal ultrastructural features, and (iii) abnormal expression of nine genes in SMNs and the diaphragm. In contrast, muscle-specific Rspo2 normalized all six abnormal ultrastructural features, but it had no effect on AChR clustering and NMJ formation at the light microscopy level or on abnormal gene expression in SMNs and the diaphragm. These results suggest that SMN-derived Rspo2 plays a major role in AChR clustering and NMJ formation in the postsynaptic region, and muscle-derived Rspo2 also plays a substantial role in juxtaposition of the active zones and synaptic folds.

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  93. Randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial of hydrogen water for Parkinson's disease. Reviewed International journal

    Asako Yoritaka, Chigumi Ohtsuka, Tetsuya Maeda, Masaaki Hirayama, Takashi Abe, Hirohisa Watanabe, Hidemoto Saiki, Genko Oyama, Jiro Fukae, Yasushi Shimo, Taku Hatano, Sumihiro Kawajiri, Yasuyuki Okuma, Yutaka Machida, Hideto Miwa, Chikako Suzuki, Asuka Kazama, Masahiko Tomiyama, Takeshi Kihara, Motoyuki Hirasawa, Hideki Shimura, Eisei Oda, Mikako Ito, Kinji Ohno, Nobutaka Hattori

    Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society   Vol. 33 ( 9 ) page: 1505 - 1507   2018.9

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    DOI: 10.1002/mds.27472

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  94. Protein-anchoring therapy to target extracellular matrix proteins to their physiological destinations. Reviewed International journal

    Mikako Ito, Kinji Ohno

    Matrix biology : journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology   Vol. 68-69 ( - ) page: 628 - 636   2018.8

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    Endplate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) deficiency is a form of congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) caused by mutations in COLQ, which encodes collagen Q (ColQ). ColQ is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that anchors AChE to the synaptic basal lamina. Biglycan, encoded by BGN, is another ECM protein that binds to the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC) on skeletal muscle, which links the actin cytoskeleton and ECM proteins to stabilize the sarcolemma during repeated muscle contractions. Upregulation of biglycan stabilizes the DPAC. Gene therapy can potentially ameliorate any disease that can be recapitulated in cultured cells. However, the difficulty of tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific regulated expression of transgenes, as well as the difficulty of introducing a transgene into all cells in a specific tissue, prevents us from successfully applying gene therapy to many human diseases. In contrast to intracellular proteins, an ECM protein is anchored to the target tissue via its specific binding affinity for protein(s) expressed on the cell surface within the target tissue. Exploiting this unique feature of ECM proteins, we developed protein-anchoring therapy in which a transgene product expressed even in remote tissues can be delivered and anchored to a target tissue using specific binding signals. We demonstrate the application of protein-anchoring therapy to two disease models. First, intravenous administration of adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 8-COLQ to Colq-deficient mice, resulting in specific anchoring of ectopically expressed ColQ-AChE at the NMJ, markedly improved motor functions, synaptic transmission, and the ultrastructure of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). In the second example, Mdx mice, a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, were intravenously injected with AAV8-BGN. The treatment ameliorated motor deficits, mitigated muscle histopathologies, decreased plasma creatine kinase activities, and upregulated expression of utrophin and DAPC component proteins. We propose that protein-anchoring therapy could be applied to hereditary/acquired defects in ECM and secreted proteins, as well as therapeutic overexpression of such factors.

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  95. Loss of Sfpq Causes Long-Gene Transcriptopathy in the Brain. Reviewed International journal

    Akihide Takeuchi, Kei Iida, Toshiaki Tsubota, Motoyasu Hosokawa, Masatsugu Denawa, J B Brown, Kensuke Ninomiya, Mikako Ito, Hiroshi Kimura, Takaya Abe, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Kinji Ohno, Masatoshi Hagiwara

    Cell reports   Vol. 23 ( 5 ) page: 1326 - 1341   2018.5

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    Genes specifically expressed in neurons contain members with extended long introns. Longer genes present a problem with respect to fulfilment of gene length transcription, and evidence suggests that dysregulation of long genes is a mechanism underlying neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Here, we report the discovery that RNA-binding protein Sfpq is a critical factor for maintaining transcriptional elongation of long genes. We demonstrate that Sfpq co-transcriptionally binds to long introns and is required for sustaining long-gene transcription by RNA polymerase II through mediating the interaction of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 with the elongation complex. Phenotypically, Sfpq disruption caused neuronal apoptosis in developing mouse brains. Expression analysis of Sfpq-regulated genes revealed specific downregulation of developmentally essential neuronal genes longer than 100 kb in Sfpq-disrupted brains; those genes are enriched in associations with neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. The identified molecular machinery yields directions for targeted investigations of the association between long-gene transcriptopathy and neuronal diseases.

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  96. CHRNG変異を有するEscobar症候群の3例

    中田 智彦, 水野 誠司, 牧 祐輝, 田中 雅大, 岡井 佑, 坂口 陽子, 山本 啓之, 大野 敦子, 城所 博之, 井本 逸勢, 大野 欽司, 夏目 淳

    脳と発達   Vol. 50 ( Suppl. ) page: S363 - S363   2018.5

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  97. Molecular hydrogen upregulates heat shock response and collagen biosynthesis, and downregulates cell cycles: meta-analyses of gene expression profiles. Reviewed International journal

    Hiroshi Nishiwaki, Mikako Ito, Shuto Negishi, Sayaka Sobue, Masatoshi Ichihara, Kinji Ohno

    Free radical research   Vol. 52 ( 4 ) page: 434 - 445   2018.4

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    Molecular hydrogen exerts its effect on multiple pathologies, including oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. However, its molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In order to explore the effects of molecular hydrogen, we meta-analysed gene expression profiles modulated by molecular hydrogen. We performed microarray analysis of the mouse liver with or without drinking hydrogen water. We also integrated two previously reported microarray datasets of the rat liver into meta-analyses. We used two categories of meta-analysis methods: the cross-platform method and the conventional meta-analysis method (Fisher's method). For each method, hydrogen-modulated pathways were analysed by (i) the hypergeometric test (HGT) in the class of over-representation analysis (ORA), (ii) the gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) in the class of functional class scoring (FCS), and (iii) the signalling pathway impact analysis (SPIA), pathway regulation score (PRS), and others in the class of pathway topology-based approach (PTA). Pathways in the collagen biosynthesis and the heat-shock response were up-regulated according to (a) HGT with the cross-platform method, (b) GSEA with the cross-platform method, and (c) PRS with the cross-platform method. Pathways in cell cycles were down-regulated according to (a) HGT with the cross-platform method, (b) GSEA with the cross-platform method, and (d) GSEA with the conventional meta-analysis method. Because the heat-shock response leads to up-regulation of collagen biosynthesis and a transient arrest of cell cycles, induction of the heat-shock response is likely to be a primary event induced by molecular hydrogen in the liver of wild-type rodents.

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  98. Lack of Fgf18 causes abnormal clustering of motor nerve terminals at the neuromuscular junction with reduced acetylcholine receptor clusters. Reviewed International journal

    Kenyu Ito, Bisei Ohkawara, Hideki Yagi, Hiroaki Nakashima, Mikito Tsushima, Kyotaro Ota, Hiroyuki Konishi, Akio Masuda, Shiro Imagama, Hiroshi Kiyama, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno

    Scientific reports   Vol. 8 ( 1 ) page: 434 - 434   2018.1

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    FGF receptor 2 is involved in the formation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), but its in vivo ligand remains to be determined. Laser capture microdissection of the mouse spinal motor neurons (SMNs) revealed that Fgf18 mRNA is highly expressed in SMNs in adults. Expression of Fgf18 mRNA was the highest in the spinal cord at embryonic day (E) 15.5, which gradually decreased to postnatal day 7. FGF18 protein was localized at the NMJs of the tibialis anterior muscle at E18.5 and in adults. Fgf18-/- mice at E18.5 showed decreased expressions of the NMJ-specific Chrne and Colq genes in the diaphragm. In Fgf18-/- diaphragms, the synaptophysin-positive areas at the nerve terminals and the acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-positive areas at the motor endplates were both approximately one-third of those in wild-type embryos. Fgf18-/- diaphragms ultrastructurally showed abnormal aggregation of multiple nerve terminals making a gigantic presynapse with sparse synaptic vesicles, and simplified motor endplates. In Fgf18-/- diaphragms, miniature endplate potentials were low in amplitude with markedly reduced frequency. In C2C12 myotubes, FGF18 enhanced AChR clustering, which was blocked by inhibiting FGFRs or MEK1. We propose that FGF18 plays a pivotal role in AChR clustering and NMJ formation in mouse embryogenesis.

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  99. Rare loss of function mutations in N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors and their contributions to schizophrenia susceptibility. Reviewed International journal

    Yanjie Yu, Yingni Lin, Yuto Takasaki, Chenyao Wang, Hiroki Kimura, Jingrui Xing, Kanako Ishizuka, Miho Toyama, Itaru Kushima, Daisuke Mori, Yuko Arioka, Yota Uno, Tomoko Shiino, Yukako Nakamura, Takashi Okada, Mako Morikawa, Masashi Ikeda, Nakao Iwata, Yuko Okahisa, Manabu Takaki, Shinji Sakamoto, Toshiyuki Someya, Jun Egawa, Masahide Usami, Masaki Kodaira, Akira Yoshimi, Tomoko Oya-Ito, Branko Aleksic, Kinji Ohno, Norio Ozaki

    Translational psychiatry   Vol. 8 ( 1 ) page: 12 - 12   2018.1

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    In schizophrenia (SCZ) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the dysregulation of glutamate transmission through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) has been implicated as a potential etiological mechanism. Previous studies have accumulated evidence supporting NMDAR-encoding genes' role in etiology of SCZ and ASD. We performed a screening study for exonic regions of GRIN1, GRIN2A, GRIN2C, GRIN2D, GRIN3A, and GRIN3B, which encode NMDAR subunits, in 562 participates (370 SCZ and 192 ASD). Forty rare variants were identified including 38 missense, 1 frameshift mutation in GRIN2C and 1 splice site mutation in GRIN2D. We conducted in silico analysis for all variants and detected seven missense variants with deleterious prediction. De novo analysis was conducted if pedigree samples were available. The splice site mutation in GRIN2D is predicted to result in intron retention by minigene assay. Furthermore, the frameshift mutation in GRIN2C and splice site mutation in GRIN2D were genotyped in an independent sample set comprising 1877 SCZ cases, 382 ASD cases, and 2040 controls. Both of them were revealed to be singleton. Our study gives evidence in support of the view that ultra-rare variants with loss of function (frameshift, nonsense or splice site) in NMDARs genes may contribute to possible risk of SCZ.

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  100. Rules and tools to predict the splicing effects of exonic and intronic mutations. Reviewed International journal

    Kinji Ohno, Jun-Ichi Takeda, Akio Masuda

    Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. RNA   Vol. 9 ( 1 ) page: - - -   2018.1

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    Development of next generation sequencing technologies has enabled detection of extensive arrays of germline and somatic single nucleotide variations (SNVs) in human diseases. SNVs affecting intronic GT-AG dinucleotides invariably compromise pre-mRNA splicing. Most exonic SNVs introduce missense/nonsense codons, but some affect auxiliary splicing cis-elements or generate cryptic GT-AG dinucleotides. Similarly, most intronic SNVs are silent, but some affect canonical and auxiliary splicing cis-elements or generate cryptic GT-AG dinucleotides. However, prediction of the splicing effects of SNVs is challenging. The splicing effects of SNVs generating cryptic AG or disrupting canonical AG can be inferred from the AG-scanning model. Similarly, the splicing effects of SNVs affecting the first nucleotide G of an exon can be inferred from AG-dependence of the 3' splice site (ss). A variety of tools have been developed for predicting the splicing effects of SNVs affecting the 5' ss, as well as exonic and intronic splicing enhancers/silencers. In contrast, only two tools, the Human Splicing Finder and the SVM-BP finder, are available for predicting the position of the branch point sequence. Similarly, IntSplice and Splicing based Analysis of Variants (SPANR) are the only tools to predict the splicing effects of intronic SNVs. The rules and tools introduced in this review are mostly based on observations of a limited number of genes, and no rule or tool can ensure 100% accuracy. Experimental validation is always required before any clinically relevant conclusions are drawn. Development of efficient tools to predict aberrant splicing, however, will facilitate our understanding of splicing pathomechanisms in human diseases. WIREs RNA 2018, 9:e1451. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1451 This article is categorized under: RNA Processing > Splicing Regulation/Alternative Splicing RNA in Disease and Development > RNA in Disease RNA Methods > RNA Analyses In Vitro and In Silico.

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  101. MYRF is associated with encephalopathy with reversible myelin vacuolization. Reviewed International journal

    Hirokazu Kurahashi, Yoshiteru Azuma, Akio Masuda, Tatsuya Okuno, Eri Nakahara, Takuji Imamura, Makiko Saitoh, Masashi Mizuguchi, Toshiaki Shimizu, Kinji Ohno, Akihisa Okumura

    Annals of neurology   Vol. 83 ( 1 ) page: 98 - 106   2018.1

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    OBJECTIVE: Reversible myelin vacuolization is associated with variable conditions including mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS), which is characterized by mildly impaired consciousness and transient splenial lesion. Familial and/or recurrent cases with a clinical diagnosis of MERS suggest the presence of genetic factors. METHODS: We examined a family in which the proband presented with a history of recurrent encephalopathy with extensive but reversible cerebral myelin vacuolization and neurological symptoms similar to those of MERS spanning 3 generations. Whole-exome sequencing was performed in family members. RESULTS: Eight rare nonsynonymous single-nucleotide variants shared by all patients were identified. By filtering genes expressed in the corpus callosum, we identified a heterozygous c.1208A>G predicting p.Gln403Arg in the highly conserved DNA-binding domain in the myelin regulatory factor (MYRF) gene. We subsequently screened the coding regions of MYRF by Sanger sequencing in our cohort comprised of 33 sporadic cases with MERS and 3 cases in another family with extensive myelin vacuolization, and identified the same heterozygous c.1208A>G in all affected members in the second family. Luciferase assay revealed that transcriptional activity of the N-terminal region of MYRF was significantly diminished by introducing the c.1208A>G variant. INTERPRETATION: MYRF is a transcriptional regulator that is necessary for oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin maintenance. Functional defects of MYRF are likely to be causally associated with encephalopathy with extensive myelin vacuolization. We propose the term "MYRF-related mild encephalopathy with reversible myelin vacuolization." Our findings provide a new perspective on the pathogenesis of myelin vacuolization. Ann Neurol 2018;83:98-106.

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  102. Quantification of hydrogen production by intestinal bacteria that are specifically dysregulated in Parkinson's disease. Reviewed International journal

    Anzu Suzuki, Mikako Ito, Tomonori Hamaguchi, Hiroshi Mori, Yuka Takeda, Ryuko Baba, Takeshi Watanabe, Ken Kurokawa, Susumu Asakawa, Masaaki Hirayama, Kinji Ohno

    PloS one   Vol. 13 ( 12 ) page: e0208313   2018

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    Oral administration of hydrogen water ameliorates Parkinson's disease (PD) in rats, mice, and humans. We previously reported that the number of putative hydrogen-producing bacteria in intestinal microbiota is low in PD compared to controls. We also reported that the amount of hydrogen produced by ingestion of lactulose is low in PD patients. The decreased hydrogen production by intestinal microbiota may be associated with the development and progression of PD. We measured the amount of hydrogen production using gas chromatography by seven bacterial strains, which represented seven major intestinal bacterial groups/genera/species. Blautia coccoides and Clostridium leptum produced the largest amount of hydrogen. Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis constituted the second group that produced hydrogen 34- to 93-fold lower than B. coccoides. Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum and Atopobium parvulum constituted the third group that produced hydrogen 559- to 2164-fold lower than B. coccoides. Lactobacillus casei produced no detectable hydrogen. Assuming that taxonomically neighboring strains have similar hydrogen production, we simulated hydrogen production using intestinal microbiota that we previously reported, and found that PD patients produce a 2.2-fold lower amount of intestinal hydrogen compared to controls. The lower amount of intestinal hydrogen production in PD was also simulated in cohorts of two other countries. The number of hydrogen-producing intestinal bacteria may be associated with the development and progression of PD. Further studies are required to prove its beneficial effect.

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  103. An Enterotype-like Unigram Class Model for Identifying Microbial Associations with Diseases Reviewed

    Abe Ko, Hirayama Masaaki, Ohno Kinji, Shimamura Teppei

    BMC Bioinformatics     2018

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  104. Activated FGFR3 promotes bone formation via accelerating endochondral ossification in mouse model of distraction osteogenesis. Reviewed International journal

    Yusuke Osawa, Masaki Matsushita, Sachi Hasegawa, Ryusaku Esaki, Masahito Fujio, Bisei Ohkawara, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno, Hiroshi Kitoh

    Bone   Vol. 105 ( - ) page: 42 - 49   2017.12

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    Achondroplasia (ACH) is one of the most common short-limbed skeletal dysplasias caused by gain-of-function mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptors 3 (FGFR3) gene. Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a treatment option for short stature in ACH in some countries. Although the patients with ACH usually show faster healing in DO, details of the newly formed bone have not been examined. We have developed a mouse model of DO and analyzed new bone regenerates of the transgenic mice with ACH (Fgfr3ach mice) histologically and morphologically. We established two kinds of DO protocols, the short-DO consisted of 5days of latency period followed by 5days of distraction with a rate of 0.4mm per 24h, and the long-DO consisted of the same latency period followed by 7days of distraction with a rate of 0.3mm per 12h. The callus formation was evaluated radiologically by bone fill score and quantified by micro-CT scan in both protocols. The histomorphometric analysis was performed in the short-DO protocol by various stainings, including Villanueva Goldner, Safranin-O/Fast green, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and type X collagen. Bone fill scores were significantly higher in Fgfr3ach mice than in wild-type mice in both protocols. The individual bone parameters, including bone volume and bone volume/tissue volume, were also significantly higher in Fgfr3ach mice than in wild-type mice in both protocols. The numbers of osteoblasts, as well as osteoclasts, around the trabecular bone were increased in Fgfr3ach mice. Cartilaginous tissues of the distraction region rapidly disappeared in Fgfr3ach mice compared to wild-type mice during the consolidation phase. Similarly, type X collagen-positive cells were markedly decreased in Fgfr3ach mice during the same period. Fgfr3ach mice exhibited accelerated bone regeneration after DO. Accelerated endochondral ossification could contribute to faster healing in Fgfr3ach mice.

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  105. Promethazine Hydrochloride Inhibits Ectopic Fat Cell Formation in Skeletal Muscle. Reviewed International journal

    Takehiro Kasai, Masashi Nakatani, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno, Naoki Yamamoto, Mitsuhiro Morita, Harumoto Yamada, Kunihiro Tsuchida, Akiyoshi Uezumi

    The American journal of pathology   Vol. 187 ( 12 ) page: 2627 - 2634   2017.12

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    Fatty degeneration of skeletal muscle leads to muscle weakness and loss of function. Preventing fatty degeneration in skeletal muscle is important, but no drug has been used clinically. In this study, we performed drug repositioning using human platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα)-positive mesenchymal progenitors that have been proved to be an origin of ectopic adipocytes in skeletal muscle. We found that promethazine hydrochloride (PH) inhibits adipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner without cell toxicity. PH inhibited expression of adipogenic markers and also suppressed phosphorylation of cAMP response-element binding protein, which was reported to be a primary regulator of adipogenesis. We established a mouse model of tendon rupture with intramuscular fat deposition and confirmed that emerged ectopic adipocytes are derived from PDGFRα+ cells using lineage tracing mice. When these injured mice were treated with PH, formation of ectopic adipocytes was suppressed significantly. Our results show that PH inhibits PDGFRα+ mesenchymal progenitor-dependent ectopic adipogenesis in skeletal muscle and suggest that treatment with PH can be a promising approach to prevent fatty degeneration of skeletal muscle.

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  106. Interactions between genetic polymorphisms of glucose metabolizing genes and smoking and alcohol consumption in the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Gao K, Ren Y, Wang J, Liu Z, Li J, Li L, Wang B, Li H, Wang Y, Cao Y, Ohno K, Zhai R, Liang Z

    Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee, nutrition et metabolisme   Vol. 42 ( 12 ) page: 1316 - 1321   2017.12

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  107. Progression of Parkinson's disease is associated with gut dysbiosis: Two-year follow-up study

    Minato Tomomi, Maeda Tetsuya, Fujisawa Yoshiro, Tsuji Hirokazu, Nomoto Koji, Ohno Kinji, Hirayama Masaaki

    PLOS ONE   Vol. 12 ( 11 ) page: .   2017.11

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  108. Agrin-LRP4-MuSK signaling as a therapeutic target for myasthenia gravis and other neuromuscular disorders. Reviewed International journal

    Kinji Ohno, Bisei Ohkawara, Mikako Ito

    Expert opinion on therapeutic targets   Vol. 21 ( 10 ) page: 949 - 958   2017.10

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    INTRODUCTION: Signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is compromised in a diverse array of diseases including myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, Isaacs' syndrome, congenital myasthenic syndromes, Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and sarcopenia. Except for sarcopenia, all are orphan diseases. In addition, the NMJ signal transduction is impaired by tetanus, botulinum, curare, α-bungarotoxin, conotoxins, organophosphate, sarin, VX, and soman to name a few. Areas covered: This review covers the agrin-LRP4-MuSK signaling pathway, which drives clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and ensures efficient signal transduction at the NMJ. We also address diseases caused by autoantibodies against the NMJ molecules and by germline mutations in genes encoding the NMJ molecules. Expert opinion: Representative small compounds to treat the defective NMJ signal transduction are cholinesterase inhibitors, which exert their effects by increasing the amount of acetylcholine at the synaptic space. Another possible therapeutic strategy to enhance the NMJ signal transduction is to increase the number of AChRs, but no currently available drug has this functionality.

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  109. An ENU-induced splice site mutation of mouse Col1a1 causing recessive osteogenesis imperfecta and revealing a novel splicing rescue. Reviewed International journal

    Koichi Tabeta, Xin Du, Kei Arimatsu, Mai Yokoji, Naoki Takahashi, Norio Amizuka, Tomoka Hasegawa, Karine Crozat, Tomoki Maekawa, Sayuri Miyauchi, Yumi Matsuda, Takako Ida, Masaru Kaku, Kasper Hoebe, Kinji Ohno, Hiromasa Yoshie, Kazuhisa Yamazaki, Eva Marie Y Moresco, Bruce Beutler

    Scientific reports   Vol. 7 ( 1 ) page: 11717 - 11717   2017.9

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    GU-AG consensus sequences are used for intron recognition in the majority of cases of pre-mRNA splicing in eukaryotes. Mutations at splice junctions often cause exon skipping, short deletions, or insertions in the mature mRNA, underlying one common molecular mechanism of genetic diseases. Using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, a novel recessive mutation named seal was produced, associated with fragile bones and susceptibility to fractures (spine and limbs). A single nucleotide transversion (T → A) at the second position of intron 36 of the Col1a1 gene, encoding the type I collagen, α1 chain, was responsible for the phenotype. Col1a1 seal mRNA expression occurred at greatly reduced levels compared to the wild-type transcript, resulting in reduced and aberrant collagen fibers in tibiae of seal homozygous mice. Unexpectedly, splicing of Col1a1 seal mRNA followed the normal pattern despite the presence of the donor splice site mutation, likely due to the action of a putative intronic splicing enhancer present in intron 25, which appeared to function redundantly with the splice donor site of intron 36. Seal mice represent a model of human osteogenesis imperfecta, and reveal a previously unknown mechanism for splicing "rescue."

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  110. SRSF1 suppresses selection of intron-distal 5' splice site of DOK7 intron 4 to generate functional full-length Dok-7 protein. Reviewed International journal

    Khalid Bin Ahsan, Akio Masuda, Mohammad Alinoor Rahman, Jun-Ichi Takeda, Mohammad Nazim, Bisei Ohkawara, Mikako Ito, Kinji Ohno

    Scientific reports   Vol. 7 ( 1 ) page: 10446 - 10446   2017.9

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    Dok-7 is a non-catalytic adaptor protein that facilitates agrin-induced clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) at the neuromuscular junction. Alternative selection of 5' splice sites (SSs) of DOK7 intron 4 generates canonical and frame-shifted transcripts. We found that the canonical full-length Dok-7 enhanced AChR clustering, whereas the truncated Dok-7 did not. We identified a splicing cis-element close to the 3' end of exon 4 by block-scanning mutagenesis. RNA affinity purification and mass spectrometry revealed that SRSF1 binds to the cis-element. Knocking down of SRSF1 enhanced selection of the intron-distal 5' SS of DOK7 intron 4, whereas MS2-mediated artificial tethering of SRSF1 to the identified cis-element suppressed it. Isolation of an early spliceosomal complex revealed that SRSF1 inhibited association of U1 snRNP to the intron-distal 5' SS, and rather enhanced association of U1 snRNP to the intron-proximal 5' SS, which led to upregulation of the canonical DOK7 transcript. Integrated global analysis of CLIP-seq and RNA-seq also indicated that binding of SRSF1 immediately upstream to two competing 5' SSs suppresses selection of the intron-distal 5' SS in hundreds of human genes. We demonstrate that SRSF1 critically regulates alternative selection of adjacently placed 5' SSs by modulating binding of U1 snRNP.

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  111. Clinical dosage of meclozine promotes longitudinal bone growth, bone volume, and trabecular bone quality in transgenic mice with achondroplasia. Reviewed International journal

    Masaki Matsushita, Ryusaku Esaki, Kenichi Mishima, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno, Hiroshi Kitoh

    Scientific reports   Vol. 7 ( 1 ) page: 7371 - 7371   2017.8

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    Achondroplasia (ACH) is the most common short-limbed skeletal dysplasia caused by gain-of-function mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). No effective FGFR3-targeted therapies for ACH are currently available. By drug repositioning strategies, we identified that meclozine, which has been used as an anti-motion-sickness, suppressed FGFR3 signaling in chondrocytes and rescued short-limbed phenotype in ACH mouse model. Here, we conducted various pharmacological tests for future clinical application in ACH. Pharmacokinetic analyses demonstrated that peak drug concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 2 mg/kg of meclozine to mice was lower than that of 25 mg/body to human, which is a clinical usage for anti-motion-sickness. Pharmacokinetic simulation studies showed that repeated dose of 2 mg/kg of meclozine showed no accumulation effects. Short stature phenotype in the transgenic mice was significantly rescued by twice-daily oral administration of 2 mg/kg/day of meclozine. In addition to stimulation of longitudinal bone growth, bone volume and metaphyseal trabecular bone quality were improved by meclozine treatment. We confirmed a preclinical proof of concept for applying meclozine for the treatment of short stature in ACH, although toxicity and adverse events associated with long-term administration of this drug should be examined.

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  112. Splicing regulation and dysregulation of cholinergic expressed at the neuromuscular junction Reviewed

    Kinji Ohno, Mohammad Alinoor Rahman, Mohammad Nazim, Farhana Nasrin, Yingni Lin, Jun-ichi Takeda, Akio Masuda

    JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY   Vol. 142 Suppl 2 ( - ) page: 64 - 72   2017.8

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    We humans have evolved by acquiring diversity of alternative RNA metabolisms including alternative means of splicing and transcribing non-coding genes, and not by acquiring new coding genes. Tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific alternative RNA splicing is achieved by tightly regulated spatiotemporal regulation of expressions and activations of RNA-binding proteins that recognize their cognate splicing cis-elements on nascent RNA transcripts. Genes expressed at the neuromuscular junction are also alternatively spliced. In addition, germline mutations provoke aberrant splicing by compromising binding of RNA-binding proteins, and cause congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS). We present physiological splicing mechanisms of genes for agrin (AGRN), acetylcholinesterase (ACHE), MuSK (MUSK), acetylcholine receptor (AChR) alpha 1 subunit (CHRNA1), and collagen Q (COLQ) in human, and their aberration in diseases. Splicing isoforms of AChE(T), AChE(H), and AChE(R) are generated by hnRNP H/F. Skipping of MUSK exon 10 makes a Wnt-insensitive MuSK isoform, which is unique to human. Skipping of exon 10 is achieved by coordinated binding of hnRNP C, YB-1, and hnRNP L to exon 10. Exon P3A of CHRNA1 is alternatively included to generate a non-functional AChR alpha 1 subunit in human. Molecular dissection of splicing mutations in patients with CMS reveals that exon P3A is alternatively skipped by hnRNP H, polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1, and hnRNP L. Similarly, analysis of an exonic mutation in COLQ exon 16 in a CMS patient discloses that constitutive splicing of exon 16 requires binding of serine arginine-rich splicing factor 1. Intronic and exonic splicing mutations in CMS enable us to dissect molecular mechanisms underlying alternative and constitutive splicing of genes expressed at the neuromuscular junction.

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  113. Splicing regulation of the human acetylcholinesterase gene Reviewed

    Kinji Ohno, Mohammad Nazim, Akio Masuda

    JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY   Vol. 142 ( - ) page: 198 - 198   2017.8

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  114. Six GU-rich (6GU(R)) FUS-binding motifs detected by normalization of CLIP-seq by Nascent-seq Reviewed

    Jun-Ichi Takeda, Akio Masuda, Kinji Ohno

    GENE   Vol. 618 ( - ) page: 57 - 64   2017.6

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    FUS, an RNA-binding protein (RBP), is mutated or abnormally regulated in neurodegenerative disorders. FUS regulates various aspects of RNA metabolisms. FUS-binding sites are rich in GU contents and are highly degenerative. FUS-binding motifs of GGU, GGUG, GUGGU and CGCGC have been previously reported. These motifs, however, are applicable to a small fraction of FUS-binding sites. As CLIP-seq tags are enriched in genes that are highly expressed, we normalized CLIP-seq tags by Nascent-seq tags or RNA-seq tags of mouse N2a cells. Nascent-seq identifies nascent transcripts before being processed for splicing and polyadenylation. We extracted frequently observed 4-nt motifs from Nascent-seq-normalized CLIP regions, RNA-seq-normalized CLIP regions, and native CLIP regions. Specific GU-rich motifs were best detected in Nascent-seq-normalized CLIP regions. Analysis of structural motifs using Nascent-seq-normalized CLIP regions also predicted GU-rich sequence forming a stem structure. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by examining whether the extracted motifs were present at the cross-linking-induced mutation sites (CIMS), where FUS was directly bound. We found that a combination of six motifs (UGUG, CUGG, UGGU, GCUG, GUGG, and UUGG), which were extracted from Nascent-seq-normalized CLIP-regions, had a better discriminative power than (i) motifs extracted from RNA-seq-normalized CLIP regions, (ii) motifs extracted from native CLIP regions, (iii) previously reported individual motifs, or (iv) 15 motifs in SpliceAid 2. Validation of the 6 GU-rich (6GU(R)) motifs using CLIP-seq of the cerebrum and the whole brain showed that the 6GU(R) motifs were specifically enriched in CIMS. The number of the 6GU(R) motifs in an uninterrupted region was counted and multiplied by four to calculate the area, which was defined as the 6GU(R)-Score. The 6GU(R)-Score of 8 or more best discriminated CIMS from CIMS-flanking regions. We propose that the 6GU(R) motifs predict FUS-binding sites more efficiently than previously reported individual motifs or 15 motifs in SpliceAid 2.

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  115. Protein-Anchoring Therapy of Biglycan for Mdx Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Reviewed

    Mikako Ito, Yuka Ehara, Jin Li, Kosuke Inada, Kinji Ohno

    HUMAN GENE THERAPY   Vol. 28 ( 5 ) page: 428 - 436   2017.5

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    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating muscle disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in DMD encoding dystrophin. No rational therapy is currently available. Utrophin is a paralog of dystrophin and is highly expressed at the neuromuscular junction. In mdx mice, utrophin is naturally upregulated throughout the muscle fibers, which mitigates muscular dystrophy. Protein-anchoring therapy was previously reported, in which a recombinant extracellular matrix (ECM) protein is delivered to and anchored to a specific target using its proprietary binding domains. Being prompted by a report that intramuscular and intraperitoneal injection of an ECM protein, biglycan, upregulates expression of utrophin and ameliorates muscle pathology in mdx mice, protein-anchoring therapy was applied to mdx mice. Recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (rAAV8) carrying hBGN encoding human biglycan was intravenously injected into 5-week-old mdx mice. The rAAV8-hBGN treatment improved motor deficits and decreased plasma creatine kinase activities. In muscle sections of treated mice, the number of central myonuclei and the distribution of myofiber sizes were improved. The treated mice increased gene expressions of utrophin and beta 1-syntrophin, as well as protein expressions of biglycan, utrophin, c-sarcoglycan, dystrobrevin, and alpha 1-syntrophin. The expression of hBGN in the skeletal muscle of the treated mice was 1.34-fold higher than that of the native mouse Bgn (mBgn). The low transduction efficiency and improved motor functions suggest that biglycan expressed in a small number of muscle fibers was likely to have been secreted and anchored to the cell surface throughout the whole muscular fibers. It is proposed that the protein-anchoring strategy can be applied not only to deficiency of an ECM protein as previously reported, but also to augmentation of a naturally induced ECM protein.

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  116. Competitive regulation of alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation by hnRNP H and CstF64 determines acetylcholinesterase isoforms. Reviewed

    Nazim M, Masuda A, Rahman MA, Nasrin F, Takeda JI, Ohe K, Ohkawara B, Ito M, Ohno K

    Nucleic acids research   Vol. 45 ( 3 ) page: 1455-1468   2017.2

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  117. Molecular hydrogen alleviates motor deficits and muscle degeneration in mdx mice Reviewed

    Satoru Hasegawa, Mikako Ito, Mayu Fukami, Miki Hashimoto, Masaaki Hirayama, Kinji Ohno

    REDOX REPORT   Vol. 22 ( 1 ) page: 26 - 34   2017.1

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    Objective: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating muscle disease caused by a mutation in DMD encoding dystrophin. Oxidative stress accounts for dystrophic muscle pathologies in DMD. We examined the effects of molecular hydrogen in mdx mice, a model animal for DMD.
    Methods: The pregnant mother started to take supersaturated hydrogen water (&gt; 5 ppm) ad libitum from E15.5 up to weaning of the offspring. The mdx mice took supersaturated hydrogen water from weaning until age 10 or 24 weeks when they were sacrificed.
    Results: Hydrogen water prevented abnormal body mass gain that is commonly observed in mdx mice. Hydrogen improved the spontaneous running distance that was estimated by a counter-equipped running-wheel, and extended the duration on the rota-rod. Plasma creatine kinase activities were decreased by hydrogen at ages 10 and 24 weeks. Hydrogen also decreased the number of central nuclei of muscle fibers at ages 10 and 24 weeks, and immunostaining for nitrotyrosine in gastrocnemius muscle at age 24 weeks. Additionally, hydrogen tended to increase protein expressions of antioxidant glutathione peroxidase 1, as well as anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, in skeletal muscle at age 10 weeks.
    Discussion: Although molecular mechanisms of the diverse effects of hydrogen remain to be elucidated, hydrogen potentially improves muscular dystrophy in DMD patients.

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  118. Maternal administration of meclozine for the treatment of foramen magnum stenosis in transgenic mice with achondroplasia Reviewed

    Masaki Matsushita, Kenichi Mishima, Ryusaku Esaki, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno, Hiroshi Kitoh

    JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY-PEDIATRICS   Vol. 19 ( 1 ) page: 91 - 95   2017.1

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    OBJECTIVE Achondroplasia (ACH) is the most common short-limbed skeletal dysplasia caused by gain-of-function mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene. Foramen magnum stenosis (FMS) is one of the serious neurological complications in ACH. Through comprehensive drug screening, the authors identified that meclozine, an over-the-counter drug for motion sickness, inhibited activation of FGFR3 signaling. Oral administration of meclozine to the growing ACH mice promoted longitudinal bone growth, but it did not prevent FMS. In the current study, the authors evaluated the effects of maternal administration of meclozine on FMS in ACH mice.
    METHODS The area of the foramen magnum was measured in 17-day-old Fgfr3(ach) mice and wild-type mice using micro-CT scanning. Meclozine was administered to the pregnant mice carrying Fgfr3ach offspring from embryonic Day (ED) 14.5 to postnatal Day (PD) 4.5. Spheno-occipital and anterior intraoccipital synchondroses were histologically examined, and the bony bridges were scored on PD 4.5. In wild-type mice, tissue concentrations of meclozine in ED 17.5 fetuses and PD 6.5 pups were investigated.
    RESULTS The area of the foramen magnum was significantly smaller in 17-day-old Fgfr3(ach) mice than in wild-type mice (p &lt; 0.005). There were no bony bridges in the spheno-occipital and anterior intraoccipital synchondroses in wild-type mice, while some of the synchondroses prematurely closed in untreated Fgfr(3ach) mice at PD 4.5. The average bony bridge score in the cranial base was 7.053 +/- 1.393 in untreated Fgfr(3ach) mice and 6.125 +/- 2.029 in meclozine-treated Fgfr(3ach) mice. The scores were not statistically significant between mice with and those without meclozine treatment (p = 0.12). The average tissue concentration of meclozine was significantly higher (508.88 +/- 205.16 ng/g) in PD 6.5 mice than in ED 17.5 mice (56.91 +/- 20.05 ng/g) (p &lt; 0.005).
    CONCLUSIONS Maternal administration of meclozine postponed premature closure of synchondroses in some Fgfr(3ach) mice, but the effect on preventing bony bridge formation was not significant, probably due to low placental transmission of the drug. Meclozine is likely to exhibit a marginal effect on premature closure of synchondroses at the cranial base in ACH.

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  119. [Studies on therapeutic strategies for congenital myasthenic syndromes.] Reviewed

    Ohno K

    Clinical calcium   Vol. 27 ( 3 ) page: 421-428   2017

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  120. Progression of Parkinson's disease is associated with gut dysbiosis: Two-year follow-up study. Reviewed International journal

    Tomomi Minato, Tetsuya Maeda, Yoshiro Fujisawa, Hirokazu Tsuji, Koji Nomoto, Kinji Ohno, Masaaki Hirayama

    PloS one   Vol. 12 ( 11 ) page: e0187307 - -   2017

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    BACKGROUND: We previously reported gut dysbiosis in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine whether gut dysbiosis correlates with the progression of PD. METHODS: We examined changes in gut microbiota and demographic features in 2 years in 36 PD patients. RESULTS: A change of total UPDRS scores in 2 years was predicted by the counts of Bifidobacterium and Atopobium cluster at year 0 with a correlation coefficient of 0.52. Correlation analysis additionally revealed that low counts of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides fragilis at year 0 were associated with worsening of UPDRS I scores in 2 years. In addition, low counts of Bifidobacterium at year 0 were associated with worsening of hallucinations/delusions in 2 years. Similarly, low counts of B. fragilis at year 0 were associated with worsening of motivation/initiative in 2 years. The patients were evenly divided into the deteriorated and stable groups based on the degree of worsening of total UPDRS scores. The deteriorated group had lower counts of Bifidobacterium, B. fragilis, and Clostridium leptium than the stable group at year 0 but not at year 2, suggesting that the deteriorated group may demonstrate accelerated lowering of these bacteria at year 0. CONCLUSIONS: The total counts of intestinal bacterial decrease in the course of PD progression. Temporal profiles of lowering of bacterial counts are likely to be different from bacteria to bacteria, and also between the deteriorating and stable groups, which may be able to be exploited to differentiate patients with rapidly and slowly progressive PD pathology.

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  121. Fluoxetine ameliorates cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Reviewed International journal

    Kentaro Miyamoto, Bisei Ohkawara, Mikako Ito, Akio Masuda, Akihiro Hirakawa, Tadahiro Sakai, Hideki Hiraiwa, Takashi Hamada, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno

    PloS one   Vol. 12 ( 9 ) page: e0184388 - -   2017

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    Abnormal activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling is implicated in the osteoarthritis (OA) pathology. We searched for a pre-approved drug that suppresses abnormally activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling and has a potency to reduce joint pathology in OA. We introduced the TOPFlash reporter plasmid into HCS-2/8 human chondrosarcoma cells to estimate the Wnt/β-catenin activity in the presence of 10 μM each compound in a panel of pre-approved drugs. We found that fluoxetine, an antidepressant in the class of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), down-regulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in human chondrosarcoma cells. Fluoxetine inhibited both Wnt3A- and LiCl-induced loss of proteoglycans in chondrogenically differentiated ATDC5 cells. Fluoxetine increased expression of Sox9 (the chondrogenic master regulator), and decreased expressions of Axin2 (a marker for Wnt/β-catenin signaling) and Mmp13 (matrix metalloproteinase 13). Fluoxetine suppressed a LiCl-induced increase of total β-catenin and a LiCl-induced decrease of phosphorylated β-catenin in a dose-dependent manner. An in vitro protein-binding assay showed that fluoxetine enhanced binding of β-catenin with Axin1, which is a scaffold protein forming the degradation complex for β-catenin. Fluoxetine suppressed LiCl-induced β-catenin accumulation in human OA chondrocytes. Intraarticular injection of fluoxetine in a rat OA model ameliorated OA progression and suppressed β-catenin accumulation.

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  122. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling suppresses expressions of Scx, Mkx, and Tnmd in tendon-derived cells Reviewed

    Yasuzumi Kishimoto, Bisei Ohkawara, Tadahiro Sakai, Mikako Ito, Akio Masuda, Naoki Ishiguro, Chisa Shukunami, Denitsa Docheva, Kinji Ohno

    PLOS ONE   Vol. 12 ( 7 ) page: e0182051 - -   2017

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    After tendon injuries, biomechanical properties of the injured tendon are not fully recovered in most cases. Modulation of signaling pathways, which are involved in tendon development and tendon repair, is one of attractive modalities to facilitate proper regeneration of the injured tendon. The roles of TGF-beta signaling in tendon homeostasis and tendon development have been elucidated. In contrast, the roles of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in tendon remain mostly elusive. We found that the number of beta-catenin-positive cells was increased at the injured site, suggesting involvement of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in tendon healing. Activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling suppressed expressions of tenogenic genes of Scx, Mkx, and Tnmd in rat tendon-derived cells (TDCs) isolated from the Achilles tendons of 6-week old rats. Additionally, activation of Wnt/beta-catenin reduced the amounts of Smad2 and Smad3, which are intracellular mediators for TGF-beta signaling, and antagonized upregulation of Scx induced by TGF-beta signaling in TDCs. We found that Wnt/beta-catenin decreased Mkx and Tnmd expressions without suppressing Scx expression in Scx-programmed tendon progenitors. Our studies suggest that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is a repressor for tenogenic gene expressions.

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  123. Molecular hydrogen ameliorates several characteristics of preeclampsia in the Reduced Uterine Perfusion Pressure (RUPP) rat model Reviewed

    Takafumi Ushida, Tomomi Kotani, Hiroyuki Tsuda, Kenji Imai, Tomoko Nakano, Shima Hirako, Yumiko Ito, Hua Li, Yukio Mano, Jingwen Wang, Rika Miki, Eiko Yamamoto, Akira Iwase, Yasuko K. Bando, Masaaki Hirayama, Kinji Ohno, Shinya Toyokuni, Fumitaka Kikkawa

    FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE   Vol. 101 ( - ) page: 524 - 533   2016.12

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    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Recently, molecular hydrogen (H-2) has been shown to have therapeutic potential in various oxidative stress-related diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of H-2 on preeclampsia. We used the reduced utero-placental perfusion pressure (RUPP) rat model, which has been widely used as a model of preeclampsia. H-2 water (HW) was administered orally ad libitum in RUPP rats from gestational day (GD) 12-19, starting 2 days before RUPP procedure. On GD19, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured, and samples were collected. Maternal administration of HW significantly decreased MAP, and increased fetal and placental weight in RUPP rats. The increased levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and diacron reactive oxygen metabolites as a biomarker of reactive oxygen species in maternal blood were decreased by HW administration. However, vascular endothelial growth factor level in maternal blood was increased by HW administration. Proteinuria, and histological findings in kidney were improved by HW administration. In addition, the effects of H-2 on placental villi were examined by using a trophoblast cell line (BeWo) and villous explants from the placental tissue of women with or without preeclampsia. H-2 significantly attenuated hydrogen peroxide-induced sFlt-1 expression, but could not reduce the expression induced by hypoxia in BeWo cells. H-2 significantly attenuated sFlt-1 expression in villous explants from women with preeclampsia, but not affected them from normotensive pregnancy. The prophylactic administration of H-2 attenuated placental ischemia-induced hypertension, angiogenic imbalance, and oxidative stress. These results support the theory that H-2 has a potential benefit in the prevention of preeclampsia.

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  124. Roles of collagen Q in MuSK antibody-positive myasthenia gravis Reviewed

    Kinji Ohno, Kenji Otsuka, Mikako Ito

    CHEMICO-BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS   Vol. 259 ( Pt B ) page: 266 - 270   2016.11

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    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) and the muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK) form a tetrameric protein complex on the postsynaptic membrane at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Binding of agrin to LRP4 triggers phosphorylation of MuSK. Activated MuSK drives clustering of acetylcholine receptor (AChR). Wnt ligands also directly bind to MuSK to induce AChR clustering. MuSK anchors the acetylcholinesterase (AChE)/collagen Q (ColQ) complex to the synaptic basal lamina. In addition, an extracellular proteoglycan, biglycan, binds to MuSK.
    Anti-MuSK autoantibodies (MuSK-IgG) are observed in 5-15% of autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG) patients. MuSK-IgG blocks both ColQ-MuSK and LRP4-MuSK interactions. MuSK-IgG, LRP4, ColQ, and biglycan bind to the immunoglobulin-like domains 1 and 4 of MuSK. Lack of the effects of cholinesterase inhibitors in MuSK-MG patients is likely due to hindrance of ColQ-MuSK interaction by MuSK-IgG and subsequent deficiency of AChE observed in model mice, which, however, has not been proven in MuSK-MG patients. As ColQ enhances expression of membrane-bound MuSK, inhibition of ColQ-MuSK interaction by MuSK-IgG may account for lack of AChR clusters in MuSK-MG. We thus made passive transfer models using Colq+/+ and Colq-/- mice to dissect the effect of ColQ on AChR clustering in MuSK-MG. We found that MuSK-IgG-mediated suppression of LRP4-MuSK interaction, not of ColQ-MuSK interaction, caused defective AChR clustering. We also unexpectedly observed that both MuSK-IgG and ColQ suppressed agrin/LRP4/MuSK signaling in dose-dependent manners. Quantitative comparison revealed that MuSK-IgG blocked agrin-LRP4-MuSK signaling more than ColQ.
    We propose that attenuation of AChR clustering in MuSK-MG is due to hindrance of LRP4-MuSK interaction in the presence of agrin by MuSK-IgG. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  125. Mutations Causing Slow-Channel Myasthenia Reveal That a Valine Ring in the Channel Pore of Muscle AChR is Optimized for Stabilizing Channel Gating Reviewed

    Xin-Ming Shen, Tatsuya Okuno, Margherita Milone, Kenji Otsuka, Koji Takahashi, Hirofumi Komaki, Elizabeth Giles, Kinji Ohno, Andrew G. Engel

    HUMAN MUTATION   Vol. 37 ( 10 ) page: 1051 - 9   2016.10

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    We identify two novel mutations in acetylcholine receptor (AChR) causing a slow-channel congenital myasthenia syndrome (CMS) in three unrelated patients (Pts). Pt 1 harbors a heterozygous beta V266A mutation (p.Val289Ala) in the second transmembrane domain (M2) of the AChR beta subunit (CHRNB1). Pts 2 and 3 carry the same mutation at an equivalent site in the epsilon subunit (CHRNE), epsilon V265A (p.Val285Ala). The mutant residues are conserved across all AChR subunits of all species and are components of a valine ring in the channel pore, which is positioned four residues above the leucine ring. Both beta V266A and epsilon V265A reduce the amino acid size and lengthen the channel opening bursts by fourfold by enhancing gating efficiency by approximately 30-fold. Substitution of alanine for valine at the corresponding position in the delta and alpha subunit prolongs the burst duration four-and eightfold, respectively. Replacing valine at epsilon codon 265 either by a still smaller glycine or by a larger leucine also lengthens the burst duration. Our analysis reveals that each valine in the valine ring contributes to channel kinetics equally, and the valine ring has been optimized in the course of evolution to govern channel gating. (C) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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  126. Competitive regulation of alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation by hnRNP H and CstF64 determines acetylcholinesterase isoforms. Reviewed

    Nazim M, Masuda A, Rahman MA, Nasrin F, Takeda JI, Ohe K, Ohkawara B, Ito M, Ohno K

    Nucleic acids research     2016.9

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  127. Hydrogen-rich water ameliorates bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in newborn rats. Reviewed

    Muramatsu Y, Ito M, Oshima T, Kojima S, Ohno K

    Pediatric pulmonology   Vol. 51 ( 9 ) page: 928-35   2016.9

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  128. Hydrogen-rich water ameliorates bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in newborn rats

    Muramatsu Yukako, Ito Mikako, Oshima Takahiro, Kojima Seiji, Ohno Kinji

    PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY   Vol. 51 ( 9 ) page: 928-935   2016.9

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  129. Molecular hydrogen suppresses activated Wnt/beta-catenin signaling Reviewed

    Yingni Lin, Bisei Ohkawara, Mikako Ito, Nobuaki Misawa, Kentaro Miyamoto, Yasuhiko Takegami, Akio Masuda, Shinya Toyokuni, Kinji Ohno

    SCIENTIFIC REPORTS   Vol. 6 ( - ) page: 31986 - -   2016.8

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    Molecular hydrogen (H-2) is effective for many diseases. However, molecular bases of H-2 have not been fully elucidated. Cumulative evidence indicates that H-2 acts as a gaseous signal modulator. We found that H-2 suppresses activated Wnt/beta-catenin signaling by promoting phosphorylation and degradation of beta-catenin. Either complete inhibition of GSK3 or mutations at CK1- and GSK3-phosphorylation sites of beta-catenin abolished the suppressive effect of H-2. H-2 did not increase GSK3-mediated phosphorylation of glycogen synthase, indicating that H-2 has no direct effect on GSK3 itself. Knockdown of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) or Axin1, which form the beta-catenin degradation complex, minimized the suppressive effect of H2 on beta-catenin accumulation. Accordingly, the effect of H-2 requires CK1/GSK3-phosphorylation sites of beta-catenin, as well as the beta-catenin degradation complex comprised of CK1, GSK3, APC, and Axin1. We additionally found that H-2 reduces the activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes. Oral intake of H-2 water tended to ameliorate cartilage degradation in a surgery-induced rat osteoarthritis model through attenuating beta-catenin accumulation. We first demonstrate that H-2 suppresses abnormally activated Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, which accounts for the protective roles of H-2 in a fraction of diseases.

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  130. Is the serum creatine kinase level elevated in congenital myasthenic syndrome? Reviewed

    Kinji Ohno

    JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY   Vol. 87 ( 8 ) page: 801 - 801   2016.8

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  131. Global identification of hnRNP A1 binding sites for SSO-based splicing modulation Reviewed

    Gitte H. Bruun, Thomas K. Doktor, Jonas Borch-Jensen, Akio Masuda, Adrian R. Krainer, Kinji Ohno, Brage S. Andresen

    BMC BIOLOGY   Vol. 14 ( 1 ) page: 54 - -   2016.7

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    Background: Many pathogenic genetic variants have been shown to disrupt mRNA splicing. Besides splice mutations in the well-conserved splice sites, mutations in splicing regulatory elements (SREs) may deregulate splicing and cause disease. A promising therapeutic approach is to compensate for this deregulation by blocking other SREs with splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs). However, the location and sequence of most SREs are not well known.
    Results: Here, we used individual-nucleotide resolution crosslinking immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) to establish an in vivo binding map for the key splicing regulatory factor hnRNP A1 and to generate an hnRNP A1 consensus binding motif. We find that hnRNP A1 binding in proximal introns may be important for repressing exons. We show that inclusion of the alternative cassette exon 3 in SKA2 can be significantly increased by SSO-based treatment which blocks an iCLIP-identified hnRNP A1 binding site immediately downstream of the 5' splice site. Because pseudoexons are well suited as models for constitutive exons which have been inactivated by pathogenic mutations in SREs, we used a pseudoexon in MTRR as a model and showed that an iCLIP-identified hnRNP A1 binding site downstream of the 5' splice site can be blocked by SSOs to activate the exon.
    Conclusions: The hnRNP A1 binding map can be used to identify potential targets for SSO-based therapy. Moreover, together with the hnRNP A1 consensus binding motif, the binding map may be used to predict whether disease-associated mutations and SNPs affect hnRNP A1 binding and eventually mRNA splicing.

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  132. IntSplice: prediction of the splicing consequences of intronic single-nucleotide variations in the human genome Reviewed

    Akihide Shibata, Tatsuya Okuno, Mohammad Alinoor Rahman, Yoshiteru Azuma, Jun-ichi Takeda, Akio Masuda, Duygu Selcen, Andrew G. Engel, Kinji Ohno

    JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS   Vol. 61 ( 7 ) page: 633 - 40   2016.7

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    Precise spatiotemporal regulation of splicing is mediated by splicing cis-elements on pre-mRNA. Single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) affecting intronic cis-elements possibly compromise splicing, but no efficient tool has been available to identify them. Following an effect-size analysis of each intronic nucleotide on annotated alternative splicing, we extracted 105 parameters that could affect the strength of the splicing signals. However, we could not generate reliable support vector regression models to predict the percent-splice-in (PSI) scores for normal human tissues. Next, we generated support vector machine (SVM) models using 110 parameters to directly differentiate pathogenic SNVs in the Human Gene Mutation Database and normal SNVs in the dbSNP database, and we obtained models with a sensitivity of 0.800 +/- 0.041 (mean and s.d.) and a specificity of 0.849 +/- 0.021. Our IntSplice models were more discriminating than SVM models that we generated with Shapiro-Senapathy score and MaxEntScan::score3ss. We applied IntSplice to a naturally occurring and nine artificial intronic mutations in RAPSN causing congenital myasthenic syndrome. IntSplice correctly predicted the splicing consequences for nine of the ten mutants. We created a web service program, IntSplice (http://www.med.nagoya-u.ac.jp/neurogenetics/IntSplice) to predict splicing-affecting SNVs at intronic positions from -50 to -3.

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  133. R-spondin 2 promotes acetylcholine receptor clustering at the neuromuscular junction via Lgr5 Reviewed

    Hiroaki Nakashima, Bisei Ohkawara, Shinsuke Ishigaki, Takayasu Fukudome, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Hiroyuki Konishi, Tatsuya Okuno, Toshiro Yoshimura, Mikako Ito, Akio Masuda, Gen Sobue, Hiroshi Kiyama, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno

    SCIENTIFIC REPORTS   Vol. 6 ( - ) page: 28512 - -   2016.6

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    At the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering is mediated by spinal motor neuron (SMN)-derived agrin and its receptors on the muscle, the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) and muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK). Additionally, AChR clustering is mediated by the components of the Wnt pathway. Laser capture microdissection of SMNs revealed that a secreted activator of Wnt signaling, R-spondin 2 (Rspo2), is highly expressed in SMNs. We found that Rspo2 is enriched at the NMJ, and that Rspo2 induces MuSK phosphorylation and AChR clustering. Rspo2 requires Wnt ligands, but not agrin, for promoting AChR clustering in cultured myotubes. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5), an Rspo2 receptor, is also accumulated at the NMJ, and is associated with MuSK via LRP4. Lgr5 is required for Rspo2-mediated AChR clustering in myotubes. In Rspo2-knockout mice, the number and density of AChRs at the NMJ are reduced. The Rspo2-knockout diaphragm has an altered ultrastructure with widened synaptic clefts and sparse synaptic vesicles. Frequency of miniature endplate currents is markedly reduced in Rspo2-knockout mice. To conclude, we demonstrate that Rspo2 and its receptor Lgr5 are Wnt-dependent and agrin-independent regulators of AChR clustering at the NMJ.

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  134. FUS-mediated regulation of alternative RNA processing in neurons: insights from global transcriptome analysis Reviewed

    Akio Masuda, Jun-ichi Takeda, Kinji Ohno

    WILEY INTERDISCIPLINARY REVIEWS-RNA   Vol. 7 ( 3 ) page: 330 - 40   2016.5

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    Fused in sarcoma (FUS) is an RNA-binding protein that is causally associated with oncogenesis and neurodegeneration. Recently, the role of FUS in neurodegeneration has been extensively studied, because mutations in FUS are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and the FUS protein has been identified as a major component of intracellular inclusions in neurodegenerative disorders including ALS and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. FUS is a key molecule in transcriptional regulation and RNA processing including processes such as pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing and polyadenylation. Interaction of FUS with various components of the transcription machinery, spliceosome, and the 3-end processing machinery has been identified. Furthermore, recent advances in high-throughput transcriptomic profiling approaches have enabled us to determine the mechanisms of FUS-dependent RNA processing networks at a cellular level. These analyses have revealed that depletion of FUS in neuronal cells affects alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation of thousands of mRNAs. Gene ontology analysis has suggested that FUS-modulated genes are implicated in neuronal functions and development. CLIP-seq of FUS has shown that FUS is frequently clustered around these alternative sites of nascent RNA. ChIP-seq of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) has demonstrated that an interaction between FUS and nascent RNA downregulates local transcriptional activity of RNAP II, which is critically involved in RNA processing. Both alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation are fundamental processes by which cells expand their transcriptomic diversity, and are particularly essential in the nervous system. Dependence of transcriptomic diversity on FUS makes the nervous system vulnerable to neurodegeneration, when FUS is functionally compromised. (C) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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  135. Phenylbutazone induces expression of MBNL1 and suppresses formation of MBNL1-CUG RNA foci in a mouse model of myotonic dystrophy Reviewed

    Guiying Chen, Akio Masuda, Hiroyuki Konishi, Bisei Ohkawara, Mikako Ito, Masanobu Kinoshita, Hiroshi Kiyama, Tohru Matsuura, Kinji Ohno

    SCIENTIFIC REPORTS   Vol. 6 ( - ) page: 25317 - -   2016.4

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    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by abnormal expansion of CTG repeats in the 3' untranslated region of the DMPK gene. Expanded CTG repeats are transcribed into RNA and make an aggregate with a splicing regulator, MBNL1, in the nucleus, which is called the nuclear foci. The nuclear foci sequestrates and downregulates availability of MBNL1. Symptomatic treatments are available for DM1, but no rational therapy is available. In this study, we found that a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), phenylbutazone (PBZ), upregulated the expression of MBNL1 in C2C12 myoblasts as well as in the HSA(LR) mouse model for DM1. In the DM1 mice model, PBZ ameliorated aberrant splicing of Clcn1, Nfix, and Rpn2. PBZ increased expression of skeletal muscle chloride channel, decreased abnormal central nuclei of muscle fibers, and improved wheel-running activity in HSALR mice. We found that the effect of PBZ was conferred by two distinct mechanisms. First, PBZ suppressed methylation of an enhancer region in Mbnl1 intron 1, and enhanced transcription of Mbnl1 mRNA. Second, PBZ attenuated binding of MBNL1 to abnormally expanded CUG repeats in cellulo and in vitro. Our studies suggest that PBZ is a potent therapeutic agent for DM1 that upregulates availability of MBNL1.

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  136. R-spondin 2 facilitates differentiation of proliferating chondrocytes into hypertrophic chondrocytes by enhancing Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in endochondral ossification Reviewed

    Yasuhiko Takegami, Bisei Ohkawara, Mikako Ito, Akio Masuda, Hiroaki Nakashima, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno

    BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS   Vol. 473 ( 1 ) page: 255 - 264   2016.4

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    Endochondral ossification is a crucial process for longitudinal growth of bones. Differentiating chondrocytes in growth cartilage form four sequential zones of proliferation, alignment into column, hypertrophy, and substitution of chondrocytes with osteoblasts. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is essential for differentiation of proliferating chondrocytes into hypertrophic chondrocytes in growth cartilage. R-spondin 2 (Rspo2), a member of R-spondin family, is an agonist for Wnt signaling, but its role in chondrocyte differentiation remains unknown. Here we report that growth cartilage of Rspo2-knockout mice shows a decreased amount of beta-catenin and increased amounts collagen type II (CII) and Sox9 in the abnormally extended proliferating zone. In contrast, expression of collagen type X (CX) in the hypertrophic zone remains unchanged. Differentiating chondrogenic ATDC5 cells, mimicking proliferating chondrocytes, upregulate Rspo2 and its putative receptor, Lgr5, in parallel. Addition of recombinant human Rspo2 to differentiating ATDC5 cells decreases expressions of C0120, Sox9, and Acan, as well as production of proteoglycans. In contrast, lentivirus-mediated knockdown of Rspo2 has the opposite effect. The effect of Rspo2 on chondrogenic differentiation is mediated by Wnt/O-catenin signaling, and not by Wnt/PCP or Wnt/Ca2+ signaling. We propose that Rspo2 activates Wnt/beta-catenin signaling to reduce Col2a1 and Sox9 and to facilitate differentiation of proliferating chondrocytes into hypertrophic chondrocytes in growth cartilage. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  137. Serum Tyrosine-to-Phenylalanine Ratio is Low in Parkinson's Disease Reviewed

    Masaaki Hirayama, Makoto Tsunoda, Mitsutoshi Yamamoto, Takao Tsuda, Kinji Ohno

    JOURNAL OF PARKINSONS DISEASE   Vol. 6 ( 2 ) page: 423 - 31   2016.4

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    Background: Noninvasive biomarkers for Parkinson's disease (PD) are currently unavailable.Objective: To search for a biomarker unique to PD in sweat and serum.Methods: Sweat samples in 42 PD patients and 16 controls were analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The principal component analysis (PCA) and the orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) analysis were employed. Serum Phe and Tyr levels were determined using the HPLC-fluorescence detection system in 28 de novo PD patients, 52 L-Dopa-treated PD patients, and 27 controls.Results: PCA and OPLS analyses of LC/MS of sweat samples revealed that Tyr, Phe, Leu (Ile), and Asp have high effect sizes to differentiate PD and controls. As Phe and Tyr are precursors of dopamine, we quantified the serum Phe and Tyr levels in de novo and treated PD patients, as well as in controls. Phe was high in de novo patients, but not in treated patients. In contrast, Tyr tended to be low in treated patients, but not in de novo patients. Tyr/Phe ratios were lower in both de novo and treated patients than in controls. The Tyr/Phe ratios were all higher than 0.82 in controls, whereas 49% of the de novo and treated patients had Tyr/Phe ratios less than 0.82. The low Tyr/Phe ratios were associated with male patients and low doses of entacapone. However, Tyr/Phe ratios were not different between male and female patients, and between patients with and without entacapone.Conclusions: The low serum Tyr/Phe ratio differentiates PD from controls with sensitivity = 0.49, specificity = 1.00, positive predictive value = 1.00, and negative predictive value = 0.40.

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  138. Repositioning again of zonisamide for nerve regeneration Reviewed

    Kinji Ohno, Hideki Yagi, Bisei Ohkawara

    NEURAL REGENERATION RESEARCH   Vol. 11 ( 4 ) page: 541 - 2   2016.4

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  139. [Regulation of mRNA length by FUS].

    Masuda A, Ohno K

    Seikagaku. The Journal of Japanese Biochemical Society   Vol. 88 ( 2 ) page: 244 - 7   2016.4

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  140. Polymorphisms in Four Genes (KCNQ1 rs151290, KLF14 rs972283, GCKR rs780094 and MTNR1B rs10830963) and Their Correlation with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Han Chinese in Henan Province, China.

    Gao K, Wang J, Li L, Zhai Y, Ren Y, You H, Wang B, Wu X, Li J, Liu Z, Li X, Huang Y, Luo XP, Hu D, Ohno K, Wang C

    International journal of environmental research and public health   Vol. 13 ( 3 )   2016.2

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  141. Tranilast stimulates endochondral ossification by upregulating SOX9 and RUNX2 promoters Reviewed

    Sachi Hasegawa, Hiroshi Kitoh, Bisei Ohkawara, Kenichi Mishima, Masaki Matsushita, Akio Masuda, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno

    BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS   Vol. 470 ( 2 ) page: 356 - 361   2016.2

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    Endochondral ossification is an essential process for reparative phase of fracture healing, which starts with the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into chondrocytes followed by substitution of bone tissue. It is strictly controlled by the expression of crucial transcriptional factors: SOX9 in the early phase and RUNX2 in the late phase. Screening of FDA-approved compounds revealed that an anti-allergic drug, tranilast, that has been used for more than 30 years in clinical practice, enhanced the SOX9 promoter in chondrogenic cells and the RUNX2 promoter in osteoblastic cells. We observed that tranilast increased mRNA expression of both Sox9 and Runx2 in differentiating ATDC5 chondrogenic progenitor cells. Tranilast upregulated mRNA expression of chondrogenic marker genes (Col2a1, Acan, Col10a1, and Mmp13) in differentiating ATDC5 cells. Moreover, tranilast upregulated mRNA expression of essential signaling molecules involved in endochondral ossification (Pthrp, Ihh, and Axin2). In the later phase of differentiation of ATDC5 cells, tranilast increased synthesis of matrix proteoglycans, induced the alkaline phosphatase activity, and tended to accelerate mineralization. Tranilast is a potential agent that accelerates fracture repair by promoting the regulatory steps of endochondral ossification. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  142. Neuroprotective potential of molecular hydrogen against perinatal brain injury via suppression of activated microglia Reviewed

    Kenji Imai, Tomomi Kotani, Hiroyuki Tsuda, Yukio Mano, Tomoko Nakano, Takafumi Ushida, Hua Li, Rika Miki, Seiji Sumigama, Akira Iwase, Akihiro Hirakawa, Kinji Ohno, Shinya Toyokuni, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Tetsuya Mizuno, Akio Suzumura, Fumitaka Kikkawa

    FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE   Vol. 91 ( - ) page: 154 - 63   2016.2

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    Exposure to inflammation in utero is related to perinatal brain injury, which is itself associated with high rates of long-term morbidity and mortality in children. Novel therapeutic interventions during the perinatal period are required to prevent inflammation, but its pathogenesis is incompletely understood. Activated microglia are known to play a central role in brain injury by producing a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines and releasing oxidative products. The study is aimed to investigate the preventative potential of molecular hydrogen (H-2), which is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent without mutagenicity. Pregnant ICR mice were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intraperitoneally on embryonic day 17 to create a model of perinatal brain injury caused by prenatal inflammation. In this model, the effect of maternal administration of hydrogen water (HW) on pups was also evaluated. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative damage and activation of microglia were determined in the fetal brains. H-2 reduced the LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative damage and microglial activation in the fetal brains. Next, we investigated how H-2 contributes to neuroprotection, focusing on microglia, using primary cultured microglia and neurons. H-2 prevented LPS- or cytokine-induced generation of reactive oxidative species by microglia and reduced LPS-induced microglial neurotoxicity. Finally, we identified several molecules influenced by H-2, involved in the process of activating microglia. These results suggested that H-2 holds promise for the prevention of inflammation related to perinatal brain injury. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  143. Zonisamide Enhances Neurite Elongation of Primary Motor Neurons and Facilitates Peripheral Nerve Regeneration In Vitro and in a Mouse Model (vol 10, e0142786, 2015) Reviewed

    Hideki Yagi, Bisei Ohkawara, Hiroaki Nakashima, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Hisao Ishii, Kimitoshi Noto, Kyotaro Ohta, Akio Masuda, Shiro Imagama, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno

    PLOS ONE   Vol. 11 ( 1 ) page: e0148470 - -   2016

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  144. Lansoprazole Upregulates Polyubiquitination of the TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6 and Facilitates Runx2-mediated Osteoblastogenesis Reviewed

    Kenichi Mishima, Hiroshi Kitoh, Bisei Ohkawara, Tatsuya Okuno, Mikako Ito, Akio Masuda, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno

    EBIOMEDICINE   Vol. 2 ( 12 ) page: 2046 - 61   2015.12

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    The transcription factor, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), plays a pivotal role in the differentiation of the mesenchymal stemcells to the osteochondroblast lineages. Wefound by the drug repositioning strategy that a proton pump inhibitor, lansoprazole, enhances nuclear accumulation of Runx2 and induces osteoblastogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells. Systemic administration of lansoprazole to a rat femoral fracture model increased osteoblastogenesis. Dissection of signaling pathways revealed that lansoprazole activates a noncanonical bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) activated kinase-1 (TAK1)-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. We found by in cellulo ubiquitination studies that lansoprazole enhances polyubiquitination of the TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and by in vitro ubiquitination studies that the enhanced polyubiquitination of TRAF6 is attributed to the blocking of a deubiquitination enzyme, cylindromatosis (CYLD). Structural modeling and site-directed mutagenesis of CYLD demonstrated that lansoprazole tightly fits in a pocket of CYLD where the C-terminal tail of ubiquitin lies. Lansoprazole is a potential therapeutic agent for enhancing osteoblastic differentiation. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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  145. LRP4 myasthenia: Investigation of a second kinship reveals impaired development and maintenance of the neuromuscular junction

    Selcen D., Ohkawara B., Shen X., McEvoy K., Ohno K., Engel A.

    NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS   Vol. 25   page: S186-S187   2015.10

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  146. Collagen Q and anti-MuSK autoantibody competitively suppress agrin/LRP4/MuSK signaling Reviewed

    Kenji Otsuka, Mikako Ito, Bisei Ohkawara, Akio Masuda, Yu Kawakami, Ko Sahashi, Hiroshi Nishida, Naoki Mabuchi, Akemi Takano, Andrew G. Engel, Kinji Ohno

    SCIENTIFIC REPORTS   Vol. 5 ( - ) page: 13928 - -   2015.9

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    MuSK antibody-positive myasthenia gravis (MuSK-MG) accounts for 5 to 15% of autoimmune MG. MuSK and LRP4 are coreceptors for agrin in the signaling pathway that causes clustering of acetylcholine receptor (AChR). MuSK also anchors the acetylcholinesterase (AChE)/collagen Q (ColQ) complex to the synaptic basal lamina. We previously reported that anti-MuSK antibodies (MuSK-IgG) block binding of ColQ to MuSK and cause partial endplate AChE deficiency in mice. We here analyzed the physiological significance of binding of ColQ to MuSK and block of this binding by MuSK-IgG. In vitro plate-binding assay showed that MuSK-IgG blocked MuSK-LRP4 interaction in the presence of agrin. Passive transfer of MuSK-IgG to Colq-knockout mice attenuated AChR clustering, indicating that lack of ColQ is not the key event causing defective clustering of AChR in MuSK-MG. In three MuSK-MG patients, the MuSK antibodies recognized the first and fourth immunoglobulinlike domains (Ig1 and Ig4) of MuSK. In two other MuSK-MG patients, they recognized only the Ig4 domain. LRP4 and ColQ also bound to the Ig1 and Ig4 domains of MuSK. Unexpectedly, the AChE/ColQ complex blocked MuSK-LRP4 interaction and suppressed agrin/LRP4/MuSK signaling. Quantitative analysis showed that MuSK-IgG suppressed agrin/LRP4/MuSK signaling to a greater extent than ColQ.

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  147. Promoting Osteoblastogenesis using Lansoprazole

    Mishima K., Ohkawara B., Kitoh H., Okabe Y. Tsukagoshi, Sugiura H., Matsushita M., Ishiguro N., Ohno K.

    TISSUE ENGINEERING PART A   Vol. 21   page: S246 - S246   2015.9

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  148. Hydrogen ameliorates pulmonary hypertension in rats by anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects Reviewed

    Yasuaki Kishimoto, Taichi Kato, Mikako Ito, Yoshiteru Azuma, Yoshie Fukasawa, Kinji Ohno, Seiji Kojima

    JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY   Vol. 150 ( 3 ) page: 645 - 54.e3   2015.9

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    Objective: The pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) involves reactive oxygen species and inflammation. Beneficial effects of molecular hydrogen, which exerts both anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects, have been reported for various pathologic conditions. We therefore hypothesized that molecular hydrogen would improve monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH in rats.
    Methods: Nineteen male Sprague-Dawley rats (body weight: 200-300 g) were divided into groups, receiving: (1) MCT + hydrogen-saturated water (group H); (2) MCT + dehydrogenized water (group M); or (3) saline + dehydrogenized water (group C). Sixteen days after substance administration, we evaluated hemodynamics, harvested the lungs and heart, and performed morphometric analysis of the pulmonary vasculature. Macrophage infiltration, antiproliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)positive cells, and expressions of phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) were evaluated immunohistochemically. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expressions were evaluated by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction.
    Results: Pulmonary arterial hypertension was significantly exacerbated in group M compared to group C, but was significantly improved in group H. Vascular density was significantly reduced in group M, but not in group H. Adventitial macrophages, antiproliferating cell nuclear antigen - and 8-OHdG-positive cells, and stromal cell-derived factor-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expressions were significantly increased in group M, but improved in group H. Expressions of phosphorylated STAT3 and NFAT were up-regulated in group M, but improved in group H.
    Conclusions: Molecular hydrogen ameliorates MCT-induced PAH in rats by suppressing macrophage accumulation, reducing oxidative stress and modulating the STAT3/NFAT axis.

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  149. 詳細な問診で診断に至った先天性筋無力症候群の8歳女児例

    高橋 孝治, 小牧 宏文, 須貝 研司, 石山 昭彦, 竹下 絵里, 本橋 裕子, 齋藤 貴志, 中川 栄二, 佐々木 征行, 奥野 達矢, 大野 欽司

    脳と発達   Vol. 47 ( 5 ) page: 376 - 376   2015.9

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  150. SRSF1 and hnRNP H antagonistically regulate splicing of COLQ exon 16 in a congenital myasthenic syndrome Reviewed

    Mohammad Alinoor Rahman, Yoshiteru Azuma, Farhana Nasrin, Jun-ichi Takeda, Mohammad Nazim, Khalid Bin Ahsan, Akio Masuda, Andrew G. Engel, Kinji Ohno

    SCIENTIFIC REPORTS   Vol. 5 ( - ) page: 13208 - -   2015.8

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    The catalytic subunits of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are anchored in the basal lamina of the neuromuscular junction using a collagen-like tail subunit (ColQ) encoded by COLQ. Mutations in COLQ cause endplate AChE deficiency. An A-to-G mutation predicting p.E415G in COLQ exon 16 identified in a patient with endplate AChE deficiency causes exclusive skipping of exon 16. RNA affinity purification, mass spectrometry, and siRNA-mediated gene knocking down disclosed that the mutation disrupts binding of a splicing-enhancing RNA-binding protein, SRSF1, and de novo gains binding of a splicing-suppressing RNA-binding protein, hnRNP H. MS2-mediated artificial tethering of each factor demonstrated that SRSF1 and hnRNP H antagonistically modulate splicing by binding exclusively to the target in exon 16. Further analyses with artificial mutants revealed that SRSF1 is able to bind to degenerative binding motifs, whereas hnRNP H strictly requires an uninterrupted stretch of poly(G). The mutation compromised splicing of the downstream intron. Isolation of early spliceosome complex revealed that the mutation impairs binding of U1-70K (snRNP70) to the downstream 5' splice site. Global splicing analysis with RNA-seq revealed that exons carrying the hnRNP H-binding GGGGG motif are predisposed to be skipped compared to those carrying the SRSF1-binding GGAGG motif in both human and mouse brains.

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  151. Impaired Synaptic Development, Maintenance, and Neuromuscular Transmission in LRP4-Related Myasthenia. Reviewed

    Selcen D, Ohkawara B, Shen XM, McEvoy K, Ohno K, Engel AG

    JAMA neurology   Vol. 72 ( 8 ) page: 889-96   2015.8

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  152. A missense mutation in domain III in HSPG2 in Schwartz-Jampel syndrome compromises secretion of perlecan into the extracellular space Reviewed

    Satoshi Iwata, Mikako Ito, Tomohiko Nakata, Yoichiro Noguchi, Tatsuya Okuno, Bisei Ohkawara, Akio Masuda, Tomohide Goto, Masanori Adachi, Hitoshi Osaka, Risa Nonaka, Eri Arikawa-Hirasawa, Kinji Ohno

    NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS   Vol. 25 ( 8 ) page: 667 - 71   2015.8

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    Schwartz-Jampel syndrome (SJS) type 1 is characterized by short stature, myotonia, and chondrodysplasia, and is caused by partial loss-of-function mutations in HSPG2 encoding perlecan. Six missense mutations have been reported in SJS to date and only one has been characterized using a recombinant protein. We report an 11-year-old Japanese boy with SJS, who shows "rigid" walking with less flexion of knees/ankles and protruded mouth. His intelligence is normal. We identified by whole genome resequencing a heterozygous missense p.Leu1088Pro in domain III-2 and a heterozygous nonsense p.G1n3061Ter in domain IV of perlecan. Expression studies revealed that p.Leu1088Pro markedly reduces the cellular expression of domain III-2 and almost nullifies its secretion into the culture medium. As five of the seven missense mutations in SJS affect domain III of perlecan, domain III is likely to be essential for secretion of perlecan into the extracellular space. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.A. All rights reserved.

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  153. Impaired Synaptic Development, Maintenance, and Neuromuscular Transmission in LRP4-Related Myasthenia

    Selcen Duygu, Ohkawara Bisei, Shen Xin-Ming, McEvoy Kathleen, Ohno Kinji, Engel Andrew G.

    JAMA NEUROLOGY   Vol. 72 ( 8 ) page: 889 - 896   2015.8

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  154. Dopaminergic differentiation of stem cells from human deciduous teeth and their therapeutic benefits for Parkinsonian rats Reviewed

    Hiromi Fujii, Kohki Matsubara, Kiyoshi Sakai, Mikako Ito, Kinji Ohno, Minoru Ueda, Akihito Yamamoto

    BRAIN RESEARCH   Vol. 1613 ( - ) page: 59 - 72   2015.7

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    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons and the depletion of striatal dopamine. Here we show that DAergic-neuron-like cells could be efficiently induced from stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDS), and that these induced cells had therapeutic benefits in a 6-OHDA-induced Parkinsonian rat model. In our protocol, EGF and bFGF signaling activated the SHED's expression of proneural genes, Ngn2 and Mash1, and subsequent treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoted their maturation into DAergic neuron-like SHEDs (dSHEDs). A hypoxic DAergic differentiation protocol improved cell viability and enhanced the expression of multiple neurotrophic factors, including BDNF, GDNF, NT-3, and HGF. Engrafted dSHEDs survived in the striatum of Parldnsonian rats, improved the DA level more efficiently than engrafted undifferentiated SHEDs, and promoted the recovery from neurological deficits. Our findings further suggested that paracrine effects of dSHEDs contributed to neuroprotection against 6-OHDA-induced neurodegeneration and to nigrostriatal tract restoration. In addition, we found that the conditioned medium derived from dSHEDs protected primary neurons against 6-OHDA toxicity and accelerated neurite outgrowth in vitro. Thus, our data suggest that stem cells derived from dental pulp may have therapeutic benefits for PD. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  155. Application of molecular hydrogen on Parkinson's disease and neuromuscular disorders

    Ohno Kinji

    JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGICAL SCIENCES   Vol. 128 ( 3 ) page: S74 - S74   2015.7

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  156. Position-specific binding of FUS to nascent RNA regulates mRNA length Reviewed

    Akio Masuda, Jun-ichi Takeda, Tatsuya Okuno, Takaaki Okamoto, Bisei Ohkawara, Mikako Ito, Shinsuke Ishigaki, Gen Sobue, Kinji Ohno

    GENES & DEVELOPMENT   Vol. 29 ( 10 ) page: 1045 - 57   2015.5

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    More than half of all human genes produce prematurely terminated polyadenylated short mRNAs. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. CLIP-seq (cross-linking immunoprecipitation [CLIP] combined with deep sequencing) of FUS (fused in sarcoma) in neuronal cells showed that FUS is frequently clustered around an alternative polyadenylation (APA) site of nascent RNA. ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation [ChIP] combined with deep sequencing) of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) demonstrated that FUS stalls RNAP II and prematurely terminates transcription. When an APA site is located upstream of an FUS cluster, FUS enhances polyadenylation by recruiting CPSF160 and up-regulates the alternative short transcript. In contrast, when an APA site is located downstream from an FUS cluster, polyadenylation is not activated, and the RNAP II-suppressing effect of FUS leads to down-regulation of the alternative short transcript. CAGE-seq (cap analysis of gene expression [CAGE] combined with deep sequencing) and PolyA-seq (a strand-specific and quantitative method for high-throughput sequencing of 3' ends of polyadenylated transcripts) revealed that position-specific regulation of mRNA lengths by FUS is operational in two-thirds of transcripts in neuronal cells, with enrichment in genes involved in synaptic activities.

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  157. FUS regulates AMPA receptor function and FTLD/ALS-associated behaviour via GluA1 mRNA stabilization Reviewed

    Tsuyoshi Udagawa, Yusuke Fujioka, Motoki Tanaka, Daiyu Honda, Satoshi Yokoi, Yuichi Riku, Daisuke Ibi, Taku Nagai, Kiyofumi Yamada, Hirohisa Watanabe, Masahisa Katsuno, Toshifumi Inada, Kinji Ohno, Masahiro Sokabe, Haruo Okado, Shinsuke Ishigaki, Gen Sobue

    NATURE COMMUNICATIONS   Vol. 6 ( - ) page: 7098 - -   2015.5

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    FUS is an RNA/DNA-binding protein involved in multiple steps of gene expression and is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fronto-temporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). However, the specific disease-causing and/or modifying mechanism mediated by FUS is largely unknown. Here we evaluate intrinsic roles of FUS on synaptic functions and animal behaviours. We find that FUS depletion downregulates GluA1, a subunit of AMPA receptor. FUS binds GluA1 mRNA in the vicinity of the 3' terminus and controls poly (A) tail maintenance, thus regulating stability. GluA1 reduction upon FUS knockdown reduces miniature EPSC amplitude both in cultured neurons and in vivo. FUS knockdown in hippocampus attenuates dendritic spine maturation and causes behavioural aberrations including hyperactivity, disinhibition and social interaction defects, which are partly ameliorated by GluA1 reintroduction. These results highlight the pivotal role of FUS in regulating GluA1 mRNA stability, post-synaptic function and FTLD-like animal behaviours.

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  158. Simultaneous oral and inhalational intake of molecular hydrogen additively suppresses signaling pathways in rodents Reviewed

    Sayaka Sobue, Kazuaki Yamai, Mikako Ito, Kinji Ohno, Masafumi Ito, Takashi Iwamoto, Shanlou Qiao, Tetsuo Ohkuwa, Masatoshi Ichihara

    MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY   Vol. 403 ( 1-2 ) page: 231 - 41   2015.5

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    Molecular hydrogen (H-2) is an agent with potential applications in oxidative stress-related and/or inflammatory disorders. H-2 is usually administered by inhaling H-2-containing air (HCA) or by oral intake of H-2-rich water (HRW). Despite mounting evidence, the molecular mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects and the optimal method of H-2 administration remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether H-2 affects signaling pathways and gene expression in a dosage-or dose regimen-dependent manner. We first examined the H-2 concentrations in blood and organs after its administration and found that oral intake of HRW rapidly but transiently increased H-2 concentrations in the liver and atrial blood, while H-2 concentrations in arterial blood and the kidney were one-tenth of those in the liver and atrial blood. In contrast, inhalation of HCA increased H-2 equally in both atrial and arterial blood. We next examined whether H-2 alters gene expression in normal mouse livers using DNA microarray analysis after administration of HCA and HRW. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that H-2 suppressed the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B)-regulated genes. Western blot analysis showed that H-2 attenuated ERK, p38 MAPK, and NF-kappa B signaling in mouse livers. Finally, we evaluated whether the changes in gene expression were influenced by the route of H-2 administration and found that the combination of both HRW and HCA had the most potent effects on signaling pathways and gene expression in systemic organs, suggesting that H-2 may act not only through a dose-dependent mechanism but also through a complex molecular network.

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  159. Noninvasive monitoring of plasma L-dopa concentrations using sweat samples in Parkinson's disease Reviewed

    Makoto Tsunoda, Masaaki Hirayama, Takao Tsuda, Kinji Ohno

    CLINICA CHIMICA ACTA   Vol. 442 ( - ) page: 52 - 5   2015.3

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    Background: L-dopa (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) is commonly used for treating Parkinson's disease (PD). However, regardless of its prominent effect, therapeutic range of L-dopa narrows down with disease progression, which leads to development of motor complications including wearing off and dyskinesias. In addition, intestinal absorption of L-dopa is inversely correlated with the amount of oral protein intake, and shows intra- and interday variability. Hence, frequent monitoring of plasma L-dopa concentrations is beneficial, but frequent venipuncture imposes physical and psychological burdens on patients with PD.Methods: We investigated the usefulness of sweat samples instead of plasma samples for monitoring L-dopa concentrations. With a monolithic silica disk-packed spin column and the high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection system, L-dopa in sweat samples was successfully quantified and analyzed in 23 PD patients.Results: We found that the Pearson's correlation coefficient of the plasma and sweat L-dopa concentrations was 0.678. Although the disease durations and severities were not correlated with the deviation of the actual sweat L-dopa concentrations from the fitted line, acquisition of the sweat samples under a stable condition was technically difficult in severely affected patients. The deviations may also be partly accounted for by skin permeability of L-dopa.Conclusions: Measuring L-dopa concentrations in sweat is suitable to get further insights into the L-dopa metabolism. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  160. CHCHD2 mutations in autosomal dominant late-onset Parkinson's disease: a genome-wide linkage and sequencing study Reviewed

    Manabu Funayama, Kenji Ohe, Taku Amo, Norihiko Furuya, Junji Yamaguchi, Shinji Saiki, Yuanzhe Li, Kotaro Ogaki, Maya Ando, Hiroyo Yoshino, Hiroyuki Tomiyama, Kenya Nishioka, Kazuko Hasegawa, Hidemoto Saiki, Wataru Satake, Kaoru Mogushi, Ryogen Sasaki, Yasumasa Kokubo, Shigeki Kuzuhara, Tatsushi Toda, Yoshikuni Mizuno, Yasuo Uchiyama, Kinji Ohno, Nobutaka Hattori

    LANCET NEUROLOGY   Vol. 14 ( 3 ) page: 274 - 82   2015.3

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    Background Identification of causative genes in mendelian forms of Parkinson's disease is valuable for understanding the cause of the disease. We did genetic studies in a Japanese family with autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease to identify novel causative genes.
    Methods We did a genome-wide linkage analysis on eight affected and five unaffected individuals from a family with autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (family A). Subsequently, we did exome sequencing on three patients and whole-genome sequencing on one patient in family A. Variants were validated by Sanger sequencing in samples from patients with autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease, patients with sporadic Parkinson's disease, and controls. Participants were identified from the DNA bank of the Comprehensive Genetic Study on Parkinson's Disease and Related Disorders (Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan) and were classified according to clinical information obtained by neurologists. Splicing abnormalities of CHCHD2 mutants were analysed in SH-SY5Y cells. We used the Fisher's exact test to calculate the significance of allele frequencies between patients with sporadic Parkinson's disease and unaffected controls, and we calculated odds ratios and 95% CIs of minor alleles.
    Findings We identified a missense mutation (CHCHD2, 182C&gt;T, Thr61Ile) in family A by next-generation sequencing. We obtained samples from a further 340 index patients with autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease, 517 patients with sporadic Parkinson's disease, and 559 controls. Three CHCHD2 mutations in four of 341 index cases from independent families with autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease were detected by CHCHD2 mutation screening: 182C&gt;T (Thr61Ile), 434G&gt;A (Arg145Gln), and 300+5G&gt;A. Two single nudeotide variants (-9T&gt;G and 5C&gt;T) in CHCHD2 were confirmed to have different frequencies between sporadic Parkinson's disease and controls, with odds ratios of 2.51 (95% CI 1.48-4.24; p=0.0004) and 4.69 (1.59-13.83, p=0.0025), respectively. One single nucleotide polymorphism (rs816411) was found in CHCHD2 from a previously reported genome-wide association study; however, there was no significant difference in its frequency between patients with Parkinson's disease and controls in a previously reported genome-wide association study (odds ratio 1-17,95% CI 0.96-1.19; p=0.22). In SH-SY5Y cells, the 300+5G&gt;A mutation but not the other two mutations caused exon 2 skipping.
    Interpretation CHCHD2 mutations are associated with, and might be a cause of, autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. Further genetic studies in other populations are needed to confirm the pathogenicity of CHCHD2 mutations in autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease and susceptibility for sporadic Parkinson's disease, and further functional studies are needed to understand how mutant CHCHD2 might play a part in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease.

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  161. Meclozine Promotes Longitudinal Skeletal Growth in Transgenic Mice with Achondroplasia Carrying a Gain-of-Function Mutation in the FGFR3 Gene Reviewed

    Masaki Matsushita, Satoru Hasegawa, Hiroshi Kitoh, Kensaku Mori, Bisei Ohkawara, Akihiro Yasoda, Akio Masuda, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno

    ENDOCRINOLOGY   Vol. 156 ( 2 ) page: 548 - 54   2015.2

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    Achondroplasia (ACH) is one of the most common skeletal dysplasias causing short stature owing to a gain-of-function mutation in the FGFR3 gene, which encodes the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3. We found that meclozine, an over-the-counter drug for motion sickness, inhibited elevated FGFR3 signaling in chondrocytic cells. To examine the feasibility of meclozine administration in clinical settings, we investigated the effects of meclozine on ACH model mice carrying the heterozygous Fgfr3(ach) transgene. We quantified the effect of meclozine in bone explant cultures employing limb rudiments isolated from developing embryonic tibiae from Fgfr3(ach) mice. We found that meclozine significantly increased the full-length and cartilaginous primordia of embryonic tibiae isolated from Fgfr3(ach) mice. We next analyzed the skeletal phenotypes of growing Fgfr3(ach) mice and wild-type mice with or without meclozine treatment. In Fgfr3(ach) mice, meclozine significantly increased the body length after 2 weeks of administration. At skeletal maturity, the bone lengths including the cranium, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, and vertebrae were significantly longer in meclozine-treated Fgfr3(ach) mice than in untreated Fgfr3(ach) mice. Interestingly, meclozine also increased bone growth in wild-type mice. The plasma concentration of meclozine during treatment was within the range that has been used in clinical settings for motion sickness. Increased longitudinal bone growth in Fgfr3(ach) mice by oral administration of meclozine in a growth period suggests potential clinical feasibility of meclozine for the improvement of short stature in ACH.

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  162. Congenital myasthenic syndrome in Japan: ethnically unique mutations in muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits. Reviewed

    Azuma Y, Nakata T, Tanaka M, Shen XM, Ito M, Iwata S, Okuno T, Nomura Y, Ando N, Ishigaki K, Ohkawara B, Masuda A, Natsume J, Kojima S, Sokabe M, Ohno K

    Neuromuscular disorders : NMD   Vol. 25 ( 1 ) page: 60-9   2015.1

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  163. Congenital myasthenic syndrome in Japan: Ethnically unique mutations in muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits

    Azuma Yoshiteru, Nakata Tomohiko, Tanaka Motoki, Shen Xin-Ming, Ito Mikako, Iwata Satoshi, Okuno Tatsuya, Nomura Yoshiko, Ando Naoki, Ishigaki Keiko, Ohkawara Bisei, Masuda Akio, Natsume Jun, Kojima Seiji, Sokabe Masahiro, Ohno Kinji

    NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS   Vol. 25 ( 1 ) page: 60-69   2015.1

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  164. Zonisamide Enhances Neurite Elongation of Primary Motor Neurons and Facilitates Peripheral Nerve Regeneration In Vitro and in a Mouse Model Reviewed

    Hideki Yagi, Bisei Ohkawara, Hiroaki Nakashima, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Hisao Ishii, Kimitoshi Noto, Kyotaro Ohta, Akio Masuda, Shiro Imagama, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno

    PLOS ONE   Vol. 10 ( 11 ) page: e0142786 - -   2015

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    No clinically applicable drug is currently available to enhance neurite elongation after nerve injury. To identify a clinically applicable drug, we screened pre-approved drugs for neurite elongation in the motor neuron-like NSC34 cells. We found that zonisamide, an anti-epileptic and anti-Parkinson's disease drug, promoted neurite elongation in cultured primary motor neurons and NSC34 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The neurite-scratch assay revealed that zonisamide enhanced neurite regeneration. Zonisamide was also protective against oxidative stress-induced cell death of primary motor neurons. Zonisamide induced mRNA expression of nerve growth factors (BDNF, NGF, and neurotrophin-4/5), and their receptors (tropomyosin receptor kinase A and B). In a mouse model of sciatic nerve autograft, intragastric administration of zonisamide for 1 week increased the size of axons distal to the transected site 3.9-fold. Zonisamide also improved the sciatic function index, a marker for motor function of hindlimbs after sciatic nerve autograft, from 6 weeks after surgery. At 8 weeks after surgery, zonisamide was protective against denervation-induced muscle degeneration in tibialis anterior, and increased gene expression of Chrne, Colq, and Rapsn, which are specifically expressed at the neuromuscular junction. We propose that zonisamide is a potential therapeutic agent for peripheral nerve injuries as well as for neuropathies due to other etiologies.

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  165. Beneficial biological effects and the underlying mechanisms of molecular hydrogen - Comprehensive review of 321 original articles Reviewed

    Masatoshi Ichihara, Sayaka Sobue, Mikako Ito, Masafumi Ito, Masaaki Hirayama, Kinji Ohno

    Medical Gas Research   Vol. 5 ( 1 ) page: 12 - -   2015

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    Therapeutic effects of molecular hydrogen for a wide range of disease models and human diseases have been investigated since 2007. A total of 321 original articles have been published from 2007 to June 2015. Most studies have been conducted in Japan, China, and the USA. About three-quarters of the articles show the effects in mice and rats. The number of clinical trials is increasing every year. In most diseases, the effect of hydrogen has been reported with hydrogen water or hydrogen gas, which was followed by confirmation of the effect with hydrogen-rich saline. Hydrogen water is mostly given ad libitum. Hydrogen gas of less than 4 % is given by inhalation. The effects have been reported in essentially all organs covering 31 disease categories that can be subdivided into 166 disease models, human diseases, treatment-associated pathologies, and pathophysiological conditions of plants with a predominance of oxidative stress-mediated diseases and inflammatory diseases. Specific extinctions of hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite were initially presented, but the radical-scavenging effect of hydrogen cannot be held solely accountable for its drastic effects. We and others have shown that the effects can be mediated by modulating activities and expressions of various molecules such as Lyn, ERK, p38, JNK, ASK1, Akt, GTP-Rac1, iNOS, Nox1, NF-κB p65, IκBα, STAT3, NFATc1, c-Fos, and ghrelin. Master regulator(s) that drive these modifications, however, remain to be elucidated and are currently being extensively investigated.

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  166. Intestinal Dysbiosis and Lowered Serum Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein in Parkinson's Disease Reviewed

    Satoru Hasegawa, Sae Goto, Hirokazu Tsuji, Tatsuya Okuno, Takashi Asahara, Koji Nomoto, Akihide Shibata, Yoshiro Fujisawa, Tomomi Minato, Akira Okamoto, Kinji Ohno, Masaaki Hirayama

    PLoS One   Vol. 10 ( 11 ) page: e0142164 - -   2015

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    Background
    The intestine is one of the first affected organs in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD subjects show abnormal staining for Escherichia coli and a-synuclein in the colon.
    Methods
    We recruited 52 PD patients and 36 healthy cohabitants. We measured serum markers and quantified the numbers of 19 fecal bacterial groups/genera/species by quantitative RT-PCR of 16S or 23S rRNA. Although the six most predominant bacterial groups/genera/species covered on average 71.3% of total intestinal bacteria, our analysis was not comprehensive compared to metagenome analysis or 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing.
    Results
    In PD, the number of Lactobacillus was higher, while the sum of analyzed bacteria, Clostridium coccoides group, and Bacteroides fragilis group were lower than controls. Additionally, the sum of putative hydrogen-producing bacteria was lower in PD. A linear regression model to predict disease durations demonstrated that C. coccoides group and Lactobacillus gasseri subgroup had the largest negative and positive coefficients, respectively. As a linear regression model to predict stool frequencies showed that these bacteria were not associated with constipation, changes in these bacteria were unlikely to represent worsening of constipation in the course of progression of PD. In PD, the serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS)binding protein levels were lower than controls, while the levels of serum diamine oxidase, a marker for intestinal mucosal integrity, remained unchanged in PD.
    Conclusions
    The permeability to LPS is likely to be increased without compromising the integrity of intestinal mucosa in PD. The increased intestinal permeability in PD may make the patients susceptible to intestinal dysbiosis. Conversely, intestinal dysbiosis may lead to the increased intestinal permeability. One or both of the two mechanisms may be operational in development and progression of PD.

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  167. Appearance-based Person Identification Algorithm to Search for Persons using a Flying Robot

    Yonezawa Toru, Takeuchi Eijirou, Ohno Kazunori, Tadokoro Satoshi

    2015 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON SAFETY, SECURITY, AND RESCUE ROBOTICS (SSRR)     2015

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  168. Identification of a gene associated with autosomal dominant late-onset Parkinson's disease: a genome-wide linkage and sequencing study Reviewed

    Manabu Funayama, Kenji Ohe, Taku Amo, Norihiko Furuya, Junji Yamaguchi, Shinji Saiki, Yuanzhe Li, Kotaro Ogaki, Maya Ando, Hiroyo Yoshino, Hiroyuki Tomiyama, Kenya Nishioka, Kazuko Hasegawa, Hidemoto Saiki, Wataru Satake, Kaoru Mogushi, Ryogen Sasaki, Yasumasa Kokubo, Shigeki Kuzuhara, Tatsushi Toda, Yoshikuni Mizuno, Yasuo Uchiyama, Kinji Ohno, Nobutaka Hattori

    The Lancet Neurology   Vol. accepted   2015

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  169. HnRNP C, YB-1 and hnRNP L coordinately enhance skipping of human MUSK exon 10 to generate a Wnt-insensitive MuSK isoform. Reviewed

    Nasrin F, Rahman MA, Masuda A, Ohe K, Takeda J, Ohno K

    Scientific reports   Vol. 4   page: 6841   2014.10

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  170. HnRNP C, YB-1 and hnRNP L coordinately enhance skipping of human MUSK exon 10 to generate a Wnt-insensitive MuSK isoform

    Nasrin Farhana, Rahman Mohammad Alinoor, Masuda Akio, Ohe Kenji, Takeda Jun-ichi, Ohno Kinji

    SCIENTIFIC REPORTS   Vol. 4   2014.10

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  171. LDB3 splicing abnormalities are specific to skeletal muscles of patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 and alter its PKC binding affinity Reviewed

    Yoshihiro Yamashita, Tohru Matsuura, Tatsuaki Kurosaki, Yoshinobu Amakusa, Masanobu Kinoshita, Tohru Ibi, Ko Sahashi, Kinji Ohno

    NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE   Vol. 69 ( - ) page: 200 - 5   2014.9

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    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by transcription of CUG repeat RNA, which causes sequestration of muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1) and upregulation of CUG triplet repeat RNA-binding protein (CUG-BP1). In DM1, dysregulation of these proteins contributes to many aberrant splicing events, causing various symptoms of the disorder. Here, we demonstrate the occurrence of aberrant splicing of LIM domain binding 3 (LDB3) exon 11 in DM1 skeletal muscle. Exon array surveys, RT-PCR, and western blotting studies demonstrated that exon 11 inclusion was DM1 specific and could be reproduced by transfection of a minigene containing the CTG repeat expansion. Moreover, we found that the LDB3 exon 11-positive isoform had reduced affinity for PKC compared to the exon 11-negative isoform. Since PKC exhibits hyperactivation in DM1 and stabilizes CUG-BP1 by phosphorylation, aberrant splicing of LDB3 may contribute to CUG-BP1 upregulation through changes in its affinity for PKC. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved.

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  172. LRP4 induces extracellular matrix productions and facilitates chondrocyte differentiation Reviewed

    Nobuyuki Asai, Bisei Ohkawara, Mikako Ito, Akio Masuda, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno

    BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS   Vol. 451 ( 2 ) page: 302 - 7   2014.8

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    Endochondral ossification is an essential step for skeletal development, which requires chondrocyte differentiation in growth cartilage. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4), a member of LDLR family, is an inhibitor for Wnt signaling, but its roles in chondrocyte differentiation remain to be investigated. Here we found by laser capture microdissection that LRP4 expression was induced during chondrocyte differentiation in growth plate. In order to address the roles, we overexpressed recombinant human LRP4 or knocked down endogenous LRP4 by lentivirus in mouse ATDC5 chondrocyte cells. We found that LRP4 induced gene expressions of extracellular matrix proteins of type II collagen (Col2a1), aggrecan (Acan), and type X collagen (Col10a1), as well as production of total proteoglycans in ATDC5 cells, whereas LRP4 knockdown had opposite effects. Interestingly. LRP4-knockdown reduced mRNA expression of Sox9, a master regulator for chondrogenesis, as well as Dkk1, an extracellular Wnt inhibitor. Analysis of Wnt signaling revealed that LRP4 blocked the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling activity in ATDC5 cells. Finally, the reduction of these extracellular matrix productions by LRP4-knockdown was rescued by a beta-catenin/TCF inhibitor, suggesting that LRP4 is an important regulator for extracellular matrix productions and chondrocyte differentiation by suppressing Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  173. Mutation analysis of a large cohort of GNE myopathy reveals a diverse array of GNE mutations affecting sialic acid biosynthesis Reviewed

    Kinji Ohno

    JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY   Vol. 85 ( 8 ) page: 831 - 832   2014.8

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  174. Collagen Q is a Key Player for Developing Rational Therapy for Congenital Myasthenia and for Dissecting the Mechanisms of Anti-MuSK Myasthenia Gravis Reviewed

    Kinji Ohno, Mikako Ito, Yu Kawakami, Kenji Ohtsuka

    JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR NEUROSCIENCE   Vol. 53 ( 3 ) page: 359 - 61   2014.7

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    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is anchored to the synaptic basal lamina via a triple helical collagen Q (ColQ) in the form of asymmetric AChE (AChE/ColQ). We exploited the proprietary NMJ-targeting signals of ColQ to treat congenital myasthenia and to explore the mechanisms of autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG). Mutations in COLQ cause congenital endplate AChE deficiency (CEAD). First, a single intravenous administration of adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8)-COLQ to Colq-/- mice normalized motor functions, synaptic transmission, and partly the NMJ ultrastructure. Additionally, injection of purified recombinant AChE/ColQ protein complex into gluteus maximus accumulated AChE in non-injected forelimbs. Second, MuSK antibody-positive MG accounts for 5-15 % of MG. In vitro overlay of AChE/ColQ to muscle sections of Colq-/- mice, as well as in vitro plate-binding of MuSK to ColQ, revealed that MuSK-IgG blocks binding of ColQ to MuSK in a dose-dependent manner. Passive transfer of MuSK-IgG to wild-type mice markedly reduced the size and intensity of ColQ signals at NMJs. MuSK-IgG thus interferes with binding of ColQ to MuSK. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms of specific binding of ColQ to NMJ enabled us to ameliorate devastating myasthenic symptoms of Colq-/- mice and also to reveal underlying mechanisms of anti-MuSK-MG.

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  175. LRP4 third beta-propeller domain mutations cause novel congenital myasthenia by compromising agrin-mediated MuSK signaling in a position-specific manner Reviewed

    Bisei Ohkawara, Macarena Cabrera-Serrano, Tomohiko Nakata, Margherita Milone, Nobuyuki Asai, Kenyu Ito, Mikako Ito, Akio Masuda, Yasutomo Ito, Andrew G. Engel, Kinji Ohno

    HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS   Vol. 23 ( 7 ) page: 1856 - 68   2014.4

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    Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are heterogeneous disorders in which the safety margin of neuromuscular transmission is compromised by one or more specific mechanisms. Using Sanger and exome sequencing in a CMS patient, we identified two heteroallelic mutations, p.Glu1233Lys and p.Arg1277His, in LRP4 coding for the postsynaptic low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4. LRP4, expressed on the surface of the postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction, is a receptor for neurally secreted agrin, and LRP4 bound by agrin activates MuSK. Activated MuSK in concert with Dok-7 stimulates rapsyn to concentrate and anchor AChR on the postsynaptic membrane and interacts with other proteins implicated in the assembly and maintenance of the neuromuscular junction. LRP4 also functions as an inhibitor of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. The identified mutations in LRP4 are located at the edge of its 3rd beta-propeller domain and decrease binding affinity of LRP4 for both MuSK and agrin. Mutations in the LRP4 3rd beta-propeller domain were previously reported to impair Wnt signaling and cause bone diseases including Cenani-Lenz syndactyly syndrome and sclerosteosis-2. By analyzing naturally occurring and artificially introduced mutations in the LRP4 3rd beta-propeller domain, we show that the edge of the domain regulates the MuSK signaling whereas its central cavity governs Wnt signaling. We conclude that LRP4 is a new CMS disease gene and that the 3rd beta propeller domain of LRP4 mediates the two signaling pathways in a position-specific manner.

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  176. Maternal molecular hydrogen administration ameliorates rat fetal hippocampal damage caused by in utero ischemia-reperfusion Reviewed

    Yukio Mano, Tomomi Kotani, Mikako Ito, Taku Nagai, Yuko Ichinohashi, Kiyofumi Yamada, Kinji Ohno, Fumitaka Kikkawa, Shinya Toyokuni

    FREE RADICAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE   Vol. 69 ( - ) page: 324 - 30   2014.4

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    Molecular hydrogen (H-2) scavenges hydroxyl radicals. Recently, H-2 has been reported to prevent a variety of diseases associated with oxidative stress in model systems and in humans. Here, we studied the effects of H-2 on rat fetal hippocampal damage caused by ischemia and reperfusion (IR) on day 16 of pregnancy with the transient occlusion of the bilateral utero-ovarian arteries. Starting 2 days before the operation, we provided the mothers with hydrogen-saturated water ad libitum until vaginal delivery. We observed a significant increase in the concentration of H-2 in the placenta after the oral administration of hydrogen-saturated water to the mothers, with less placental oxidative damage after IR in the presence of H-2. Neonatal growth retardation was observed in the IR group, which was alleviated by the H-2 administration. We analyzed the neuronal cell damage in the CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus at day 7 after birth by immunohistochemical analysis of the 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 '-deoxyguanosine- and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins. Both oxidative stress markers were significantly increased in the IR group, which was again ameliorated by the H-2 intake. Last, 8-week-old rats were subjected to a Morris water maze test. Maternal H-2 administration improved the reference memory of the offspring to the sham level after IR injury during pregnancy. Overall, the present results support the idea that maternal H-2 intake helps prevent the hippocampal impairment of offspring induced by IR during pregnancy. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  177. A Kir3.4 mutation causes Andersen-Tawil syndrome by an inhibitory effect on Kir2.1 Reviewed

    Yosuke Kokunai, Tomohiko Nakata, Mitsuru Furuta, Souhei Sakata, Hiromi Kimura, Takeshi Aiba, Masao Yoshinaga, Yusuke Osaki, Masayuki Nakamori, Hideki Itoh, Takako Sato, Tomoya Kubota, Kazushige Kadota, Katsuro Shindo, Hideki Mochizuki, Wataru Shimizu, Minoru Horie, Yasushi Okamura, Kinji Ohno, Masanori P. Takahashi

    NEUROLOGY   Vol. 82 ( 12 ) page: 1058 - 64   2014.3

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    Objective:To identify other causative genes for Andersen-Tawil syndrome, which is characterized by a triad of periodic paralysis, cardiac arrhythmia, and dysmorphic features. Andersen-Tawil syndrome is caused in a majority of cases by mutations in KCNJ2, which encodes the Kir2.1 subunit of the inwardly rectifying potassium channel.Methods:The proband exhibited episodic flaccid weakness and a characteristic TU-wave pattern, both suggestive of Andersen-Tawil syndrome, but did not harbor KCNJ2 mutations. We performed exome capture resequencing by restricting the analysis to genes that encode ion channels/associated proteins. The expression of gene products in heart and skeletal muscle tissues was examined by immunoblotting. The functional consequences of the mutation were investigated using a heterologous expression system in Xenopus oocytes, focusing on the interaction with the Kir2.1 subunit.Results:We identified a mutation in the KCNJ5 gene, which encodes the G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium channel 4 (Kir3.4). Immunoblotting demonstrated significant expression of the Kir3.4 protein in human heart and skeletal muscles. The coexpression of Kir2.1 and mutant Kir3.4 in Xenopus oocytes reduced the inwardly rectifying current significantly compared with that observed in the presence of wild-type Kir3.4.Conclusions:We propose that KCNJ5 is a second gene causing Andersen-Tawil syndrome. The inhibitory effects of mutant Kir3.4 on inwardly rectifying potassium channels may account for the clinical presentation in both skeletal and heart muscles.

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  178. SIL1, a causative cochaperone gene of Marinesco-Sjogren syndrome, plays an essential role in establishing the architecture of the developing cerebral cortex Reviewed

    Yutaka Inaguma, Nanako Hamada, Hidenori Tabata, Ikuko Iwamoto, Makoto Mizuno, Yoshiaki V. Nishimura, Hidenori Ito, Rika Morishita, Motomasa Suzuki, Kinji Ohno, Toshiyuki Kumagai, Koh-ichi Nagata

    EMBO MOLECULAR MEDICINE   Vol. 6 ( 3 ) page: 414 - 29   2014.3

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    Marinesco-Sjogren syndrome (MSS) is a rare autosomal recessively inherited disorder with mental retardation (MR). Recently, mutations in the SIL1 gene, encoding a co-chaperone which regulates the chaperone HSPA5, were identified as a major cause of MSS. We here examined the pathophysiological significance of SIL1 mutations in abnormal corticogenesis of MSS. SIL1-silencing caused neuronal migration delay during corticogenesis ex vivo. While RNAi-resistant SIL1 rescued the defects, three MSS-causing SIL1 mutants tested did not. These mutants had lower affinities to HSPA5 in vitro, and SIL1-HSPA5 interaction as well as HSPA5 function was found to be crucial for neuronal migration ex vivo. Furthermore time-lapse imaging revealed morphological disorganization associated with abnormal migration of SIL1-deficient neurons. These results suggest that the mutations prevent SIL1 from interacting with and regulating HSPA5, leading to abnormal neuronal morphology and migration. Consistent with this, when SIL1 was silenced in cortical neurons in one hemisphere, axonal growth in the contralateral hemisphere was delayed. Taken together, abnormal neuronal migration and interhemispheric axon development may contribute to MR in MSS.

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  179. Clinical and genetic analysis of the first known Asian family with myotonic dystrophy type 2 Reviewed

    Takahiro Nakayama, Harumasa Nakamura, Yasushi Oya, Takashi Kimura, Ichiro Imahuku, Kinji Ohno, Ichizo Nishino, Koji Abe, Tohru Matsuura

    JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS   Vol. 59 ( 3 ) page: 129 - 33   2014.3

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    Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is more common than DM1 in Europe and is considered a rare cause of myotonic dystrophies in Asia. Its clinical course is also milder with more phenotypic variability than DM1. We herein describe the first known Asian family (three affected siblings) with DM2 based on clinical and genetic analyses. Notably, two of the affected siblings were previously diagnosed with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Myotonia (the inability of the muscle to relax) was absent or only faintly present in these individuals. The third sibling had grip myotonia and is the first known Asian DM2 patient. The three DM2 siblings share several systemic characteristics, including late-onset, proximal-dominant muscle weakness, diabetes, cataracts and asthma. Repeat-primed PCR across the DM2 repeat revealed a characteristic ladder pattern of a CCTG expansion in all siblings. Southern blotting analysis identified the presence of 3400 repeats. Further DM2 studies in Asian populations are needed to define the clinical presentation of Asian DM2 and as yet unidentified phenotypic differences from Caucasian patients.

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  180. The ALS/FTLD-related RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS have common downstream RNA targets in cortical neurons (vol 4, pg 1, 2014) Reviewed

    Daiyu Honda, Shinsuke Ishigaki, Yohei Iguchi, Yusuke Fujioka, Tsuyoshi Udagawa, Akio Masuda, Kinji Ohno, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue

    FEBS OPEN BIO   Vol. 4 ( - ) page: 1030 - 1030   2014

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  181. Verapamil Protects against Cartilage Degradation in Osteoarthritis by Inhibiting Wnt/beta-Catenin Signaling Reviewed

    Akira Takamatsu, Bisei Ohkawara, Mikako Ito, Akio Masuda, Tadahiro Sakai, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno

    PLOS ONE   Vol. 9 ( 3 ) page: e92699 - -   2014

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    In past years, the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway has emerged as a critical regulator of cartilage development and homeostasis. FRZB, a soluble antagonist of Wnt signaling, has been studied in osteoarthritis (OA) animal models and OA patients as a modulator of Wnt signaling. We screened for FDA-approved drugs that induce FRZB expression and suppress Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. We found that verapamil, a widely prescribed L-type calcium channel blocker, elevated FRZB expression and suppressed Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in human OA chondrocytes. Expression and nuclear translocation of beta-catenin was attenuated by verapamil in OA chondrocytes. Lack of the verapamil effects in LiCl-treated and FRZB-downregulated OA chondrocytes also suggested that verpamil suppressed Wnt signaling by inducing FRZB. Verapamil enhanced gene expressions of chondrogenic markers of ACAN encoding aggrecan, COL2A1 encoding collagen type II alpha 1, and SOX9, and suppressed Wnt-responsive AXIN2 and MMP3 in human OA chondrocytes. Verapamil ameliorated Wnt3A-induced proteoglycan loss in chondrogenically differentiated ATDC5 cells. Verapamil inhibited hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes in the explant culture of mouse tibiae. Intraarticular injection of verapamil inhibited OA progression as well as nuclear localizations of b-catenin in a rat OA model. We propose that verapamil holds promise as a potent therapeutic agent for OA by upregulating FRZB and subsequently downregulating Wnt/beta-catenin signaling.

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  182. Searching for Genomic Region of High-Fat Diet-Induced Type 2 Diabetes in Mouse Chromosome 2 by Analysis of Congenic Strains Reviewed

    Misato Kobayashi, Tamio Ohno, Kunio Ihara, Atsushi Murai, Mayumi Kumazawa, Hiromi Hoshino, Koichiro Iwanaga, Hiroshi Iwai, Yoshiki Hamana, Mikako Ito, Kinji Ohno, Fumihiko Horio

    PLOS ONE   Vol. 9 ( 5 ) page: e96271 - -   2014

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    SMXA-5 mice are a high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetes animal model established from non-diabetic SM/J and A/J mice. By using F2 intercross mice between SMXA-5 and SM/J mice under feeding with a high-fat diet, we previously mapped a major diabetogenic QTL (T2dm2sa) on chromosome 2. We then produced the congenic strain (SM.A-T2dm2sa (R0), 20.8-163.0 Mb) and demonstrated that the A/J allele of T2dm2sa impaired glucose tolerance and increased body weight and body mass index in the congenic strain compared to SM/J mice. We also showed that the combination of T2dm2sa and other diabetogenic loci was needed to develop the high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetes. In this study, to narrow the potential genomic region containing the gene(s) responsible for T2dm2sa, we constructed R1 and R2 congenic strains. Both R1 (69.6-163.0 Mb) and R2 (20.8-128.2 Mb) congenic mice exhibited increases in body weight and abdominal fat weight and impaired glucose tolerance compared to SM/J mice. The R1 and R2 congenic analyses strongly suggested that the responsible genes existed in the overlapping genomic interval (69.6-128.2 Mb) between R1 and R2. In addition, studies using the newly established R1A congenic strain showed that the narrowed genomic region (69.6-75.4 Mb) affected not only obesity but also glucose tolerance. To search for candidate genes within the R1A genomic region, we performed exome sequencing analysis between SM/J and A/J mice and extracted 4 genes (Itga6, Zak, Gpr155, and Mtx2) with non-synonymous coding SNPs. These four genes might be candidate genes for type 2 diabetes caused by gene-gene interactions. This study indicated that one of the genes responsible for high-fat diet-induced diabetes exists in the 5.8 Mb genomic interval on mouse chromosome 2.

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  183. FUS-regulated region- and cell-type-specific transcriptome is associated with cell selectivity in ALS/FTLD (vol 3, 2388, 2013)

    Fujioka Yusuke, Ishigaki Shinsuke, Masuda Akio, Iguchi Yohei, Udagawa Tsuyoshi, Watanabe Hirohisa, Katsuno Masahisa, Ohno Kinji, Sobue Gen

    SCIENTIFIC REPORTS   Vol. 3   2013.11

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  184. Perhexiline maleate in the treatment of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva: An open-labeled clinical trial Reviewed

    Hiroshi Kitoh, Masataka Achiwa, Hiroshi Kaneko, Kenichi Mishima, Masaki Matsushita, Izumi Kadono, John D Horowitz, Benedetta C Sallustio, Kinji Ohno, Naoki Ishiguro

    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases   Vol. 8 ( 1 ) page: 163 - -   2013.10

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    Background: Currently, there are no effective medical treatment options to prevent the formation of heterotopic bones in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP). By the drug repositioning strategy, we confirmed that perhexiline maleate (Pex) potentially ameliorates heterotopic ossification in model cells and mice. Here, we conducted a prospective study to assess the efficacy and safety of Pex in the treatment of FOP patients. Methods. FOP patients in this open-label single-center study were treated with Pex for a total of 12 months, and followed up for 12 consecutive months after medication discontinuation. The safety of the treatment was assessed regularly by physical and blood examinations. The efficacy of Pex for preventing heterotopic ossifications was evaluated by the presence of flare-ups, measurements of serum bone markers, and changes in the total bone volume calculated by the three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) images. Results: Five patients with an average age of 23.4 years were enrolled. Within safe doses of Pex administration in each individual, there were no drug-induced adverse effects during the medication phase. Three patients showed no intense inflammatory reactions during the study period, while two patients had acute flare-ups around the hip joint without evidence of trauma during the medication phase. In addition, one of them became progressively incapable of opening her mouth over the discontinuation phase. Serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone specific ALP (BAP) were significantly and synchronously increased with the occurrence of flare-ups. Volumetric 3D-CT analysis demonstrated a significant increase in the total bone volume of Case 2 (378 cm§ssup§3§ esup§) and Case 3 (833 cm§ssup§3§esup§) during the two-year study period. Conclusions: We could not prove the efficacy of oral Pex administration in the prevention of heterotopic ossifications in FOP. Serum levels of ALP and BAP appear to be promising biomarkers for monitoring the development of ectopic ossifications and efficacy of the therapy. Quantification of change in the total bone volume by whole body CT scanning could be a reliable evaluation tool for disease progression in forthcoming clinical trials of FOP. © 2013 Kitoh et al.
    licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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  185. HnRNP L and hnRNP LL antagonistically modulate PTB-mediated splicing suppression of CHRNA1 pre-mRNA. Reviewed

    Rahman MA, Masuda A, Ohe K, Ito M, Hutchinson DO, Mayeda A, Engel AG, Ohno K

    Scientific reports   Vol. 3   page: 2931   2013.10

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  186. HnRNP L and hnRNP LL antagonistically modulate PTB-mediated splicing suppression of CHRNA1 pre-mRNA

    Rahman Mohammad Alinoor, Masuda Akio, Ohe Kenji, Ito Mikako, Hutchinson David O., Mayeda Akila, Engel Andrew G., Ohno Kinji

    SCIENTIFIC REPORTS   Vol. 3   2013.10

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  187. Glycosylation defects as an emerging novel cause leading to a limb-girdle type of congenital myasthenic syndromes Reviewed

    Kinji Ohno

    JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY AND PSYCHIATRY   Vol. 84 ( 10 ) page: 1064 - 1064   2013.10

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  188. GFPT1-myasthenia: clinical, structural, and electrophysiologic heterogeneity. Reviewed

    Selcen D, Shen XM, Milone M, Brengman J, Ohno K, Deymeer F, Finkel R, Rowin J, Engel AG

    Neurology   Vol. 81 ( 4 ) page: 370-8   2013.7

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  189. GFPT1-myasthenia Clinical, structural, and electrophysiologic heterogeneity

    Selcen Duygu, Shen Xin-Ming, Milone Margherita, Brengman Joan, Ohno Kinji, Deymeer Feza, Finkel Richard, Rowin Julie, Engel Andrew G.

    NEUROLOGY   Vol. 81 ( 4 ) page: 370-378   2013.7

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  190. Mutations in the C-Terminal Domain of ColQ in Endplate Acetylcholinesterase Deficiency Compromise ColQ-MuSK Interaction Reviewed

    Tomohiko Nakata, Mikako Ito, Yoshiteru Azuma, Kenji Otsuka, Yoichiro Noguchi, Hirofumi Komaki, Akihisa Okumura, Kazuhiro Shiraishi, Akio Masuda, Jun Natsume, Seiji Kojima, Kinji Ohno

    HUMAN MUTATION   Vol. 34 ( 7 ) page: 997 - 1004   2013.7

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    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is mostly composed of an asymmetric form in which three tetramers of catalytic AChE subunits are linked to a triple helical collagen Q (ColQ). Mutations in COLQ cause endplate AChE deficiency. We report three patients with endplate AChE deficiency with five recessive COLQ mutations. Sedimentation profiles showed that p.Val322Asp and p.Arg227X, but not p.Cys444Tyr, p.Asp447His, or p.Arg452Cys, inhibit formation of triple helical ColQ. In vitro overlay of mutant ColQ-tailed AChE on muscle sections of Colq-/- mice revealed that p.Cys444Tyr, p.Asp447His, and p.Arg452Cys in the C-terminal domain (CTD) abrogate anchoring ColQ-tailed AChE to the NMJ. In vitro plate-binding assay similarly demonstrated that the three mutants inhibit binding of ColQ-tailed AChE to MuSK. We also confirmed the pathogenicity of p.Asp447His by treating Colq-/- mice with adeno-associated virus serotype 8 carrying mutant COLQ-p.Asp447His. The treated mice showed no improvement in motor functions and no anchoring of ColQ-tailed AChE at the NMJ. Electroporation of mutant COLQ harboring p.Cys444Tyr, p.Asp447His, and p.Arg452Cys into anterior tibial muscles of Colq-/- mice similarly failed to anchor ColQ-tailed AChE at the NMJ. We proved that the missense mutations in ColQ-CTD cause endplate AChE deficiency by compromising ColQ-MuSK interaction at the NMJ.

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  191. Exome sequencing of senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) reveals deleterious mutations in degenerative disease-causing genes Reviewed

    Kumpei Tanisawa, Eri Mikami, Noriyuki Fuku, Yoko Honda, Shuji Honda, Ikuro Ohsawa, Masafumi Ito, Shogo Endo, Kunio Ihara, Kinji Ohno, Yuki Kishimoto, Akihito Ishigami, Naoki Maruyama, Motoji Sawabe, Hiroyoshi Iseki, Yasushi Okazaki, Sanae Hasegawa-Ishii, Shiro Takei, Atsuyoshi Shimada, Masanori Hosokawa, Masayuki Mori, Keiichi Higuchi, Toshio Takeda, Mitsuru Higuchi, Masashi Tanaka

    BMC GENOMICS   Vol. 14 ( 1 ) page: 248 - -   2013.4

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    Background: Senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) are a series of mouse strains originally derived from unexpected crosses between AKR/J and unknown mice, from which phenotypically distinct senescence-prone (SAMP) and -resistant (SAMR) inbred strains were subsequently established. Although SAMP strains have been widely used for aging research focusing on their short life spans and various age-related phenotypes, such as immune dysfunction, osteoporosis, and brain atrophy, the responsible gene mutations have not yet been fully elucidated.
    Results: To identify mutations specific to SAMP strains, we performed whole exome sequencing of 6 SAMP and 3 SAMR strains. This analysis revealed 32,019 to 38,925 single-nucleotide variants in the coding region of each SAM strain. We detected Ogg1 p.R304W and Mbd4 p.D129N deleterious mutations in all 6 of the SAMP strains but not in the SAMR or AKR/J strains. Moreover, we extracted 31 SAMP-specific novel deleterious mutations. In all SAMP strains except SAMP8, we detected a p.R473W missense mutation in the Ldb3 gene, which has been associated with myofibrillar myopathy. In 3 SAMP strains (SAMP3, SAMP10, and SAMP11), we identified a p.R167C missense mutation in the Prx gene, in which mutations causing hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (Dejerine-Sottas syndrome) have been identified. In SAMP6 we detected a p.S540fs frame-shift mutation in the Il4ra gene, a mutation potentially causative of ulcerative colitis and osteoporosis.
    Conclusions: Our data indicate that different combinations of mutations in disease-causing genes may be responsible for the various phenotypes of SAMP strains.

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  192. DRUG SCREENING FOR TREATING OSTEOARTHRITIS THROUGH REGULATION OF WNT SIGNALING

    Takamatsu A., Ohkawara B., Sakai T., Ohno K., Ishiguro N.

    OSTEOARTHRITIS AND CARTILAGE   Vol. 21   page: S115 - S115   2013.4

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  193. Specific binding of collagen Q to the neuromuscular junction is exploited to cure congenital myasthenia and to explore bases of myasthenia gravis Reviewed

    Kinji Ohno, Mikako Ito, Yu Kawakami, Eric Krejci, Andrew G. Engel

    Chemico-Biological Interactions   Vol. 203 ( 1 ) page: 335 - 40   2013.3

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    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is anchored to the synaptic basal lamina via a triple helical collagen Q (ColQ) in the form of asymmetric AChE (AChE/ColQ). The C-terminal domain of ColQ binds to MuSK, the muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase, that mediates a signal for acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering at the NMJ. ColQ also binds to heparan sulfate proteoglycans including perlecan. Congenital defects of ColQ cause endplate AChE deficiency. A single intravenous administration of adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8)-COLQ to Colq-/- mice rescued motor functions, synaptic transmission, and the ultrastructure of NMJ. We also injected AAV1-COLQ-IRES-EGFP to the left tibialis anterior and observed colocalization of AChE/ColQ at all the examined NMJs of the non-injected limbs. Additionally, injection of purified recombinant AChE/ColQ protein complex into gluteus maximus accumulated AChE in non-injected forelimbs. These observations suggest that the tissue-targeting signal of ColQ can be exploited to specifically deliver the transgene product to the target tissue. MuSK antibody-positive myasthenia gravis (MG) accounts for 5-15% of autoimmune MG. As AChR deficiency is typically mild and as cholinesterase inhibitors are generally ineffective or worsen myasthenic symptoms, we asked if the patient's MuSK-IgG interferes with binding of ColQ to MuSK. In vitro overlay of AChE/ColQ to muscle sections of Colq-/- mice revealed that MuSK-IgG blocks binding of ColQ to the NMJ. In vitro plate-binding of MuSK to ColQ disclosed that MuSK-IgG exerts a dose-dependent block of MuSK-ColQ interaction. In addition, passive transfer of MuSK-IgG to mice reduced the size and density of ColQ to ∼10% of controls and had a lesser effect on the sizes and densities of AChR and MuSK. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms of specific binding of ColQ to the NMJ enabled us to ameliorate devastating myasthenic symptoms of Colq-/- mice and to reveal bases of anti-MuSK MG. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  194. Molecular hydrogen attenuates fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation through downregulating CD36 expression in HepG2 cells. Reviewed International journal

    Iio A, Ito M, Itoh T, Terazawa R, Fujita Y, Nozawa Y, Ohsawa I, Ohno K, Ito M

    Medical gas research   Vol. 3 ( 1 ) page: 6 - -   2013.3

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    BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence that obesity is closely associated with an impaired free fatty acid metabolism as well as with insulin resistance and inflammation. Excessive fatty acid uptake mediated by fatty acid translocase CD36 plays an important role in hepatic steatosis. Molecular hydrogen has been shown to attenuate oxidative stress and improve lipid, glucose and energy metabolism in patients and animal models of hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. METHODS: Human hepatoma HepG2 cells were exposed to palmitate-BSA complex after treatment with or without hydrogen for 24 h. The fatty acid uptake was measured by using spectrofluorometry and the lipid content was detected by Oil Red O staining. JNK phosphorylation and CD36 expression were analyzed by Western blot and real-time PCR analyses. RESULTS: Pretreatment with hydrogen reduced fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation after palmitate overload in HepG2 cells, which was associated with inhibition of JNK activation. Hydrogen treatment did not alter CD36 mRNA expression but reduced CD36 protein expression. CONCLUSION: Hydrogen inhibits fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation through the downregulation of CD36 at the protein level in hepatic cultured cells, providing insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the hydrogen effects in vivo on lipid metabolism disorders.

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  195. Investigation of 11 Patients with GFPT1-Myasthenia Reveals Clinical, Structural, and Electrophysiologic Heterogeneity

    Selcen Duygu, Shen Xin Ming, Milone Margherita, Brengman Joan, Ohno Kinji, McQuillen Michael, Deymeer Feza, Finkel Richard, Rowin Julie, Engel Andrew

    NEUROLOGY   Vol. 80   page: .   2013.2

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  196. S100A10 is required for the organization of actin stress fibers and promotion of cell spreading Reviewed

    Shurovi Sayeed, Eri Asano, Satoko Ito, Kinji Ohno, Michinari Hamaguchi, Takeshi Senga

    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry   Vol. 374 ( 1-2 ) page: 105 - 11   2013.2

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    Dynamic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is crucial for biological processes such as cell migration and cell spreading. S100A10 is a member of the S100 protein family and is involved in intracellular trafficking and cell migration. In this study, we examined the role of S100A10 in actin cytoskeletal organization and cell spreading. Depletion of S100A10 induced disruption of stress fiber formation and delay in cell spreading. Rac1 activation during spreading was suppressed by S100A10 knockdown, and exogenous expression of active Rac1 restored the ability of cells to spread in the absence of S100A10. Our results demonstrate the crucial role of S100A10 in actin dynamics promoting cell spreading via Rac1 activation. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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  197. Clinically applicable antianginal agents suppress osteoblastic transformation of myogenic cells and heterotopic ossifications in mice Reviewed

    Ryuichiro Yamamoto, Masaki Matsushita, Hiroshi Kitoh, Akio Masuda, Mikako Ito, Takenobu Katagiri, Tatsushi Kawai, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL METABOLISM   Vol. 31 ( 1 ) page: 26 - 33   2013.1

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    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification. FOP is caused by a gain-of-function mutation in ACVR1 encoding the bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor, ACVR1/ALK2. The mutant receptor causes upregulation of a transcriptional factor, Id1. No therapy is available to prevent the progressive heterotopic ossification in FOP. In an effort to search for clinically applicable drugs for FOP, we screened 1,040 FDA-approved drugs for suppression of the Id1 promoter activated by the mutant ACVR1/ALK2 in C2C12 cells. We found that that two antianginal agents, fendiline hydrochloride and perhexiline maleate, suppressed the Id1 promoter in a dose-dependent manner. The drugs also suppressed the expression of native Id1 mRNA and alkaline phosphatase in a dose-dependent manner. Perhexiline but not fendiline downregulated phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8 driven by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. We implanted crude BMPs in muscles of ddY mice and fed them fendiline or perhexiline for 30 days. Mice taking perhexiline showed a 38.0 % reduction in the volume of heterotopic ossification compared to controls, whereas mice taking fendiline showed a slight reduction of heterotopic ossification. Fendiline, perhexiline, and their possible derivatives are potentially applicable to clinical practice to prevent devastating heterotopic ossification in FOP.

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  198. Meclozine Facilitates Proliferation and Differentiation of Chondrocytes by Attenuating Abnormally Activated FGFR3 Signaling in Achondroplasia Reviewed

    Masaki Matsushita, Hiroshi Kitoh, Bisei Ohkawara, Kenichi Mishima, Hiroshi Kaneko, Mikako Ito, Akio Masuda, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno

    PLOS ONE   Vol. 8 ( 12 ) page: e81569 - -   2013

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    Achondroplasia (ACH) is one of the most common skeletal dysplasias with short stature caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGFR3 encoding the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3. We used the drug repositioning strategy to identify an FDA-approved drug that suppresses abnormally activated FGFR3 signaling in ACH. We found that meclozine, an antihistamine drug that has long been used for motion sickness, facilitates chondrocyte proliferation and mitigates loss of extracellular matrix in FGF2-treated rat chondrosarcoma (RCS) cells. Meclozine also ameliorated abnormally suppressed proliferation of human chondrosarcoma (HCS-2/8) cells that were infected with lentivirus expressing constitutively active mutants of FGFR3-K650E causing thanatophoric dysplasia, FGFR3-K650M causing SADDAN, and FGFR3-G380R causing ACH. Similarly, meclozine alleviated abnormally suppressed differentiation of ATDC5 chondrogenic cells expressing FGFR3-K650E and G380R in micromass culture. We also confirmed that meclozine alleviates FGF2-mediated longitudinal growth inhibition of embryonic tibia in bone explant culture. Interestingly, meclozine enhanced growth of embryonic tibia in explant culture even in the absence of FGF2 treatment. Analyses of intracellular FGFR3 signaling disclosed that meclozine downregulates phosphorylation of ERK but not of MEK in FGF2-treated RCS cells. Similarly, meclozine enhanced proliferation of RCS cells expressing constitutively active mutants of MEK and RAF but not of ERK, which suggests that meclozine downregulates the FGFR3 signaling by possibly attenuating ERK phosphorylation. We used the C-natriuretic peptide (CNP) as a potent inhibitor of the FGFR3 signaling throughout our experiments, and found that meclozine was as efficient as CNP in attenuating the abnormal FGFR3 signaling. We propose that meclozine is a potential therapeutic agent for treating ACH and other FGFR3-related skeletal dysplasias.

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  199. FUS-regulated region- and cell-type-specific transcriptome is associated with cell selectivity in ALS/FTLD. Reviewed International journal

    Yusuke Fujioka, Shinsuke Ishigaki, Akio Masuda, Yohei Iguchi, Tsuyoshi Udagawa, Hirohisa Watanabe, Masahisa Katsuno, Kinji Ohno, Gen Sobue

    Scientific reports   Vol. 3 ( - ) page: 2388 - 2388   2013

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    FUS is genetically and pathologically linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). To clarify the RNA metabolism cascade regulated by FUS in ALS/FTLD, we compared the FUS-regulated transcriptome profiles in different lineages of primary cells from the central nervous system. The profiles of FUS-mediated gene expression and alternative splicing in motor neurons were similar to those of cortical neurons, but not to those in cerebellar neurons despite the similarity of innate transcriptome signature. The gene expression profiles in glial cells were similar to those in motor and cortical neurons. We identified certain neurological diseases-associated genes, including Mapt, Stx1a, and Scn8a, among the profiles of gene expression and alternative splicing events regulated by FUS. Thus, FUS-regulated transcriptome profiles in each cell-type may determine cellular fate in association with FUS-mediated ALS/FTLD, and identified RNA targets for FUS could be therapeutic targets for ALS/FTLD.

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  200. The ALS/FTLD-related RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS have common downstream RNA targets in cortical neurons Reviewed

    Daiyu Honda, Shinsuke Ishigaki, Yohei Iguchi, Yusuke Fujioka, Tsuyoshi Udagawa, Akio Masuda, Kinji Ohno, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue

    FEBS OPEN BIO   Vol. 4 ( - ) page: 1 - 10   2013

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    TDP-43 and FUS are linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and loss of function of either protein contributes to these neurodegenerative conditions. To elucidate the TDP-43- and FUS-regulated pathophysiological RNA metabolism cascades, we assessed the differential gene expression and alternative splicing profiles related to regulation by either TDP-43 or FUS in primary cortical neurons. These profiles overlapped by &gt;25% with respect to gene expression and &gt;9% with respect to alternative splicing. The shared downstream RNA targets of TDP-43 and FUS may form a common pathway in the neurodegenerative processes of ALS/FTLD. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies. All rights reserved.

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  201. Intronic and exonic nucleotide variations that affect RNA splicing in humans Invited Reviewed

    Kenji Ohe, Akio Masuda, Kinji Ohno

    iConcept Press (Sequence and Genome Analysis I)     2013

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  202. Protein-anchoring Strategy for Delivering Acetylcholinesterase to the Neuromuscular Junction Reviewed

    Mikako Ito, Yumi Suzuki, Takashi Okada, Takayasu Fukudome, Toshiro Yoshimura, Akio Masuda, Shin'ichi Takeda, Eric Krejci, Kinji Ohno

    MOLECULAR THERAPY   Vol. 20 ( 7 ) page: 1384 - 92   2012.7

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    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is anchored to the synaptic basal lamina via a triple helical collagen Q (ColQ). Congenital defects of ColQ cause endplate AChE deficiency and myasthenic syndrome. A single intravenous administration of adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8)-COLQ to Colq(-/-) mice recovered motor functions, synaptic transmission, as well as the morphology of the NMJ. ColQ-tailed AChE was specifically anchored to NMJ and its amount was restored to 89% of the wild type. We next characterized the molecular basis of this efficient recovery. We first confirmed that ColQ-tailed AChE can be specifically targeted to NMJ by an in vitro overlay assay in Colq(-/-) mice muscle sections. We then injected AAV1-COLQ-IRES-EGFP into the left tibialis anterior and detected AChE in noninjected limbs. Furthermore, the in vivo injection of recombinant ColQ-tailed AChE protein complex into the gluteus maximus muscle of Colq(-/-) mice led to accumulation of AChE in noninjected forelimbs. We demonstrated for the first time in vivo that the ColQ protein contains a tissue-targeting signal that is sufficient for anchoring itself to the NMJ. We propose that the protein-anchoring strategy is potentially applicable to a broad spectrum of diseases affecting extracellular matrix molecules. Received 28 September 2011; accepted 31 January 2012; advance online publication 28 February 2012. doi:10.1038/mt.2012.34

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  203. Four parameters increase the sensitivity and specificity of the exon array analysis and disclose 25 novel aberrantly spliced exons in myotonic dystrophy Reviewed

    Yoshihiro Yamashita, Tohru Matsuura, Jun Shinmi, Yoshinobu Amakusa, Akio Masuda, Mikako Ito, Masanobu Kinoshita, Hirokazu Furuya, Koji Abe, Tohru Ibi, Ko Sahashi, Kinji Ohno

    JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS   Vol. 57 ( 6 ) page: 368 - 74   2012.6

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    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an RNA gain-of-function disorder in which abnormally expanded CTG repeats of DMPK sequestrate a splicing trans-factor MBNL1 and upregulate another splicing trans-factor CUGBP1. To identify a diverse array of aberrantly spliced genes, we performed the exon array analysis of DM1 muscles. We analyzed 72 exons by RT-PCR and found that 27 were aberrantly spliced, whereas 45 were not. Among these, 25 were novel and especially splicing aberrations of LDB3 exon 4 and TTN exon 45 were unique to DM1. Retrospective analysis revealed that four parameters efficiently detect aberrantly spliced exons: (i) the signal intensity is high; (ii) the ratio of probe sets with reliable signal intensities (that is, detection above background P-value = 0.000) is high within a gene; (iii) the splice index (SI) is high; and (iv) SI is deviated from SIs of the other exons that can be estimated by calculating the deviation value (DV). Application of the four parameters gave rise to a sensitivity of 77.8% and a specificity of 95.6% in our data set. We propose that calculation of DV, which is unique to our analysis, is of particular importance in analyzing the exon array data. Journal of Human Genetics (2012) 57, 368-374; doi:10.1038/jhg.2012.37; published online 19 April 2012

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  204. Drinking hydrogen water and intermittent hydrogen gas exposure, but not lactulose or continuous hydrogen gas exposure, prevent 6-hydorxydopamine-induced Parkinson's disease in rats. Reviewed

    Ito M, Hirayama M, Yamai K, Goto S, Ito M, Ichihara M, Ohno K

    Medical gas research   Vol. 2 ( 1 ) page: 15 - -   2012.5

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  205. A novel mutation in SCN4A causes severe myotonia and school-age-onset paralytic episodes Reviewed

    Harumi Yoshinaga, Shunichi Sakoda, Jean-Marc Good, Masanori P. Takahashi, Tomoya Kubota, Eri Arikawa-Hirasawa, Tomohiko Nakata, Kinji Ohno, Tetsuro Kitamura, Katsuhiro Kobayashi, Yoko Ohtsuka

    JOURNAL OF THE NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES   Vol. 315 ( 1-2 ) page: 15 - 9   2012.4

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    Mutations in the pore-forming subunit of the skeletal muscle sodium channel (SCN4A) are responsible for hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, paramyotonia congenita and sodium channel myotonia. These disorders are classified based on their cardinal symptoms, myotonia and/or paralysis. We report the case of a Japanese boy with a novel mutation of SCN4A, p.I693L, who exhibited severe episodic myotonia from infancy and later onset mild paralytic attack. He started to have apneic episodes with generalized hypertonia at age of 11 months, then developed severe episodic myotonia since 2 years of age. He presented characteristic generalized features which resembled Schwarz-Jampel syndrome. After 7 years old, paralytic episodes occurred several times a year. The compound muscle action potential did not change during short and long exercise tests. Functional analysis of the mutant channel expressed in cultured cell revealed enhancement of the activation and disruption of the slow inactivation, which were consistent with myotonia and paralytic attack. The severe clinical features in his infancy may correspond to myotonia permanence, however, he subsequently experienced paralytic attacks. This case provides an example of the complexity and overlap of the clinical features of sodium channel myotonic disorders. (c) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  206. Myotonic dystrophy type 2 is rare in the Japanese population Reviewed

    Tohru Matsuura, Narihiro Minami, Hajime Arahata, Kinji Ohno, Koji Abe, Yukiko K. Hayashi, Ichizo Nishino

    JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS   Vol. 57 ( 3 ) page: 219 - 20   2012.3

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  207. Congenital myasthenic syndromes Reviewed

    Kinji Ohno

    Clinical Neurology   Vol. 52 ( 11 ) page: 1159 - 61   2012

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    Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are caused by germline mutations of molecules expressed at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Mutations in 11 molecules encoded by 15 genes have been reported in association with CMS. CMS can be classified into four clinical categories. First, missense mutations in the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunits lead to slow- and fast-channel syndromes. Second, mutations in the AChR subunits, rapsyn, agrin, MuSK, Dok-7, plectirn, and GFPT1 lead to endplate AChR deficiency. Third, collagen Q (ColQ) anchors acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to the synaptic basal lamina and mutations in COLQ lead to endplate AChE deficiency. By exploiting the synaptic basal lamina-targeting signal of ColQ, we recently reported that the exogenously administered AChE/ColQ complex can be specifically localized to the NMJ. The protein-anchoring therapy can be potentially applicable to a wide spectrum of defective extracellular matrix molecules. Fourth, CMS associated with episodic apnea is caused by mutations in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav1.4). In the past two years, we diagnosed 15 cases with CMS in Japan, and identified mutations in 12 patients. All the mutations except for one are unique to Japanese patients. We assume that more CMS cases still remain undiagnosed in Japan.

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  208. Anti-MuSK antibodies in myasthenia gravis block binding of collagen Q to MuSK Reviewed

    Kinji Ohno

    Clinical Neurology   Vol. 52 ( 11 ) page: 1306 - 8   2012

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    In myasthenia gravis (MG), 5-15% of patients are positive for MuSK antibodies. MuSK binds to LRP4 and transmits an agrin-mediated signal for clustering of acetylcholine receptor (AChR). MuSK also anchors the collagenic tail subunit (ColQ) of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). MuSK-IgG is a blocking antibody, but its molecular targets remained elusive. As acetylcholine receptor (AChR) deficiency is typically mild and as cholinesterase inhibitors are generally ineffective in MuSK-MG patients, we asked if MuSK-IgG interferes with binding of ColQ to MuSK. The in vitro overlay assay showed that MuSK-IgG blocked binding of ColQ to the neuromuscular junction of Colq-/-mice. The in vitro plate-binding assay showed that MuSK-IgG blocked binding of ColQ to MuSK in a dose-dependent manner. Passive transfer of MuSK-IgG to wild-type mice reduced the size and density of ColQ to ∼10% of controls and had a lesser effect on the size and density of AChR and MuSK. These data point to a notion that MuSK-IgG blocks binding of ColQ to MuSK. As lack of ColQ compromises agrin-mediated AChR clustering in Colq-/-mice, a similar mechanism may lead to AChR deficiency in MuSK-MG patients.

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  209. Position-dependent FUS-RNA interactions regulate alternative splicing events and transcriptions Reviewed

    Shinsuke Ishigaki, Akio Masuda, Yusuke Fujioka, Yohei Iguchi, Masahisa Katsuno, Akihide Shibata, Fumihiko Urano, Gen Sobue, Kinji Ohno

    SCIENTIFIC REPORTS   Vol. 2 ( - ) page: 529 - -   2012

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    FUS is an RNA-binding protein that regulates transcription, alternative splicing, and mRNA transport. Aberrations of FUS are causally associated with familial and sporadic ALS/FTLD. We analyzed FUS-mediated transcriptions and alternative splicing events in mouse primary cortical neurons using exon arrays. We also characterized FUS-binding RNA sites in the mouse cerebrum with HITS-CLIP. We found that FUS-binding sites tend to form stable secondary structures. Analysis of position-dependence of FUS-binding sites disclosed scattered binding of FUS to and around the alternatively spliced exons including those associated with neurodegeneration such as Mapt, Camk2a, and Fmr1. We also found that FUS is often bound to the antisense RNA strand at the promoter regions. Global analysis of these FUS-tags and the expression profiles disclosed that binding of FUS to the promoter antisense strand downregulates transcriptions of the coding strand. Our analysis revealed that FUS regulates alternative splicing events and transcriptions in a position-dependent manner.

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  210. CUGBP1 and MBNL1 preferentially bind to 3 ' UTRs and facilitate mRNA decay Reviewed

    Akio Masuda, Henriette Skovgaard Andersen, Thomas Koed Doktor, Takaaki Okamoto, Mikako Ito, Brage Storstein Andresen, Kinji Ohno

    SCIENTIFIC REPORTS   Vol. 2 ( - ) page: 209 - -   2012

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    CUGBP1 and MBNL1 are developmentally regulated RNA-binding proteins that are causally associated with myotonic dystrophy type 1. We globally determined the in vivo RNA-binding sites of CUGBP1 and MBNL1. Interestingly, CUGBP1 and MBNL1 are both preferentially bound to 39 UTRs. Analysis of CUGBP1- and MBNL1-bound 3' UTRs demonstrated that both factors mediate accelerated mRNA decay and temporal profiles of expression arrays supported this. Role of CUGBP1 on accelerated mRNA decay has been previously reported, but the similar function of MBNL1 has not been reported to date. It is well established that CUGBP1 and MBNL1 regulate alternative splicing. Screening by exon array and validation by RT-PCR revealed position dependence of CUGBP1- and MBNL1-binding sites on the resulting alternative splicing pattern. This study suggests that regulation of CUGBP1 and MBNL1 is essential for accurate control of destabilization of a broad spectrum of mRNAs as well as of alternative splicing events.

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  211. Molecular Hydrogen as an Emerging Therapeutic Medical Gas for Neurodegenerative and Other Diseases Reviewed

    Kinji Ohno, Mikako Ito, Masatoshi Ichihara, Masafumi Ito

    OXIDATIVE MEDICINE AND CELLULAR LONGEVITY   Vol. 2012 ( - ) page: 353152 - -   2012

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    Effects of molecular hydrogen on various diseases have been documented for 63 disease models and human diseases in the past four and a half years. Most studies have been performed on rodents including two models of Parkinson's disease and three models of Alzheimer's disease. Prominent effects are observed especially in oxidative stress-mediated diseases including neonatal cerebral hypoxia; Parkinson's disease; ischemia/reperfusion of spinal cord, heart, lung, liver, kidney, and intestine; transplantation of lung, heart, kidney, and intestine. Six human diseases have been studied to date: diabetes mellitus type 2, metabolic syndrome, hemodialysis, inflammatory and mitochondrial myopathies, brain stem infarction, and radiation-induced adverse effects. Two enigmas, however, remain to be solved. First, no dose-response effect is observed. Rodents and humans are able to take a small amount of hydrogen by drinking hydrogen-rich water, but marked effects are observed. Second, intestinal bacteria in humans and rodents produce a large amount of hydrogen, but an addition of a small amount of hydrogen exhibits marked effects. Further studies are required to elucidate molecular bases of prominent hydrogen effects and to determine the optimal frequency, amount, and method of hydrogen administration for each human disease.

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  212. The Unstable CCTG Repeat Responsible for Myotonic Dystrophy Type 2 Originates from an AluSx Element Insertion into an Early Primate Genome Reviewed

    Tatsuaki Kurosaki, Shintaroh Ueda, Takafumi Ishida, Koji Abe, Kinji Ohno, Tohru Matsuura

    PLOS ONE   Vol. 7 ( 6 ) page: e38379 - -   2012

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    Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is a subtype of the myotonic dystrophies, caused by expansion of a tetranucleotide CCTG repeat in intron 1 of the zinc finger protein 9 (ZNF9) gene. The expansions are extremely unstable and variable, ranging from 75-11,000 CCTG repeats. This unprecedented repeat size and somatic heterogeneity make molecular diagnosis of DM2 difficult, and yield variable clinical phenotypes. To better understand the mutational origin and instability of the ZNF9 CCTG repeat, we analyzed the repeat configuration and flanking regions in 26 primate species. The 39-end of an AluSx element, flanked by target site duplications (5'-ACTRCCAR-3' or 5'-ACTRCCARTTA-3'), followed the CCTG repeat, suggesting that the repeat was originally derived from the Alu element insertion. In addition, our results revealed lineage-specific repetitive motifs: pyrimidine (CT)-rich repeat motifs in New World monkeys, dinucleotide (TG) repeat motifs in Old World monkeys and gibbons, and dinucleotide (TG) and tetranucleotide (TCTG and/or CCTG) repeat motifs in great apes and humans. Moreover, these di-and tetra-nucleotide repeat motifs arose from the poly (A) tail of the AluSx element, and evolved into unstable CCTG repeats during primate evolution. Alu elements are known to be the source of microsatellite repeats responsible for two other repeat expansion disorders: Friedreich ataxia and spinocerebellar ataxia type 10. Taken together, these findings raise questions as to the mechanism(s) by which Alu-mediated repeats developed into the large, extremely unstable expansions common to these three disorders.

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  213. Channelopathies of genetic and autoimmune origins

    Ohno K.

    Neuro-Ophthalmology Japan   Vol. 28 ( 3 ) page: 310 - 312   2011.12

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  214. Hyperuricemia cosegregating with osteogenesis imperfecta is associated with a mutation in GPATCH8 Reviewed

    Hiroshi Kaneko, Hiroshi Kitoh, Tohru Matsuura, Akio Masuda, Mikako Ito, Monica Mottes, Frank Rauch, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno

    HUMAN GENETICS   Vol. 130 ( 5 ) page: 671 - 83   2011.11

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    Autosomal dominant osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is caused by mutations in COL1A1 or COL1A2. We identified a dominant missense mutation, c.3235G &gt; A in COL1A1 exon 45 predicting p.G1079S, in a Japanese family with mild OI. As mutations in exon 45 exhibit mild to lethal phenotypes, we tested if disruption of an exonic splicing cis-element determines the clinical phenotype, but detected no such mutations. In the Japanese family, juvenile-onset hyperuricemia cosegregated with OI, but not in the previously reported Italian and Canadian families with c.3235G &gt; A. After confirming lack of a founder haplotype in three families, we analyzed PRPSAP1 and PRPSAP2 as candidate genes for hyperuricemia on chr 17 where COL1A1 is located, but found no mutation. We next resequenced the whole exomes of two siblings in the Japanese family and identified variable numbers of previously reported hyperuricemia-associated SNPs in ABCG2 and SLC22A12. The same SNPs, however, were also detected in normouricemic individuals in three families. We then identified two missense SNVs in ZPBP2 and GPATCH8 on chromosome 17 that cosegregated with hyperuricemia in the Japanese family. ZPBP2 p.T69I was at the non-conserved region and was predicted to be benign by in silico analysis, whereas GPATCH8 p.A979P was at a highly conserved region and was predicted to be deleterious, which made p.A979P a conceivable candidate for juvenile-onset hyperuricemia. GPATCH8 is only 5.8 Mbp distant from COL1A1 and encodes a protein harboring an RNA-processing domain and a zinc finger domain, but the molecular functions have not been elucidated to date.

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  215. Anti-MuSK autoantibodies block binding of collagen Q to MuSK Reviewed

    Y. Kawakami, M. Ito, M. Hirayama, K. Sahashi, B. Ohkawara, A. Masuda, H. Nishida, N. Mabuchi, A. G. Engel, K. Ohno

    NEUROLOGY   Vol. 77 ( 20 ) page: 1819 - 1826   2011.11

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    Objective: Muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK) antibody-positive myasthenia gravis (MG) accounts for 5%-15% of autoimmune MG. MuSK mediates the agrin-signaling pathway and also anchors the collagenic tail subunit (ColQ) of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The exact molecular target of MuSK-immunoglobulin G (IgG), however, remains elusive. As acetylcholine receptor (AChR) deficiency is typically mild and as cholinesterase inhibitors are generally ineffective, we asked if MuSK-IgG interferes with binding of ColQ to MuSK.
    Methods: We used 3 assays: in vitro overlay of the human ColQ-tailed AChE to muscle sections of Colq-/- mice; in vitro plate-binding assay to quantitate binding of MuSK to ColQ and to LRP4; and passive transfer of MuSK-IgG to mice.
    Results: The in vitro overlay assay revealed that MuSK-IgG blocks binding of ColQ to the neuromuscular junction. The in vitro plate-binding assay showed that MuSK-IgG exerts a dosedependent block of MuSK binding to ColQ by but not to LRP4. Passive transfer of MuSK-IgG to mice reduced the size and density of ColQ to similar to 10% of controls and had a lesser effect on the size and density of AChR and MuSK.
    Conclusions: As lack of ColQ compromises agrin-mediated AChR clustering in Colq-/- mice, a similar mechanism may lead to AChR deficiency in MuSK-MG patients. Our experiments also predict partial AChE deficiency in MuSK-MG patients, but AChE is not reduced in biopsied NMJs. In humans, binding of ColQ to MuSK may be dispensable for clustering ColQ, but is required for facilitating AChR clustering. Further studies will be required to elucidate the basis of this paradox. Neurology (R) 2011;77:1819-1826

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  216. Open-label trial and randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of hydrogen-enriched water for mitochondrial and inflammatory myopathies Reviewed

    Mikako Ito, Tohru Ibi, Ko Sahashi, Masashi Ichihara, Masafumi Ito, Kinji Ohno

    Medical Gas Research   Vol. 1 ( 1 ) page: 24 - -   2011.10

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    Background: Molecular hydrogen has prominent effects on more than 30 animal models especially of oxidative stress-mediated diseases and inflammatory diseases. In addition, hydrogen effects on humans have been reported in diabetes mellitus type 2, hemodialysis, metabolic syndrome, radiotherapy for liver cancer, and brain stem infarction. Hydrogen effects are ascribed to specific radical-scavenging activities that eliminate hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite, and also to signal-modulating activities, but the detailed molecular mechanisms still remain elusive. Hydrogen is a safe molecule that is largely produced by intestinal bacteria in rodents and humans, and no adverse effects have been documented. Methods. We performed open-label trial of drinking 1.0 liter per day of hydrogen-enriched water for 12 weeks in five patients with progressive muscular dystrophy (PMD), four patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM), and five patients with mitochondrial myopathies (MM), and measured 18 serum parameters as well as urinary 8-isoprostane every 4 weeks. We next conducted randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of 0.5 liter per day of hydrogen-enriched water or placebo water for 8 weeks in 10 patients with DM and 12 patients with MM, and measured 18 serum parameters every 4 weeks. Results: In the open-label trial, no objective improvement or worsening of clinical symptoms was observed. We, however, observed significant effects in lactate-to-pyruvate ratios in PMD and MM, fasting blood glucose in PMD, serum matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) in PM/DM, and serum triglycerides in PM/DM. In the double-blind trial, no objective clinical effects were observed, but a significant improvement was detected in lactate in MM. Lactate-to-pyruvate ratios in MM and MMP3 in DM also exhibited favorable responses but without statistical significance. No adverse effect was observed in either trial except for hypoglycemic episodes in an insulin-treated MELAS patient, which subsided by reducing the insulin dose. Conclusions: Hydrogen-enriched water improves mitochondrial dysfunction in MM and inflammatory processes in PM/DM. Less prominent effects with the double-blind trial compared to the open-label trial were likely due to a lower amount of administered hydrogen and a shorter observation period, which implies a threshold effect or a dose-response effect of hydrogen. © 2011 Ito et al
    licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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  217. Molecular hydrogen inhibits lipopolysaccharide/interferon gamma-induced nitric oxide production through modulation of signal transduction in macrophages Reviewed

    Tomohiro Itoh, Nanako Hamada, Riyako Terazawa, Mikako Ito, Kinji Ohno, Masatoshi Ichihara, Yoshinori Nozawa, Masafumi Ito

    BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS   Vol. 411 ( 1 ) page: 143 - 9   2011.7

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    Molecular hydrogen has been reported to be effective for a variety of disorders and its effects have been ascribed to the reduction of oxidative stress. However, we have recently demonstrated that hydrogen inhibits type I allergy through modulating intracellular signal transduction. In the present study, we examined the hydrogen effects on lipopolysaccharide/interferon gamma LPS/IFN gamma-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in murine macrophage RAW264 cells. Treatment with hydrogen reduced LPS/IFN gamma-induced NO release, which was associated with a diminished induction of inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Hydrogen treatment inhibited LPS/IFN gamma-induced phosphorylation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and its downstream signaling molecules, p38 MAP kinase and JNK, as well as I kappa B alpha, but did not affect activation of NADPH oxidase and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). As ROS is an upstream activator of ASK1, inhibition of ASK1 by hydrogen without suppressing ROS implies that a potential target molecule of hydrogen should be located at the receptor or immediately downstream of it. These results suggested a role for molecular hydrogen as a signal modulator. Finally, oral intake of hydrogen-rich water alleviated anti-type II collagen antibody-induced arthritis in mice, a model for human rheumatoid arthritis. Taken together, our studies indicate that hydrogen inhibits LPS/IFN gamma-induced NO production through modulation of signal transduction in macrophages and ameliorates inflammatory arthritis in mice, providing the molecular basis for hydrogen effects on inflammation and a functional interaction between two gaseous signaling molecules. NO and molecular hydrogen. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  218. Genetic defects and disorders at the neuromuscular junction

    Ohno K.

    Brain and Nerve   Vol. 63 ( 7 ) page: 669 - 678   2011.7

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  219. The 2011 medical molecular hydrogen symposium: An inaugural symposium of the journal medical gas research Reviewed

    Shigeo Ohta, Atsunori Nakao, Kinji Ohno

    Medical Gas Research   Vol. 1 ( 1 ) page: 10 - -   2011.6

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    This report summarizes a brief description/history of the Hydrogen Research Meetings as well as key presentations/oral abstracts delivered in the most recent symposium. Additionally, we introduced 38 diseases and physiological states for which hydrogen exhibits beneficial effects. © 2011 Ohta et al
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  220. AG-dependent 3 &apos;-splice sites are predisposed to aberrant splicing due to a mutation at the first nucleotide of an exon Reviewed

    Yuan Fu, Akio Masuda, Mikako Ito, Jun Shinmi, Kinji Ohno

    NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH   Vol. 39 ( 10 ) page: 4396 - 404   2011.5

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    In pre-mRNA splicing, a conserved AG/G at the 3&apos;-splice site is recognized by U2AF(35). A disease-causing mutation abrogating the G nucleotide at the first position of an exon (E(+1)) causes exon skipping in GH1, FECH and EYA1, but not in LPL or HEXA. Knockdown of U2AF(35) enhanced exon skipping in GH1 and FECH. RNA-EMSA revealed that wild-type FECH requires U2AF(35) but wild-type LPL does not. A series of artificial mutations in the polypyrimidine tracts of GH1, FECH, EYA1, LPL and HEXA disclosed that a stretch of at least 10-15 pyrimidines is required to ensure normal splicing in the presence of a mutation at E(+1). Analysis of nine other disease-causing mutations at E(+1) detected five splicing mutations. Our studies suggest that a mutation at the AG-dependent 3&apos;-splice site that requires U2AF(35) for spliceosome assembly causes exon skipping, whereas one at the AG-independent 3&apos;-splice site that does not require U2AF(35) gives rise to normal splicing. The AG-dependence of the 3&apos;-splice site that we analyzed in disease-causing mutations at E(+1) potentially helps identify yet unrecognized splicing mutations at E(+1).

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  221. Myasthenic syndrome caused by plectinopathy

    Selcen D., Juel V. C., Hobson-Webb L. D., Smith E. C., Stickler D. E., Bite A. V., Ohno K., Engel A. G.

    NEUROLOGY   Vol. 76 ( 4 ) page: 327-336   2011.1

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  222. Myasthenic syndrome caused by plectinopathy Reviewed

    D. Selcen, V. C. Juel, L. D. Hobson-Webb, E. C. Smith, D. E. Stickler, A. V. Bite, K. Ohno, A. G. Engel

    Neurology   Vol. 76 ( 4 ) page: 327 - 336   2011.1

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    Background: Plectin crosslinks intermediate filaments to their targets in different tissues. Defects in plectin cause epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS), muscular dystrophy (MD), and sometimes pyloric atresia. Association of EBS with a myasthenic syndrome (MyS) was documented in a single patient in 1999. OBJECTIVES:: To analyze the clinical, structural, and genetic aspects of a second and fatal case of EBS associated with a MyS and search for the genetic basis of the disease in a previously reported patient with EBS-MD-MyS. Methods: Clinical observations
    histochemical, immunocytochemical, and electron microscopy studies of skeletal muscle and neuromuscular junction
    and mutation analysis. Results: An African American man had EBS since early infancy, and progressive muscle weakness, hyperCKemia, and myasthenic symptoms refractory to therapy since age 3 years. Eventually he became motionless and died at age 42 years. At age 15 years, he had a marked EMG decrement, and a reduced miniature endplate potential amplitude. The myopathy was associated with dislocated muscle fiber organelles, structurally abnormal nuclei, focal plasmalemmal defects, and focal calcium ingress into muscle fibers. The neuromuscular junctions showed destruction of the junctional folds, and remodeling. Mutation analysis demonstrated a known p.Arg2319X and a novel c.12043dupG mutation in PLEC1. The EBS-MD-MyS patient reported in 1999 also carried c.12043dupG and a novel p.Gln2057X mutation. The novel mutations were absent in 200 Caucasian and 100 African American subjects. Conclusions: The MyS in plectinopathy is attributed to destruction of the junctional folds and the myopathy to defective anchoring of muscle fiber organelles and defects in sarcolemmal integrity. Copyright © 2011 by AAN Enterprises, Inc.

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  223. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine correlate with hallucinations rather than motor symptoms in Parkinson&apos;s disease Reviewed

    Masaaki Hirayama, Tomohiko Nakamura, Hirohisa Watanabe, Kei Uchida, Tetsuo Hama, Takashi Hara, Yoshiki Niimi, Mizuki Ito, Kinji Ohno, Gen Sobue

    PARKINSONISM & RELATED DISORDERS   Vol. 17 ( 1 ) page: 46 - 9   2011.1

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    Background: Oxidative stress is causally associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson&apos;s disease (PD). Oxygen generates a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS including hydroxyl radicals and H(2)O(2) react with guanine residues in DNA and produce 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). 8-OHdG serves as a biomarker for oxidative stress in various diseases.
    Method: We investigated urinary 8-OHdG levels in 61 PD patients and 28 normal subjects to evaluate the correlation with various clinical features. We quantified disease severity using the Unified Parkinson&apos;s Disease Rating Scale for motor symptoms (UPDRS part 3), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for mental function, and the Tottori University Hallucination Rating Scale (TUHARS) for quantifying hallucinations.
    Results: There were significant correlations between 8-OHdG and all the examined parameters, but the partial correlation coefficients excluding contributions of all the other parameters showed that only TUHARS and UPDRS part 3 are significantly related to 8-OHdG. In particular, TUHARS correlates best with urinary 8-OHdG levels.
    Conclusion: The significant correlation between urinary 8-OHdG levels and hallucinations but not with dementia suggests that hallucinations are likely to have unique but unidentified mechanisms that lead to excessive production of 8-OHdG. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  224. RNA Pathologies in Neurological Disorders

    Ohno Kinji, Masuda Akio

    NEUROCHEMICAL MECHANISMS IN DISEASE   Vol. 1   page: 399 - 415   2011

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  225. [Aberrant pre-mRNA splicing in neurological disorders].

    Ohno K

    Tanpakushitsu kakusan koso. Protein, nucleic acid, enzyme   Vol. 54 ( 16 Suppl ) page: 2239 - 44   2009.12

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  226. Molecular hydrogen suppresses Fc epsilon RI-mediated signal transduction and prevents degranulation of mast cells Reviewed

    Tomohiro Itoh, Yasunori Fujita, Mikako Ito, Akio Masuda, Kinji Ohno, Masatoshi Ichihara, Toshio Kojima, Yoshinori Nozawa, Masafumi Ito

    BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS   Vol. 389 ( 4 ) page: 651 - 6   2009.11

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    Molecular hydrogen ameliorates oxidative stress-associated diseases in animal models. We found that oral intake of hydrogen-rich water abolishes an immediate-type allergic reaction in mice. Using rat RBL-2H3 mast cells, we demonstrated that hydrogen attenuates phosphorylation of the Fc epsilon RI-associated Lyn and its downstream signal transduction, which subsequently inhibits the NADPH oxidase activity and reduces the generation of hydrogen peroxide. We also found that inhibition of NADPH oxidase attenuates phosphorylation of Lyn in mast cells, indicating the presence of a feed-forward loop that potentiates the allergic responses. Hydrogen accordingly inhibits all tested signaling molecule(s) in the loop. Hydrogen effects have been solely ascribed to exclusive removal of hydroxyl radical. In the immediate-type allergic reaction, hydrogen exerts its beneficial effect not by its radical scavenging activity but by modulating a specific signaling pathway. Effects of hydrogen in other diseases are possibly mediated by modulation of yet unidentified signaling pathways. Our studies also suggest that hydrogen is a gaseous signaling molecule like nitric oxide. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  227. Alu-Mediated Acquisition of Unstable ATTCT Pentanucleotide Repeats in the Human ATXN10 Gene Reviewed

    Tatsuaki Kurosaki, Tohru Matsuura, Kinji Ohno, Shintaroh Ueda

    MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND EVOLUTION   Vol. 26 ( 11 ) page: 2573 - 9   2009.11

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    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 is caused by ATTCT repeat expansion in the ATXN10 gene in humans. We studied the evolutionary history of the human genome to determine the time and mechanism of the acquisition of unstable ATTCT repeats in the genome. We found that long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) was inserted into ATXN10 intron 9; Alu was then inserted in the middle of LINE-1; and endogenous retrovilcus K was lastly retrotransposed in the middle of Alu. The ATTCT repeat was located on the boundary between the 3&apos;-end of the Alu element and the direct repeat arising from LINE-1. We determined nucleotide sequences of the orthologous region of 50 individuals representing 33 primate species and compared them with the human sequence. The analysis revealed that the ATTCT repeat is present only in human and apes. Old World monkeys also possess pentanucleotide repeats, but their motifs are TGTCT and GGTCT. New World monkeys and prosimians are not informative because they lack the corresponding region in ATXN10 intron 9. Our studies dictate two parsimonious scenarios of evolution. First, a TT (C) under barT motif arose from a TTTTT motif at the junction of Alu and LINE-1, which was followed by introduction of A to make an (A) under bar TTCT motif in horminoids. Second, an ATT (C) under barT motif wits directly generated from an ancestral ATM motif in the common ancestor of catarrhines. We also demonstrate that orangutan uniquely introduced G to make a (G) under bar TTCT motif and later C to make a GTTC (C) under bar motif, where newly introduced nucleotides are underlined. Our Studies reveal that nucleotide substitutions in a poly(A) tail of the Alu element and the following amplification of pentanucleotides occurred in the lineages of Old World monkeys and hominoids and that unstable ATTCT pentanucleotide repeats originated in the common ancestor of hominoids. These findings also highlight a new aspect of the role of retrotransposons in human disease and evolution, which might be useful in investigating the mystery of human uniqueness.

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  228. Myasthenic syndrome due to defects in rapsyn: Clinical and molecular findings in 39 patients

    Milone M., Shen X. M., Selcen D., Ohno K., Brengman J., Iannaccone S. T., Harper C. M., Engel A. G.

    NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS   Vol. 19 ( 8-9 ) page: 626-627   2009.9

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    DOI: 10.1016/j.nmd.2009.06.258

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  229. Molecular bases and therapeutic strategies of defective neuromuscular transmissions: Lessons learned from a prototypical synapse

    Ohno K.

    Japanese Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology   Vol. 29 ( 4 ) page: 145 - 151   2009.8

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  230. Myasthenic syndrome due to defects in rapsyn: Clinical and molecular findings in 39 patients Reviewed

    M. Milone, X. M. Shen, D. Selcen, K. Ohno, J. Brengman, S. T. Iannaccone, C. M. Harper, A. G. Engel

    Neurology   Vol. 73 ( 3 ) page: 228 - 235   2009.7

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    Background: Pathogenic mutations in rapsyn result in endplate acetylcholine receptor (AChR) deficiency and are a common cause of postsynaptic congenital myasthenic syndromes. Methods: Clinical, electrophysiologic, pathologic, and molecular studies were done in 39 patients. Results: In all but one patient, the disease presented in the first 2 years of life. In 9 patients, the myasthenic symptoms included constant or episodic ophthalmoparesis, and 1 patient had a pure limb-girdle phenotype. More than one-half of the patients experienced intermittent exacerbations. Long-term follow-up was available in 25 patients after start of cholinergic therapy: 21 became stable or were improved and 2 of these became asymptomatic
    3 had a progressive course
    and 1 died in infancy. In 7 patients who had endplate studies, the average counts of AChR per endplate and the synaptic response to ACh were less reduced than in patients harboring low AChR expressor mutations. Eight patients were homozygous and 23 heterozygous for the common p.N88K mutation. Six mutations, comprising 3 missense mutations, an in-frame deletion, a splice-site mutation, and a nonsense mutation, are novel. Homozygosity for p.N88K was associated with varying grades of severity. No genotype-phenotype correlations were observed except in 8 Near-Eastern patients homozygous for the promoter mutation (c.-38A&gt
    G), who had a mild course. Conclusions: All but 1 patient presented early in life and most responded to cholinergic agonists. With early diagnosis and therapy, rapsyn deficiency has a benign course in most patients. There was no consistent phenotype- genotype correlation except for an E-box mutation associated with jaw deformities. Copyright © by AAN Enterprises, Inc.

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  231. Molecular hydrogen is protective against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostriatal degeneration in a rat model of Parkinson&apos;s disease Reviewed

    Yuan Fu, Mikako Ito, Yasunori Fujita, Masafumi Ito, Masatoshi Ichihara, Akio Masuda, Yumi Suzuki, Satoshi Maesawa, Yasukazu Kajita, Masaaki Hirayama, Ikuroh Ohsawa, Shigeo Ohta, Kinji Ohno

    NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS   Vol. 453 ( 2 ) page: 81 - 5   2009.4

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    Molecular hydrogen serves as an antioxidant that reduces hydroxyl radicals, but not the other reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. In the past year, molecular hydrogen has been reported to prevent or ameliorate eight diseases in rodents and one in human associated with oxidative stress. In Parkinson&apos;s disease, mitochondrial dysfunction and the associated oxidative stress are major causes of dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra. We examined effects of similar to 50%-saturated molecular hydrogen in drinking water before or after the stereotactic surgery on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostrital degeneration in a rat model of Parkinson&apos;s disease. Methamphetamine-induced behavioral analysis showed that molecular hydrogen prevented both the development and progression of the nigrostrital degeneration. Tyrosine hydroxylase staining of the substantia nigra and striatum also demonstrated that pre- and post-treatment with hydrogen prevented the dopaminergic cell loss. Our studies suggest that hydrogen water is likely able to retard the development and progression of Parkinson&apos;s disease. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  232. Tannic acid facilitates expression of the polypyrimidine tract binding protein and alleviates deleterious inclusion of CHRNA1 exon P3A due to an hnRNP H-disrupting mutation in congenital myasthenic syndrome Reviewed

    Yang Bian, Akio Masuda, Tohru Matsuura, Mikako Ito, Kazuya Okushin, Andrew G. Engel, Kinji Ohno

    HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS   Vol. 18 ( 7 ) page: 1229 - 37   2009.4

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    We recently reported that the intronic splice-site mutation IVS3-8G &gt; A of CHRNA1 that encodes the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit disrupts binding of a splicing repressor, hnRNP H. This, in turn, results in exclusive inclusion of the downstream exon P3A. The P3A(+) transcript encodes a non-functional alpha subunit that comprises 50% of the transcripts in normal human skeletal muscle, but its functional significance remains undetermined. In an effort to search for a potential therapy, we screened off-label effects of 960 bioactive chemical compounds and found that tannic acid ameliorates the aberrant splicing due to IVS3-8G &gt; A but without altering the expression of hnRNP H. Therefore, we searched for another splicing trans-factor. We found that the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) binds close to the 3&apos; end of CHRNA1 intron 3, that PTB induces skipping of exon P3A and that tannic acid increases the expression of PTB in a dose-dependent manner. Deletion assays of the PTB promoter region revealed that the tannic acid-responsive element is between positions -232 and -74 from the translation initiation site. These observations open the door to the discovery of novel therapies based on PTB overexpression and to detecting possible untoward effects of the overexpression.

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  233. Viral vector-mediated expression of human collagen Q in cultured cells (vol 175, pg 346, 2008)

    Ito Mikako, Masuda Akio, Jinno Shinsuke, Katagiri Takeshi, Krejci Eric, Ohno Kinji

    CHEMICO-BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS   Vol. 177 ( 1 ) page: 81 - 81   2009.1

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    DOI: 10.1016/j.cbi.2008.09.024

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  234. Ancestral Origin of the ATTCT Repeat Expansion in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 10 (SCA10) Reviewed

    Teresa Almeida, Isabel Alonso, Sandra Martins, Eliana Marisa Ramos, Luisa Azevedo, Kinji Ohno, Antonio Amorim, Maria Luiza Saraiva-Pereira, Laura Bannach Jardim, Tohru Matsuura, Jorge Sequeiros, Isabel Silveira

    PLOS ONE   Vol. 4 ( 2 ) page: e4553 - -   2009

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    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by cerebellar ataxia and seizures. The disease is caused by a large ATTCT repeat expansion in the ATXN10 gene. The first families reported with SCA10 were of Mexican origin, but the disease was soon after described in Brazilian families of mixed Portuguese and Amerindian ancestry. The origin of the SCA10 expansion and a possible founder effect that would account for its geographical distribution have been the source of speculation over the last years. To unravel the mutational origin and spread of the SCA10 expansion, we performed an extensive haplotype study, using closely linked STR markers and intragenic SNPs, in families from Brazil and Mexico. Our results showed (1) a shared disease haplotype for all Brazilian and one of the Mexican families, and (2) closely-related haplotypes for the additional SCA10 Mexican families; (3) little or null genetic distance in small normal alleles of different repeat sizes, from the same SNP lineage, indicating that they are being originated by a single step mechanism; and (4) a shared haplotype for pure and interrupted expanded alleles, pointing to a gene conversion model for its generation. In conclusion, we show evidence for an ancestral common origin for SCA10 in Latin America, which might have arisen in an ancestral Amerindian population and later have been spread into the mixed populations of Mexico and Brazil.

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  235. hnRNP H enhances skipping of a nonfunctional exon P3A in CHRNA1 and a mutation disrupting its binding causes congenital myasthenic syndrome. Reviewed

    Masuda A, Shen XM, Ito M, Matsuura T, Engel AG, Ohno K

    Human molecular genetics   Vol. 17 ( 24 ) page: 4022-35   2008.12

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    DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddn305

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  236. hnRNP H enhances skipping of a nonfunctional exon P3A in CHRNA1 and a mutation disrupting its binding causes congenital myasthenic syndrome

    Masuda Akio, Shen Xin-Ming, Ito Mikako, Matsuura Tohru, Engel Andrew G., Ohno Kinji

    HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS   Vol. 17 ( 24 ) page: 4022-4035   2008.12

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  237. 優性遺伝性神経筋疾患に対する転写産物特異的ノックダウン治療法開発の試み

    佐橋 健太郎, 祖父江 元, 大野 欽司

    臨床神経学   Vol. 48 ( 12 ) page: 1117 - 1117   2008.12

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  238. Viral vector-medicated expression of human collagen Q in cultured cells Reviewed

    Mikako Ito, Akio Masuda, Shinsuke Jinno, Takeshi Katagiri, Eric Krejci, Kinji Ohno

    CHEMICO-BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS   Vol. 175 ( 1-3 ) page: 346 - 8   2008.9

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    Congenital myasthenic syndromes arc Caused by Mutations in molecules expressed at the neuromuscular junction. Collagen Q (ColQ) makes a triple helical structure and anchors the catalytic Subunit of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) to the synaptic basal lamina in the form of asymmetric AChE. Mutations in the colla-en Q gene (COLQ) cause endplate AChE deficiency. As an initial step to develop a novel therapeutic strategy for endplate acetylcholinesterase deficiency, we expressed AChE species in Cultured cells using retrovirus and adeno-associated virus (AAV).
    The retroviral vectors carried human ACHE and COLQ either in a single construct (EF1 alpha-ACHE-IRES-COLQ) or in two separate constructs (EF1 alpha-ACHE and EF1 alpha-COLQ). We produced high-titer retroviruses using the PLAT-E retrovirus packaging cells. We also confirmed expression of asymmetric AChE in the PLATE-E cells. We infected NIH3T3 and confirmed expression of the transgenes by RT-PCR. The AAV vector carried human COLQ-IRES-EGFP downstream of the CMV promoter (pAAV-CMV-COLQ-IRES-EGFP). We produced recombinant AAV using HEK293 cells carrying pDF6 encoding the AAV6 capsid gene. We infected AAVHT1080 cells and confirmed expression of COLQ by RT-PCR and EGFP by flow cytometry. We are currently trying to achieve further higher expression levels of transgenes in cultured cells to make the current strategy applicable to an animal model. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  239. CMS due to defects in rapsyn: clinical and molecular findings of a large cohort

    Milone M., Shen X. M., Selcen D., Ohno K., Brengman J. M., Iannaccone S., Engel A. G.

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY   Vol. 15   page: 14-15   2008.8

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  240. Congenital myasthenia-related AChR delta subunit mutation interferes with intersubunit communication essential for channel gating. Reviewed

    Shen XM, Fukuda T, Ohno K, Sine SM, Engel AG

    The Journal of clinical investigation   Vol. 118 ( 5 ) page: 1867-76   2008.5

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    DOI: 10.1172/JCI34527

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  241. Long-range PCR for the diagnosis of spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 Reviewed

    Tatsuaki Kurosaki, Tohru Matsuura, Kinji Ohno, Shintaroh Ueda

    NEUROGENETICS   Vol. 9 ( 2 ) page: 151 - 2   2008.5

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    DOI: 10.1007/s10048-007-0117-x

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  242. Congenital myasthenia-related AChR delta subunit mutation interferes with intersubunit communication essential for channel gating

    Shen Xin-Ming, Fukuda Taku, Ohno Kinji, Sine Steven M., Engel Andrew G.

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION   Vol. 118 ( 5 ) page: 1867-1876   2008.5

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  243. Human branch point consensus sequence is yUnAy. Reviewed

    Gao K, Masuda A, Matsuura T, Ohno K

    Nucleic acids research   Vol. 36 ( 7 ) page: 2257-67   2008.4

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    DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkn073

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  244. Human branch point consensus sequence is yUnAy

    Gao Kaiping, Masuda Akio, Matsuura Tohru, Ohno Kinji

    NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH   Vol. 36 ( 7 ) page: 2257-2267   2008.4

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    DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkn073

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  245. Myotonic dystrophy type 2 in Japan: ancestral origin distinct from Caucasian families Reviewed

    Tsukasa Saito, Yoshinobu Amakusa, Takashi Kimura, Osamu Yahara, Hitoshi Aizawa, Yoshio Ikeda, John W. Day, Laura P. W. Ranum, Kinji Ohno, Tohru Matsuura

    NEUROGENETICS   Vol. 9 ( 1 ) page: 61 - 3   2008.2

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    Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is caused by expansion of a tetranucleotide CCTG repeat in intron 1 of the ZNF9 gene on chromosome 3q21. All studied DM2 mutations have been reported in Caucasians and share an identical haplotype, suggesting a common founder. We identified a Japanese patient with DM2 and showed that the affected haplotype is distinct from the previously identified DM2 haplotype shared among Caucasians. These data strongly suggest that DM2 expansion mutations originate from separate founders in Europe and Japan and are more widely distributed than previously recognized.

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  246. 神経疾患の5'スプライス部位におけるスプライシング変異の同定

    佐橋 健太郎, 祖父江 元, 大野 欽司

    臨床神経学   Vol. 47 ( 12 ) page: 1125 - 1125   2007.12

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  247. [RNA pathologies in neurological disorders].

    Ohno K

    Rinsho shinkeigaku = Clinical neurology   Vol. 47 ( 11 ) page: 801 - 4   2007.11

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  248. Essential role of GATA transcriptional factors in the activation of mast cells Reviewed

    Akio Masuda, Katsunori Hashimoto, Toyoharu Yokoi, Takeshi Doi, Tatsuhiko Kodama, Hiroaki Kume, Kinji Ohno, Tetsuya Matsuguchi

    JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY   Vol. 178 ( 1 ) page: 360 - 8   2007.1

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    Mast cells are pivotal effector cells in IgE-mediated allergic reactions. GATA transcriptional factors such as GATA-I and GATA-2 are expressed in mast cells, and recent studies have revealed that both GATA-1 and GATA-2 are required for mast cell development. However, the role of GATA transcriptional factors in differentiated mast cells has remained largely unknown. In this study, we repressed the activity of GATA-1 and GATA-2 by using three different approaches (inducible overexpression of a dominant-negative form of GATA, pharmacological inactivation, or small interfering RNA technology), and analyzed the molecular mechanisms of GATA transcriptional factors in the activation of mast cells. Surprisingly, the repression of GATA activity in differentiated mast cells led to the impairment of cell survival, IgE-induced degranulation, and cytokine production. Signal transduction and histone modification in the chromatin related to protein kinase C beta were defective in these cells. These results identify that GATA has a critical role in the activation of mast cell.

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  249. In vitro and in silico analysis reveals an efficient algorithm to predict the splicing consequences of mutations at the 5 ' splice sites Reviewed

    Kentaro Sahashi, Akio Masuda, Tohru Matsuura, Jun Shinmi, Zhujun Zhang, Yasuhiro Takeshima, Masafumi Matsuo, Gen Sobue, Kinji Ohno

    NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH   Vol. 35 ( 18 ) page: 5995 - 6003   2007

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    We have found that two previously reported exonic mutations in the PINK1 and PARK7 genes affect pre-mRNA splicing. To develop an algorithm to predict underestimated splicing consequences of exonic mutations at the 5' splice site, we constructed and analyzed 31 minigenes carrying exonic splicing mutations and their derivatives. We also examined 189 249 U2-dependent 5' splice sites of the entire human genome and found that a new variable, the SD-Score, which represents a common logarithm of the frequency of a specific 5' splice site, efficiently predicts the splicing consequences of these minigenes. We also employed the information contents (R-i) to improve the prediction accuracy. We validated our algorithm by analyzing 32 additional minigenes as well as 179 previously reported splicing mutations. The SD-Score algorithm predicted aberrant splicings in 198 of 204 sites (sensitivity=97.1%) and normal splicings in 36 of 38 sites (specificity=94.7%). Simulation of all possible exonic mutations at positions -3, -2 and -1 of the 189249 sites predicts that 37.8, 88.8 and 96.8% of these mutations would affect pre-mRNA splicing, respectively. We propose that the SD-Score algorithm is a practical tool to predict splicing consequences of mutations affecting the 5' splice site.

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  250. Thermodynamic instability of siRNA duplex is a prerequisite for dependable prediction of siRNA activities Reviewed

    Masatoshi Ichihara, Yoshiki Murakumo, Akio Masuda, Toru Matsuura, Naoya Asai, Mayumi Jijiwa, Maki Ishida, Jun Shinmi, Hiroshi Yatsuya, Shanlou Qiao, Masahide Takahashi, Kinji Ohno

    NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH   Vol. 35 ( 18 ) page: e123 - -   2007

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    We developed a simple algorithm, i-Score (inhibitory-Score), to predict active siRNAs by applying a linear regression model to 2431 siRNAs. Our algorithm is exclusively comprised of nucleotide (nt) preferences at each position, and no other parameters are taken into account. Using a validation dataset comprised of 419 siRNAs, we found that the prediction accuracy of i-Score is as good as those of s-Biopredsi, ThermoComposition21 and DSIR, which employ a neural network model or more parameters in a linear regression model. Reynolds and Katoh also predict active siRNAs efficiently, but the numbers of siRNAs predicted to be active are less than one-eighth of that of i-Score. We additionally found that exclusion of thermostable siRNAs, whose whole stacking energy (Delta G) is less than 34.6 kcal/mol, improves the prediction accuracy in i-Score, s-Biopredsi, ThermoComposition21 and DSIR. We also developed a universal target vector, pSELL, with which we can assay an siRNA activity of any sequence in either the sense or antisense direction. We assayed 86 siRNAs in HEK293 cells using pSELL, and validated applicability of i-Score and the whole Delta G value in designing siRNAs.

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  251. 硫酸キニジンが奏効した先天性筋無力症候群

    佐橋 健太郎, 大野 欽司, 山田 新一, 犬飼 晃, 祖父江 元

    臨床神経学   Vol. 45 ( 12 ) page: 1136 - 1136   2005.12

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  252. Splicing abnormalities in congenital myasthenic syndromes

    Ohno K.

    Acta Myologica   Vol. 24 ( 2 ) page: 50 - 54   2005.10

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  253. Spectrum of splicing errors caused by CHRNE mutations affecting introns and intron/exon boundaries. Reviewed

    Ohno K, Tsujino A, Shen XM, Milone M, Engel AG

    Journal of medical genetics   Vol. 42 ( 8 ) page: e53   2005.8

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  254. Gene symbol: CHRNE. Disease: Endplate acetylcholine receptor deficiency.

    Ohno K.

    Human genetics   Vol. 117 ( 2-3 )   2005.7

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  255. Gene symbol: CHRNE. Disease: Endplate acetylcholine receptor deficiency.

    Ohno K.

    Human genetics   Vol. 117 ( 2-3 )   2005.7

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  256. Gene symbol: CHRNE. Disease: Endplate acetylcholine receptor deficiency.

    Ohno K.

    Human genetics   Vol. 117 ( 2-3 )   2005.7

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  257. Subunit-specific contribution to agonist binding and channel gating revealed by inherited mutation in muscle acetylcholine receptor M3-M4 linker Reviewed

    XM Shen, K Ohno, SM Sine, AG Engel

    BRAIN   Vol. 128 ( Pt 2 ) page: 345 - 55   2005.2

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    We trace the cause of congenital myasthenic syndromes in two patients to mutations in the epsilon subunit of the muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR). Both patients harbour deletion of an asparagine residue in the epsilon subunit (epsilonN436del) at the C-terminus of the cytoplasmic loop linking the third (M3) and fourth (M4) transmembrane domains. The presence of a null mutation in the second allele of the epsilon subunit shows that epsilonN346del determines the phenotype. Endplate studies show markedly reduced expression of the epsilonN346del-AChR and compensatory accumulation of fetal gamma-AChR. Expression studies in HEK cells reveal decreased expression of epsilonN436del-AChR and abnormally brief channel openings. Thus, neuromuscular transmission is compromised by AChR deficiency, fast channel kinetics of the epsilonN346del-AChR and incomplete phenotypic rescue by gamma-AChR. Single-channel kinetic analysis shows that the epsilonN436del shortens channel openings by reducing stability of the diliganded receptor: rates of channel closing and of ACh dissociation are increased and the rate of channel opening is decreased. In addition to shortening the M3-M4 loop, epsilonN436del shifts a negatively charged aspartic acid residue adjacent to M4; the effects of epsilonN436del are shown to result from shortening of the M3-M4 loop and not from juxtaposition of a negative charge to M4. To determine whether the consequences of epsilonN346del are subunit-specific, we deleted residues that align with epsilonN436 in beta, delta and alpha subunits. Each deletion mutant reduces AChR expression, but whereas the beta and delta mutants curtail channel open duration, the alpha mutant strikingly prolongs open duration. Kinetic analysis reveals that the alpha mutant increases the stability of the diliganded receptor: rates of channel closing and of ACh dissociation are decreased and the rate of channel opening is increased. The overall studies reveal subunit asymmetry in the contributions of the M3-M4 loops in optimizing AChR activation through allosteric links to the channel and the agonist binding site.

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  258. Molecular insights into acetylcholine receptor structure and function revealed by mutations causing congenital myasthenic syndromes

    Sine S.

    Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology   Vol. 32   page: 95 - 119   2004.12

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  259. Progressive myopathy with circulating autoantibody against giantin in the Golgi apparatus

    Sahashi K, Ibi T, Ohno K, Sahashi K, Nakao N, Kondo H

    NEUROLOGY   Vol. 62 ( 10 ) page: 1891-1893   2004.5

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  260. Progressive myopathy with circulating autoantibody against giantin in the Golgi apparatus Reviewed

    K. Sahashi, T. Ibi, K. Ohno, K. Sahashi, N. Nakao, H. Kondo

    Neurology   Vol. 62 ( 10 ) page: 1891 - 1893   2004.5

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    A woman aged 59 years with adult-onset progressive myopathy had anti-Golgi (giantin) autoantibody in the serum. Limb-muscle biopsy revealed chronic myopathy with paucity of cellular reactions and reduced immunostaining for α-dystroglycan. The similarity of the current patient with cases of hereditary α-dystroglycanopathies (Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy, Walker-Warburg syndrome, muscle-eye-brain disease, congenital muscular dystrophy type 1C, and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I) suggests that the Golgi apparatus is the target organelle in a subset of myopathies.

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  261. Choline acetyltransferase structure reveals distribution of mutations that cause motor disorders Reviewed

    YY Cai, CN Cronin, AG Engel, K Ohno, LB Hersh, DW Rodgers

    EMBO JOURNAL   Vol. 23 ( 10 ) page: 2047 - 58   2004.5

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    Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) synthesizes acetylcholine in neurons and other cell types. Decreases in ChAT activity are associated with a number of disease states, and mutations in ChAT cause congenital neuromuscular disorders. The crystal structure of ChAT reported here shows the enzyme divided into two domains with the active site in a solvent accessible tunnel at the domain interface. A low-resolution view of the complex with one substrate, coenzyme A, defines its binding site and suggests an additional interaction not found in the related carnitine acetyltransferase. Also, the preference for choline over carnitine as an acetyl acceptor is seen to result from both electrostatic and steric blocks to carnitine binding at the active site. While half of the mutations that cause motor disorders are positioned to affect enzyme activity directly, the remaining changes are surprisingly distant from the active site and must exert indirect effects. The structure indicates how ChAT is regulated by phosphorylation and reveals an unusual pattern of basic surface patches that may mediate membrane association or macromolecular interactions.

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  262. C-terminal and heparin-binding domains of collagenic tail subunit are both essential for anchoring acetylcholinesterase at the synapse Reviewed

    LM Kimbell, K Ohno, AG Engel, RL Rotundo

    JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY   Vol. 279 ( 12 ) page: 10997 - 1005   2004.3

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    The collagen-tailed form of acetylcholinesterase (A(12)-AChE) appears to be localized at the neuromuscular junction in association with the transmembrane dystroglycan complex through binding of its collagenic tail (ColQ) to the proteoglycan perlecan. The heparan sulfate binding domains (HSBD) of ColQ are thought to be involved in anchoring ColQ to the synaptic basal lamina. The C-terminal domain (CTD) of ColQ is also likely involved, but there has been no direct evidence. Mutations in COLQ cause endplate AChE deficiency in humans. Nine previously reported and three novel mutations are in CTD of ColQ, and most CTD mutations do not abrogate formation of A(12)-AChE in transfected COS cells. Patient endplates, however, are devoid of AChE, suggesting that CTD mutations affect anchoring of ColQ to the synaptic basal lamina. Based on our observations that purified AChE can be transplanted to the heterologous frog neuromuscular junction, we tested insertion competence of nine naturally occurring CTD mutants and two artificial HSBD mutants. Wild-type human A(12)-AChE inserted into the frog neuromuscular junction, whereas six CTD mutants and two HSBD mutants did not. Our studies establish that the CTD mutations indeed compromise anchoring of ColQ and that both HSBD and CTD are essential for anchoring ColQ to the synaptic basal lamina.

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  263. Novel truncating RAPSN mutations causing congenital myasthenic syndrome responsive to 3,4-diaminopyridine. Reviewed

    Banwell BL, Ohno K, Sieb JP, Engel AG

    Neuromuscular disorders : NMD   Vol. 14 ( 3 ) page: 202-7   2004.3

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    DOI: 10.1016/j.nmd.2003.11.004

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  264. Novel truncating RAPSN mutations causing congenital myasthenic syndrome responsive to 3,4-diaminopyridine

    Banwell BL, Ohno K, Sieb JP, Engel AG

    NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS   Vol. 14 ( 3 ) page: 202-207   2004.3

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    DOI: 10.1016/j.nmd.2003.11.004

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  265. Myofibrillar myopathy: clinical, morphological and genetic studies in 63 patients. Reviewed

    Selcen D, Ohno K, Engel AG

    Brain : a journal of neurology   Vol. 127 ( Pt 2 ) page: 439-51   2004.2

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    DOI: 10.1093/brain/awh052

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  266. Myofibrillar myopathy: clinical, morphological and genetic studies in 63 patients

    Selcen D, Ohno K, Engel AG

    BRAIN   Vol. 127   page: 439-451   2004.2

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    DOI: 10.1093/brain/awh052

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  267. Lack of founder haplotype for the rapsyn N88K mutation: N88K is an ancient founder mutation or arises from multiple founders

    Ohno K, Engel AG

    JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS   Vol. 41 ( 1 ) page: .   2004.1

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  268. Lack of founder haplotype for the rapsyn N88K mutation: N88K is an ancient founder mutation or arises from multiple founders Reviewed

    K Ohno, AG Engel

    JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS   Vol. 41 ( 1 )   2004.1

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  269. A frameshifting mutation in CHRNE unmasks skipping of the preceding exon Reviewed

    K Ohno, M Milone, XM Shen, AG Engel

    HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS   Vol. 12 ( 23 ) page: 3055 - 66   2003.12

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    A frameshifting 7 bp deletion (epsilon553del7) in exon 7 of CHRNE encoding the acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit, observed in seven congenital myasthenic syndrome patients, enhances expression of an aberrantly spliced transcript that skips the preceding 101 bp exon 6. To recapitulate the aberrant splicing, we cloned the entire CHRNE spanning 12 exons and 11 introns and expressed it in COS cells. Scanning mutagenesis revealed that epsilon553del7 does not disrupt an exonic splicing enhancer. Inhibition of protein synthesis and of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) by anisomycin shows that even wild-type CHRNE produces an exon 6-skipped transcript, and that even epsilon553del7-CHRNE yields a normally spliced transcript. Both transcripts, however, are degraded by NMD due to a premature stop codon. In contrast, the normally spliced transcript from wild-type CHRNE and the exon 6-skipped transcript from epsilon553del7-CHRNE carry no premature stop codon and hence are immune to NMD. Optimization of splicing signals for exon 6 prevents it being skipped even in the presence of anisomycin and/or epsilon553del7, indicating that inherently weak splicing signals for exon 6 account for its skipping. We suggest that a similar mechanism probably operates in other genes in skipping of remote exons. The presence of weak splicing signals for exon 6 also prompted us to search for mutations in exon 6 that disrupt an exonic splicing enhancer. Indeed, we found that epsilonEF157V and epsilonE154X in exon 6, observed in two other patients, caused aberrant splicing of exon 6.

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  270. A frameshifting mutation causes skipping of a preceding axon and modifies the effects of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD).

    Ohno K, Milone M, Brengman JM, Shen XM, Engel AG

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS   Vol. 73 ( 5 ) page: 352-352   2003.11

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  271. Congenital myasthenic syndromes: multiple molecular targets at the neuromuscular junction. Reviewed

    Engel AG, Ohno K, Shen XM, Sine SM

    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences   Vol. 998   page: 138-60   2003.9

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  272. Mechanistic diversity underlying fast channel congenital myasthenic syndromes. Reviewed

    Sine SM, Wang HL, Ohno K, Shen XM, Lee WY, Engel AG

    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences   Vol. 998   page: 128-37   2003.9

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  273. Myasthenic syndrome caused by mutation of the SCN4A sodium channel Reviewed

    A Tsujino, C Maertens, K Ohno, XM Shen, T Fukuda, CM Harper, SC Cannon, AG Engel

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA   Vol. 100 ( 12 ) page: 7377 - 82   2003.6

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    In a myasthenic syndrome associated with fatigable generalized weakness and recurrent attacks of respiratory and bulbar paralysis since birth, nerve stimulation at physiologic rates rapidly decremented the compound muscle action potential. Intercostal muscle studies revealed no abnormality of the resting membrane potential, evoked quantal release, synaptic potentials, acetylcholine receptor channel kinetics, or endplate ultrastructure, but endplate potentials depolarizing the resting potential to -40 mV failed to excite action potentials. Pursuing this clue, we sequenced SCN4A encoding the skeletal muscle sodium channel (Na(v)1.4) and detected two heteroallelic mutations involving conserved residues not present in 400 normal alleles: S246L in the S4/S5 cytoplasmic linker in domain I, and V1442E in the S3/S4 extracellular linker in domain IV. The genetically engineered V1442E-Na channel expressed in HEK cells shows marked enhancement of fast inactivation close to the resting potential, and enhanced use-dependent inactivation on high-frequency stimulation; S246L is likely a benign polymorphism. The V1442E mutation in SCN4A defines a novel disease mechanism and a novel phenotype with myasthenic features.

    DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1230273100

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  274. Congenital myasthenic syndromes: A diverse array of molecular targets Reviewed

    AG Engel, K Ohno, SM Sine

    JOURNAL OF NEUROCYTOLOGY   Vol. 32 ( 5-8 ) page: 1017 - 37   2003.6

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    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) has served as a prototype for understanding mechanisms underlying synaptic transmission over the past 50 years. More recently, analysis of congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) revealed a diverse array of molecular targets and delineated their contributions to synaptic function. Clinical, electrophysiologic and morphologic studies have paved the way for detecting CMS-related mutations in proteins such as choline acetyltransferase acetylcholinesterase, the acetylcholine receptor, rapsyn, and the voltage-gated sodium channel of the Na(v)1.4 type. Further studies of the mutant proteins have allowed us to correlate the effects of the mutations with predicted alterations in protein structure. In this review, we focus on the symptomatology of the CMS, consider the factors that impair neuromuscular transmission, survey the mutations that have been uncovered in the different synaptic proteins, and consider the functional implications of the identified mutations.

    DOI: 10.1023/B:NEUR.0000020639.22895.28

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  275. Sleuthing molecular targets for neurological diseases at the neuromuscular junction. Reviewed

    Engel AG, Ohno K, Sine SM

    Nature reviews. Neuroscience   Vol. 4 ( 5 ) page: 339 - 52   2003.5

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    DOI: 10.1038/nrn1101

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  276. E-box mutations in the RAPSN promoter region in eight cases with congenital myasthenic syndrome. Reviewed

    Ohno K, Sadeh M, Blatt I, Brengman JM, Engel AG

    Human molecular genetics   Vol. 12 ( 7 ) page: 739-48   2003.4

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  277. E-box mutations in the RAPSN promoter region in eight cases with congenital myasthenic syndrome

    Ohno K, Sadeh M, Blatt I, Brengman JM, Engel AG

    HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS   Vol. 12 ( 7 ) page: 739-748   2003.4

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    DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddg089

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  278. Mutation causing severe myasthenia reveals functional asymmetry of AChR signature cystine loops in agonist binding and gating.

    Shen XM, Ohno K, Tsujino A, Brengman JM, Gingold M, Sine SM, Engel AG

    The Journal of clinical investigation   Vol. 111 ( 4 ) page: 497 - 505   2003.2

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    DOI: 10.1172/JCI16997

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  279. Mutation causing severe myasthenia reveals functional asymmetry of AChR signature cystine loops in agonist binding and gating

    Shen XM, Ohno KJ, Tsujino A, Brengman JM, Gingold M, Sine SM, Engel AG

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION   Vol. 111 ( 4 ) page: 497-505   2003.2

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    DOI: 10.1172/JC1200316997

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  280. Congenital myasthenia associated with skeletal muscle Na channel SCN4A mutations

    Maertens C, Tsujino A, Ohno K, Shen XM, Harper CM, Engel AG, Cannon SC

    BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL   Vol. 84 ( 2 ) page: 216A-217A   2003.2

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  281. Congenital myasthenia associated with skeletal muscle Na channel SCN4A mutations Reviewed

    Maertens C, Tsujino A, Ohno K, Shen XM, Harper CM, Engel AG, Cannon SC

    BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL   Vol. 84 ( 2 ) page: 216A - 217A   2003.2

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  282. Congenital myasthenic syndromes: progress over the past decade. Reviewed

    Engel AG, Ohno K, Sine SM

    Muscle & nerve   Vol. 27 ( 1 ) page: 4-25   2003.1

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    DOI: 10.1002/mus.10269

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  283. Congenital myasthenic syndromes: Progress over the past decade

    Engel AG, Ohno K, Sine SM

    MUSCLE & NERVE   Vol. 27 ( 1 ) page: 4-25   2003.1

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    DOI: 10.1002/mus.10269

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  284. Mechanistic diversity underlying fast channel congenital myasthenic syndromes

    Sine SM, Wang HL, Ohno K, Shen XM, Lee WY, Engel AG

    MYASTHENIA GRAVIS AND RELATED DISORDERS   Vol. 998   page: 128-137   2003

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    DOI: 10.1196/annals.1254.015

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  285. Congenital myasthenic syndromes: A diverse array of molecular targets

    Engel AG, Ohno K, Sine SM

    JOURNAL OF NEUROCYTOLOGY   Vol. 32 ( 5-8 ) page: 1017-1037   2003

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  286. Congenital myasthenic syndromes: Multiple molecular targets at the neuromuscular junction

    Engel AG, Ohno K, Shen XM, Sine SM

    MYASTHENIA GRAVIS AND RELATED DISORDERS   Vol. 998   page: 138-160   2003

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    DOI: 10.1196/annals.1254.016

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  287. Congenital myasthenic syndrome caused by low-expressor fast-channel AChR delta subunit mutation

    Shen XM, Ohno K, Fukudome T, Tsujino A, Brengman JM, De Vivo DC, Packer RJ, Engel AG

    NEUROLOGY   Vol. 59 ( 12 ) page: 1881-1888   2002.12

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  288. Congenital myasthenic syndrome caused by low-expressor fast-channel AChR delta subunit mutation. Reviewed

    Shen XM, Ohno K, Fukudome T, Tsujino A, Brengman JM, De Vivo DC, Packer RJ, Engel AG

    Neurology   Vol. 59 ( 12 ) page: 1881 - 1888   2002.12

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    DOI: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000042422.87384.2f

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  289. Sodium channel myasthenia Reviewed

    Tsujino A, Maertens C, Ohno K, Shen XM, Harper CM, Cannon S, Engel AG

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY   Vol. 52 ( 6 ) page: 866   2002.12

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  290. The spectrum of congenital myasthenic syndromes Reviewed

    AG Engel, K Ohno, SM Sine

    MOLECULAR NEUROBIOLOGY   Vol. 26 ( 2-3 ) page: 347 - 67   2002.10

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    The past decade saw remarkable advances in defining the molecular and genetic basis of the congenital myasthenic syndromes. These advances would not have been possible without antecedent clinical observations, electrophysiologic analysis, and careful morphologic studies that pointed to candidate genes or proteins. For example, a kinetic abnormality of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) detected at the single channel level pointed to a kinetic mutation in an AChR subunit; endplate AChR deficiency suggested mutations residing in an AChR subunit or in rapsyn; absence of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from the endplate predicted mutations in the catalytic or collagen-tailed subunit of this enzyme; and a history of abrupt episodes of apnea associated with a stimulation dependent decrease of endplate potentials and currents implicated proteins concerned with ACh resynthesis or vesicular filling. Discovery of mutations in endplate-specific proteins also prompted expression studies that afforded proof of pathogenicity, provided clues for rational therapy, lead to precise structure function correlations, and highlighted functionally significant residues or molecular domains that previous systematic mutagenesis studies had failed to detect. An overview of the spectrum of the congenital myasthenic syndromes suggests that most are caused by mutations in AChR subunits, and particularly in the epsilon subunit. Future studies will likely uncover new types of CMS that reside in molecules governing quantal release, organization of the synaptic basal lamina, and expression and aggregation of AChR on the postsynaptic junctional folds.

    DOI: 10.1385/MN:26:2-3:347

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  291. Naturally occurring mutations at the acetylcholine receptor binding site independently alter ACh binding and channel gating. Reviewed

    Sine SM, Shen XM, Wang HL, Ohno K, Lee WY, Tsujino A, Brengmann J, Bren N, Vajsar J, Engel AG

    The Journal of general physiology   Vol. 120 ( 4 ) page: 483-96   2002.10

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  292. Naturally occurring mutations at the acetylcholine receptor binding site independently alter ACh binding and channel gating

    Sine SM, Shen XM, Wang HL, Ohno K, Lee WY, Tsujino A, Brengmann J, Bren N, Vajsar J, Engel AG

    JOURNAL OF GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY   Vol. 120 ( 4 ) page: 483-496   2002.10

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    DOI: 10.1085/jgp.20028568

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  293. E-box mutation in RAPSN promoter region causes endplate (EP) acetylcholine receptor (AChR) deficiency

    Ohno K, Brengman JM, Engel AG

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS   Vol. 71 ( 4 ) page: 330-330   2002.10

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  294. Clinical, morphologic and genetic analysis of 53 patients with myofibrillar myopathy (MFM)

    Selcen DS, Ohno K, Engel AG

    NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS   Vol. 12 ( 7-8 ) page: 757 - 758   2002.10

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  295. Congenital myasthenic syndrome associated with episodic apnea and sudden infant death

    Byring RF, Pihko H, Tsujino A, Shen XM, Gustafsson B, Hackman P, Ohno K, Engel AG, Udd B

    NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS   Vol. 12 ( 6 ) page: 548-553   2002.8

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  296. Congenital myasthenic syndrome associated with episodic apnea and sudden infant death. Reviewed

    Byring RF, Pihko H, Tsujino A, Shen XM, Gustafsson B, Hackman P, Ohno K, Engel AG, Udd B

    Neuromuscular disorders : NMD   Vol. 12 ( 6 ) page: 548 - 553   2002.8

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  297. Rapsyn mutations in humans cause endplate acetylcholine-receptor deficiency and myasthenic syndrome Reviewed

    K Ohno, AG Engel, XM Shen, D Selcen, J Brengman, CM Harper, A Tsujino, M Milone

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS   Vol. 70 ( 4 ) page: 875 - 85   2002.4

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    Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs) stem from genetic defects in endplate (EP)-specific presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic proteins. The postsynaptic CMSs identified to date stem from a deficiency or kinetic abnormality of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR). All CMSs with a kinetic abnormality of AChR, as well as many CMSs with a deficiency of AChR, have been traced to mutations in AChR-subunit genes. However, in a subset of patients with EP AChR deficiency, the genetic defect has remained elusive. Rapsyn, a 43-kDa postsynaptic protein, plays an essential role in the clustering of AChR at the EP. Seven tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs) of rapsyn subserve self-association, a coiled-coil domain binds to AChR, and a RING-H2 domain associates with beta-dystroglycan and links rapsyn to the subsynaptic cytoskeleton. Rapsyn self-association precedes recruitment of AChR to rapsyn clusters. In four patients with EP AChR deficiency but with no mutations in AChR subunits, we identify three recessive rapsyn mutations: one patient carries L14P in TPR1 and N88K in TPR3; two are homozygous for N88K; and one carries N88K and 553ins5, which frameshifts in TPR5. EP studies in each case show decreased staining for rapsyn and AChR, as well as impaired postsynaptic morphological development. Expression studies in HEK cells indicate that none of the mutations hinders rapsyn self-association but that all three diminish coclustering of AChR with rapsyn.

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  298. Rapsyn mutations in humans cause endplate acetylcholine-receptor deficiency and myasthenic syndrome

    Ohno K, Engel AG, Shen XM, Selcen D, Brengman J, Harper CM, Tsujino A, Milone M

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS   Vol. 70 ( 4 ) page: 875-885   2002.4

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  299. Three novel COLQ mutations and variation of phenotypic expressivity due to G240X

    Shapira YA, Sadeh ME, Bergtraum MP, Tsujino A, Ohno K, Shen XM, Brengman J, Edwardson S, Matoth I, Engel AG

    NEUROLOGY   Vol. 58 ( 4 ) page: 603-609   2002.2

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  300. Three novel COLQ mutations and variation of phenotypic expressivity due to G240X. Reviewed

    Shapira YA, Sadeh ME, Bergtraum MP, Tsujino A, Ohno K, Shen XM, Brengman J, Edwardson S, Matoth I, Engel AG

    Neurology   Vol. 58 ( 4 ) page: 603 - 609   2002.2

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    DOI: 10.1212/wnl.58.4.603

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  301. The spectrum of congenital myasthenic syndromes

    Engel AG, Ohno K, Sine SM

    MOLECULAR NEUROBIOLOGY   Vol. 26 ( 2-3 ) page: 347-367   2002

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  302. Transplanting mutant human collagenic tailed acetylcholinesterase onto the frog neuromuscular junction: Evidence for an attachment defect in a congenital myasthenic syndrome

    Kimbell LM, Ohno K, Rotondo RL, Engel AG

    MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL   Vol. 12   page: 161A-161A   2001.11

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  303. A 16-bp duplication of splice-acceptor site results in silencing of the downstream copy of the splice-acceptor site. How are duplicated splice-acceptor sites selected in pre-mRNA splicing?

    Ohno K, Tsujino A, Anlar B, Engel AG

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS   Vol. 69 ( 4 ) page: 368-368   2001.10

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  304. Functional characterisation of mitochondrial tRNA(Tyr) mutation (5877G -> A) associated with familial chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia

    Sahashi K, Yoneda M, Ohno K, Tanaka M, Ibi T, Sahashi K

    JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS   Vol. 38 ( 10 ) page: 703 - 705   2001.10

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  305. Choline acetyltransferase mutations cause myasthenic syndrome associated with episodic apnea in humans (vol 98, pg 2017, 2001)

    Ohno K, Tsujino A, Brengman JM, Harper CM, Bajzer Z, Udd B, Beyring R, Robb S, Kirkham FJ, Engel AG

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA   Vol. 98 ( 9 ) page: 5369-5369   2001.4

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  306. Choline acetyltransferase mutations cause myasthenic syndrome associated with episodic apnea in humans

    Ohno K, Tsujino A, Brengman JM, Harper CM, Bajzer Z, Udd B, Beyring R, Robb S, Kirkham FJ, Engel AG

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA   Vol. 98 ( 4 ) page: 2017-2022   2001.2

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  307. Choline acetyltransferase mutations cause myasthenic syndrome associated with episodic apnea in humans. Reviewed

    Ohno K, Tsujino A, Brengman JM, Harper CM, Bajzer Z, Udd B, Beyring R, Robb S, Kirkham FJ, Engel AG

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America   Vol. 98 ( 4 ) page: 2017 - 2022   2001.2

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    DOI: 10.1073/pnas.98.4.2017

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  308. A mutation in the Cys-loop region of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) alpha subunit reduces affinity for acetylcholine (ACh) and compromises gating efficiency.

    Ohno K, Shen XM, Tsujino A, Brengman JM, Gingold M, Engel AG

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS   Vol. 67 ( 4 ) page: 181-181   2000.10

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  309. Fundamental gating mechanism of nicotinic receptor channel revealed by mutation causing a congenital myasthenic syndrome

    Wang HL, Ohno K, Milone M, Brengman JM, Evoli A, Batocchi AP, Middleton LT, Christodoulou K, Engel AG, Sine SM

    JOURNAL OF GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY   Vol. 116 ( 3 ) page: 449-460   2000.9

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  310. Fundamental gating mechanism of nicotinic receptor channel revealed by mutation causing a congenital myasthenic syndrome Reviewed

    HL Wang, K Ohno, M Milone, JM Brengman, A Evoli, AP Batocchi, LT Middleton, K Christodoulou, AG Engel, SM Sine

    JOURNAL OF GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY   Vol. 116 ( 3 ) page: 449 - 460   2000.9

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    We describe the genetic and kinetic defects in a congenital myasthenic syndrome due to the mutation epsilon A411P in the amphipathic helix of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) epsilon subunit. Myasthenic patients from three unrelated families are either homozygous for epsilon A411P or are heterozygous and harbor a null mutation in the second epsilon allele, indicating that epsilon A411P is recessive. We expressed human AChRs containing wild-type or A411P epsilon subunits in 293HEK cells, recorded single channel currents at high bandwidth, and determined microscopic rate constants for individual channels using hidden Markov modeling. For individual wild-type and mutant channels, each rate constant distributes as a Gaussian function, but the spread in the distributions for channel opening and closing rate constants is greatly expanded by epsilon A411P. Prolines engineered into positions flanking residue 411 of the epsilon subunit greatly increase the range of activation kinetics similar to epsilon A411P, whereas prolines engineered into positions equivalent to epsilon A411 in beta and delta subunits are without effect. Thus, the amphipathic helix of the epsilon subunit stabilizes the channel, minimizing the number and range of kinetic modes accessible to individual AChRs. The findings suggest that analogous stabilizing structures are present in other ion channels, and possibly allosteric proteins in general, and that they evolved to maintain uniformity of activation episodes. The findings further suggest that the fundamental gating mechanism of the AChR channel can be explained by a corrugated energy landscape superimposed on a steeply sloped energy well.

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  311. A modified alignment of human and rodent 5 ' untranslated sequences of the acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit gene reveals additional regions of high homology - Reply

    Ohno K, Anlar B, Engel AG

    NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS   Vol. 10 ( 3 ) page: 214-214   2000.3

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  312. The spectrum of mutations causing end-plate acetylcholinesterase deficiency

    Ohno K, Engel AG, Brengman JM, Shen XM, Heidenreich F, Vincent A, Milone M, Tan E, Demirci M, Walsh P, Nakano S, Akiguchi I

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY   Vol. 47 ( 2 ) page: 162-170   2000.2

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  313. The spectrum of mutations causing end-plate acetylcholinesterase deficiency Reviewed

    Kinji Ohno, Andrew G. Engel, Joan M. Brengman, Xin-Ming Shen, Fedor Heidenreich, Angela Vincent, Margherita Milone, Ersin Tan, Mehmet Demitci, Peter Walsh, Satoshi Nakano, Ichiro Akiguchi

    Annals of Neurology   Vol. 47 ( 2 ) page: 162 - 170   2000

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    The end-plate species of acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) is an asymmetric enzyme consisting of a collagenic tail subunit composed of three collagenic strands (ColQ), each attached to a tetramer of the T isoform of the catalytic subunit (AChE(T)) via a proline-rich attachment domain. The principal function of the tail subunit is to anchor asymmetric AChE in the synaptic basal lamina. Human end-plate AChE deficiency was recently shown to be caused by mutations in COLQ. We here report nine novel COLQ mutations in 7 patients with end-plate AChE deficiency. We examine the effects of the mutations on the assembly of asymmetric AChE by coexpressing each genetically engineered COLQ mutant with ACHE(T) in COS cells. We classify the newly recognized and previously reported COLQ mutations into four classes according to their position in ColQ and their effect on AChE expression. We find that missense mutations in the proline-rich attachment domain abrogate attachment of catalytic subunits, that truncation mutations in the ColQ collagen domain prevent the assembly of asymmetric ACHE, that hydrophobic missense residues in the C-terminal domain prevent triple helical assembly of the ColQ collagen domain, and that other mutations in the C-terminal region produce asymmetric species of AChE that are likely insertion incompetent.

    DOI: 10.1002/1531-8249(200002)47:2<162::AID-ANA5>3.0.CO;2-Q

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  314. Mutation causing congenital myasthenia reveals acetylcholine receptor beta/delta subunit interaction essential for assembly

    Quiram PA, Ohno K, Milone M, Patterson MC, Pruitt NJ, Brengman JM, Sine SM, Engel AG

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION   Vol. 104 ( 10 ) page: 1403-1410   1999.11

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  315. Mutation causing congenital myasthenia reveals acetylcholine receptor beta/delta subunit interaction essential for assembly Reviewed

    PA Quiram, K Ohno, M Milone, MC Patterson, NJ Pruitt, JM Brengman, SM Sine, AG Engel

    JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION   Vol. 104 ( 10 ) page: 1403 - 1410   1999.11

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    We describe a severe postsynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome with marked endplate acetylcholine receptor (AChR) deficiency caused by 2 heteroallelic mutations in the beta subunit gene. One mutation causes skipping of exon 8, truncating the beta subunit before its M1 transmembrane domain, and abolishing surface expression of pentameric AChR. The other mutation, a 3-codon deletion (beta 426delEQE) in the long cytoplasmic loop between the M3 and M4 domains, curtails but does not abolish expression. By coexpressing beta 426delEQE with combinations of wild-type subunits in 293 HEK cells, we demonstrate that beta 426delEQE impairs AChR assembly by disrupting a specific interaction between beta and delta subunits. Studies with related deletion and missense mutants indicate that secondary structure in this region of the beta subunit is crucial for interaction with the delta subunit. The findings imply that the mutated residues are positioned at the interface between beta and delta subunits and demonstrate contribution of this local region of the long cytoplasmic loop to AChR assembly.

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  316. How does an A-to-G splice donor site mutation at position+3 result in aberrant splicing? A lesson learned from a mutation in the COLQ gene.

    Ohno K, Brengman JM, Engel AG

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS   Vol. 65 ( 4 ) page: A80-A80   1999.10

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  317. Chromosome 17p-linked myasthenias stem from defects in the acetylcholine receptor epsilon-subunit gene

    Middleton L, Ohno K, Christodoulou K, Brengman J, Milone M, Neocleous V, Serdaroglu P, Deymeer F, Ozdemir C, Mubaidin A, Horany K, Al-Shehab A, Mavromatis I, Mylonas I, Tsingis M, Zamba E, Pantzaris M, Kyriallis K, Engel AG

    NEUROLOGY   Vol. 53 ( 5 ) page: 1076 - 1082   1999.9

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  318. Congenital end-plate acetylcholinesterase deficiency caused by a nonsense mutation and an A -> G splice-donor-site mutation at position+3 of the collagenlike-tail-subunit gene (COLQ): How does G at position+3 result in aberrant splicing?

    Ohno K, Brengman JM, Felice KJ, Cornblath DR, Engel AG

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS   Vol. 65 ( 3 ) page: 635-644   1999.9

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  319. Congenital end-plate acetylcholinesterase deficiency caused by a nonsense mutation and an A -&gt; G splice-donor-site mutation at position+3 of the collagenlike-tail-subunit gene (COLQ): How does G at position+3 result in aberrant splicing? Reviewed

    K Ohno, JM Brengman, KJ Felice, DR Cornblath, AG Engel

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS   Vol. 65 ( 3 ) page: 635 - 644   1999.9

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    Congenital end-plate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) deficiency (CEAD), the cause of a disabling myasthenic syndrome, arises from defects in the COLQ gene, which encodes the AChE triple-helical collagenlike-tail subunit that anchors catalytic subunits of AChE to the synaptic basal lamina. Here we describe a patient with CEAD with a nonsense mutation (R315X) and a splice-donor-site mutation at position +3 of intron 16 (IVS16 + 3A--&gt;G) of COLQ. Because both A and G are consensus nucleotides at the +3 position of splice-donor sites, we constructed a minigene that spans exons 15-17 and harbors IVS16 + 3A--&gt;G for expression in COS cells. We found that the mutation causes skipping of exon 16. The mutant splice-donor site of intron 16 harbors five discordant nucleotides (at -3, -2, +3, +4, and +6) that do not base-pair with U1 small-nuclear RNA (snRNA), the molecule responsible for splice-donor-site recognition. Versions of the minigene harboring, at either +4 or +6, nucleotides complementary to U1 snRNA restore normal splicing. Analysis of 1,801 native splice-donor sites reveals that presence of a G nucleotide at +3 is associated with preferential usage, at positions +4 to +6, of nucleotides concordant to U1 snRNA. Analysis of 11 disease-associated NS + 3A--&gt;G mutations indicates that, on average, two of three nucleotides at positions +4 to +6 fail to base-pair, and that the nucleotide at +4 never base-pairs, with U1 snRNA. We conclude that, with G at +3, normal splicing generally depends on the concordance that residues at +4 to +6 have with U1 snRNA, but other cis-acting elements may also be important in assuring the fidelity of splicing.

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  320. Congenital myasthenic syndrome caused by a mutation in the Ets-binding site of the promoter region of the acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit gene

    Ohno K, Anlar B, Engel AG

    NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS   Vol. 9 ( 3 ) page: 131-135   1999.5

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  321. Congenital myasthenic syndrome caused by a mutation in the Ets-binding site of the promoter region of the acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit gene Reviewed

    K Ohno, B Anlar, AG Engel

    NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS   Vol. 9 ( 3 ) page: 131 - 135   1999.5

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    Forty-two missense, truncation, or splice-site mutations of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunit genes have been reported to date in patients with congenital myasthenic syndromes. Here we report a homozygous mutation, epsilon-155G --&gt; A, in the promoter region of the AChR epsilon subunit gene that converts the Ets-binding site of the promoter region from CGGAA to CAGAA. The asymptomatic parents and brother are heterozygous and an affected sister is homozygous for epsilon-155G --&gt; A. The Ets-binding site mediates synapse specific expression of the AChR epsilon subunit gene. An identical G-to-A mutation in the mouse Ets-binding site was previously shown to decrease the binding affinity of the Ets-binding site for the GA binding protein, a transactivating factor for thefts-binding site, and to reduce the synapse specific expression of the epsilon subunit. The decreased synaptic expression of the epsilon subunit readily accounts for the congenital myasthenic phenotype. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

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  322. Acetylcholine receptor M3 domain: stereochemical and volume contributions to channel gating

    Wang HL, Milone M, Ohno K, Shen XM, Tsujino A, Batocchi AP, Tonali P, Brengman J, Engel AG, Sine SM

    NATURE NEUROSCIENCE   Vol. 2 ( 3 ) page: 226-233   1999.3

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  323. Acetylcholine receptor M3 domain: stereochemical and volume contributions to channel gating. Reviewed

    Wang HL, Milone M, Ohno K, Shen XM, Tsujino A, Batocchi AP, Tonali P, Brengman J, Engel AG, Sine SM

    Nature neuroscience   Vol. 2 ( 3 ) page: 226 - 233   1999.3

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    DOI: 10.1038/6326

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  324. Congenital myasthenic syndromes - Recent advances

    Engel AG, Ohno K, Sine SM

    ARCHIVES OF NEUROLOGY   Vol. 56 ( 2 ) page: 163-167   1999.2

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  325. Human endplate acetylcholinesterase deficiency caused by mutations in the collagen-like tail subunit (ColQ) of the asymmetric enzyme

    Ohno K, Brengman J, Tsujino A, Engel AG

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA   Vol. 95 ( 16 ) page: 9654-9659   1998.8

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  326. Myasthenic syndromes in Turkish kinships due to mutations in the acetylcholine receptor

    Ohno K, Anlar B, Ozdirim E, Brengman JM, DeBleecker JL, Engel AG

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY   Vol. 44 ( 2 ) page: 234-241   1998.8

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  327. Human endplate acetylcholinesterase deficiency caused by mutations in the collagen-like tail subunit (ColQ) of the asymmetric enzyme. Reviewed

    Ohno K, Brengman J, Tsujino A, Engel AG

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America   Vol. 95 ( 16 ) page: 9654 - 9659   1998.8

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    DOI: 10.1073/pnas.95.16.9654

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  328. Myasthenic syndromes in Turkish kinships due to mutations in the acetylcholine receptor Reviewed

    K Ohno, B Anlar, E Ozdirim, JM Brengman, JL DeBleecker, AG Engel

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY   Vol. 44 ( 2 ) page: 234 - 241   1998.8

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    Language:English   Publishing type:Research paper (scientific journal)   Publisher:LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS  

    We report and functionally characterize live new mutations of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) in 11 Turkish patients with recessive congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) belonging to six families. All mutations are in the epsilon-subunit gene. Parental consanguinity is present in three families. The disease cosegregates with homozygous mutations in five families and with two different heteroallelic mutations in one family. Four mutations are frameshifting, predicting truncation of the epsilon subunit, and one occurs at a splice donor site. Expression of each frameshifting mutation and the likely transcripts of the splice-site mutation in human embryonic kidney 293 cells shows that each mutation is a null mutation. The findings support the notion that loss-of-function mutations of the acetylcholine receptor causing CMS are concentrated in the epsilon subunit, and that such mutations are a frequent cause of CMS.

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  329. Quinidine normalizes the open duration of slow-channel mutants of the acetylcholine receptor

    Fukudome T, Ohno K, Brengman JM, Engel AG

    NEUROREPORT   Vol. 9 ( 8 ) page: 1907-1911   1998.6

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  330. Quinidine normalizes the open duration of slow-channel mutants of the acetylcholine receptor Reviewed

    T Fukudome, K Ohno, JM Brengman, AG Engel

    NEUROREPORT   Vol. 9 ( 8 ) page: 1907 - 1911   1998.6

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    QUINIDINE is a long-lived open-channel blocker of the wild-type endplate acetylcholine receptor (AChR). To test the hypothesis that quinidine can normalize the prolonged channel opening events of slow-channel mutants of human AChR, we expressed wild-type AChR and five well characterized slow-channel mutants of AChR in HEK 293 cells and monitored the effects of quinidine on acetylcholine-induced channel currents. Quinidine shortens the longest component of channel opening burst (tau(3b)) Of both wild-type and mutant AChRs in a concentration-dependent manner, and 5 mu M quinidine reduces tau(3b) Of the mutant AChRs to that elf wild-type AChRs in the absence of quinidine. Because this concentration of quinidine is attainable in clinical practice, the findings predict a therapeutic effect for quinidine in the slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome. (C) 1998 Rapid Science Ltd.

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  331. Molecular basis of congenital myasthenic syndromes: Mutations in the acetylcholine receptor

    Engel AG, Ohno K, Wang HL, Milone M, Sine SM

    NEUROSCIENTIST   Vol. 4 ( 3 ) page: 185-194   1998.5

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  332. Congenital myasthenic syndromes: Experiments of nature

    Engel AG, Ohno K, Sine SM

    JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-PARIS   Vol. 92 ( 2 ) page: 113-117   1998.4

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  333. Congenital myasthenic syndromes: Experiments of nature Reviewed

    AG Engel, K Ohno, SM Sine

    JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-PARIS   Vol. 92 ( 2 ) page: 113 - 117   1998.4

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    Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) can arise from presynaptic, synaptic, or postsynaptic defects. Recent studies indicate that mutations in the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunit genes are a common cause of the postsynaptic CMS. The mutations, which increase or decrease the response to acetylcholine, are experiments of nature that highlight functionally significant domains of the AChR. ((C) Elsevier, Paris).

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  334. Congenital myasthenic syndromes: gene mutation Reviewed

    K Ohno, AG Engel

    NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS   Vol. 8 ( 2 ) page: XII - XIII   1998.4

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  335. Mode switching kinetics produced by a naturally occurring mutation in the cytoplasmic loop of the human acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit

    Milone M, Wang HL, Ohno K, Prince R, Fukudome T, Shen XM, Brengman JM, Griggs RC, Sine SM, Engel AG

    NEURON   Vol. 20 ( 3 ) page: 575-588   1998.3

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  336. Mode switching kinetics produced by a naturally occurring mutation in the cytoplasmic loop of the human acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit Reviewed

    M Milone, HL Wang, K Ohno, R Prince, T Fukudome, XM Shen, JM Brengman, RC Griggs, SM Sine, AG Engel

    NEURON   Vol. 20 ( 3 ) page: 575 - 588   1998.3

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    We describe the genetic and kinetic defects in a congenital myasthenic syndrome caused by heteroallelic mutations of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) epsilon subunit gene. The mutations are an in-frame duplication of six residues in the long cytoplasmic loop (epsilon 1254ins18) and a cysteine-loop null mutation (epsilon C128S). The epsilon 1254 ins18 mutation causes mode switching in the kinetics of receptor activation in which three modes activate slowly and inactivate rapidly. The epsilon 1245ins18-AChR at the endplate shows abnormally brief activation episodes during steady state agonist application and appears electrically silent during the synaptic response to acetylcholine. The phenotypic consequences are endplate AChR deficiency, simplification of the postsynaptic region, and compensatory expression of fetal AChR that restores electrical activity at the endplate and rescues the phenotype.

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  337. AChR channel blockade by quinidine sulfate reduces channel open duration in the slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome

    Fukudome T, Ohno K, Brengman JM, Engel AG

    MYASTHENIA GRAVIS AND RELATED DISEASES   Vol. 841   page: 199-202   1998

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  338. Congenital myasthenic syndrome caused by novel loss-of-function mutations in the human AChR epsilon subunit gene

    Milone M, Ohno K, Fukudome T, Shen XM, Brengman J, Griggs RC, Engel AG

    MYASTHENIA GRAVIS AND RELATED DISEASES   Vol. 841   page: 184-188   1998

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  339. Frameshifting and splice-site mutations in the acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit gene in three Turkish kinships with congenital myasthenic syndromes

    Ohno K, Anlar B, Ozdirim E, Brengman JM, Engel AG

    MYASTHENIA GRAVIS AND RELATED DISEASES   Vol. 841   page: 189-194   1998

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  340. Congenital myasthenic syndromes - New insights from molecular genetic and patch-clamp studies

    Engel AG, Ohno K, Milone M, Sine SM

    MYASTHENIA GRAVIS AND RELATED DISEASES   Vol. 841   page: 140-156   1998

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  341. Congenital myasthenic syndrome caused by novel loss-of-function mutations in the human AChR epsilon subunit gene Reviewed

    M Milone, K Ohno, T Fukudome, XM Shen, J Brengman, RC Griggs, AG Engel

    MYASTHENIA GRAVIS AND RELATED DISEASES   Vol. 841   page: 184 - 188   1998

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  342. Congenital myasthenic syndromes - New insights from molecular genetic and patch-clamp studies Reviewed

    AG Engel, K Ohno, M Milone, SM Sine

    MYASTHENIA GRAVIS AND RELATED DISEASES   Vol. 841   page: 140 - 156   1998

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  343. Frameshifting and splice-site mutations in the acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit gene in three Turkish kinships with congenital myasthenic syndromes Reviewed

    K Ohno, B Anlar, E Ozdirim, JM Brengman, AG Engel

    MYASTHENIA GRAVIS AND RELATED DISEASES   Vol. 841   page: 189 - 194   1998

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  344. Congenital myasthenic syndrome due to a null mutation and an inframe duplication of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) epsilon subunit gene.

    Milone M, Ohno K, Fukudome T, Shen XM, Brengman JM, Griggs RC, Engel AG

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS   Vol. 61 ( 4 ) page: A340-A340   1997.10

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  345. Frameshift and splice-site mutations in acetylcholine receptor (AChR) epsilon subunit gene in five Turkish kinships with congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS).

    Ohno K, Anlar B, Ozdirim E, Brengman JM, DeBleecker JL, Engel AG

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS   Vol. 61 ( 4 ) page: A342-A342   1997.10

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  346. Slow-channel myasthenic syndrome caused by enhanced activation, desensitization, and agonist binding affinity attributable to mutation in the M2 domain of the acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit

    Milone M, Wang HL, Ohno K, Fukudome T, Pruitt JN, Bren N, Sine SM, Engel AG

    JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE   Vol. 17 ( 15 ) page: 5651-5665   1997.8

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  347. Slow-channel myasthenic syndrome caused by enhanced activation, desensitization, and agonist binding affinity attributable to mutation in the M2 domain of the acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit Reviewed

    M Milone, HL Wang, K Ohno, T Fukudome, JN Pruitt, N Bren, SM Sine, AG Engel

    JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE   Vol. 17 ( 15 ) page: 5651 - 5665   1997.8

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    We describe a novel genetic and kinetic defect in a slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome. The severely disabled propositus has advanced endplate myopathy, prolonged and biexponentially decaying endplate currents, and prolonged acetylcholine receptor (AChR) channel openings. Genetic analysis reveals the heterozygous mutation alpha V249F in the propositus and mosaicism for alpha V249F in the asymptomatic father Unlike mutations described previously in the M2 transmembrane domain, alpha V249F is located N-terminal to the conserved leucines and is not predicted to face the channel lumen. Expression of the alpha V249F AChR in HEK fibroblasts demonstrates increased channel openings in the absence of ACh, prolonged openings in its presence, enhanced steady-state desensitization. and nanomolar rather than micromolar affinity of one of the two binding sites in the resting activatable state. Thus, neuromuscular transmission is compromised because cationic overloading leads to degenerating junctional folds and loss of AChR, because an increased fraction of AChR is desensitized in the resting state, and because physiological rates of stimulation elicit additional desensitization and depolarization block of transmission.

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  348. Mutation in the M1 domain of the acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit decreases the rate of agonist dissociation

    Wang HL, Auerbach A, Bren N, Ohno K, Engel AG, Sine SM

    JOURNAL OF GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY   Vol. 109 ( 6 ) page: 757-766   1997.6

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  349. Mutation in the M1 domain of the acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit decreases the rate of agonist dissociation Reviewed

    HL Wang, A Auerbach, N Bren, K Ohno, AG Engel, SM Sine

    JOURNAL OF GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY   Vol. 109 ( 6 ) page: 757 - 766   1997.6

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    We describe the kinetic consequences of the mutation N217K in the M1 domain of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) alpha subunit that causes a slow channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (SCCMS). We previously showed that receptors containing alpha N217K expressed in 293 HEK cells open in prolonged activation episodes strikingly similar to those observed at the SCCMS end plates. Here we use single channel kinetic analysis to show that the prolonged activation episodes result primarily from slowing of the rate of acetylcholine (ACh) dissociation from the binding site. Rate constants for channel opening and closing are also slowed but to much smaller extents. The rate constants derived from kinetic analysis also describe the concentration dependence of receptor activation, revealing a 20-fold shift in the EC50 to lower agonist concentrations for alpha N217K. The apparent affinity of ACh binding, measured by competition against the rate of I-125-alpha-bungarotoxin binding, is also enhanced 20-fold by alpha N217K. Both the slowing of ACh dissociation and enhanced apparent affinity are specific to the lysine substitution, as the glutamine and glutamate substitutions have no effect. Substituting lysine for the equivalent asparagine in the beta, epsilon, or delta subunits does not affect the kinetics of receptor activation or apparent agonist affinity. The results show that a mutation in the amino-terminal portion of the M1 domain produces a localized perturbation that stabilizes agonist bound to the resting state of the AChR.

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  350. Congenital myasthenic syndromes due to heteroallelic nonsense/missense mutations in the acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit gene: Identification and functional characterization of six new mutations

    Ohno K, Quiram PA, Milone M, Wang HL, Harper MC, Pruitt JN, Brengman JM, Pao L, Fischbeck KH, Crawford TO, Sine SM, Engel AG

    HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS   Vol. 6 ( 5 ) page: 753-766   1997.5

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  351. Congenital myasthenic syndromes due to heteroallelic nonsense/missense mutations in the acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit gene: Identification and functional characterization of six new mutations Reviewed

    K Ohno, PA Quiram, M Milone, HL Wang, MC Harper, JN Pruitt, JM Brengman, L Pao, KH Fischbeck, TO Crawford, SM Sine, AG Engel

    HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS   Vol. 6 ( 5 ) page: 753 - 766   1997.5

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    We describe and functionally characterize six mutations of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) epsilon subunit gene in three congenital myasthenic syndrome patients, Endplate studies demonstrated severe endplate AChR deficiency, dispersed endplate regions and well preserved junctional folds in all three patients. Electrophysiologic studies were consistent with expression of the fetal gamma-AChR at the endplates in one patient, prolongation of some channel events in another and gamma-AChR expression as well as some shorter than normal channel events in still another, Genetic analysis revealed two recessive and heteroallelic epsilon subunit gene mutations in each patient, One mutation in each (epsilon C190T [epsilon R64X], epsilon 127ins5 and epsilon 553del7) generates a nonsense codon that predicts truncation of the epsilon subunit in its N-terminal, extracellular domain; and one mutation in each generates a missense codon (epsilon R147L, epsilon P245L and epsilon R311W), None of the mutations was detected in 100 controls, Expression studies in HEK cells indicate that the three nonsense mutations are null mutations and that surface expression of AChRs harboring the missense mutations is significantly reduced, Kinetic analysis of AChRs harboring the missense mutations show that epsilon R147L is kinetically benign, epsilon P245L prolongs burst open duration 2-fold by slowing the rate of channel closing and epsilon R311W shortens burst duration 2-fold by slowing the rate of channel opening and speeding the rate of ACh dissociation, The modest changes in activation kinetics are probably overshadowed by reduced expression of the missense mutations, The consequences of the endplate AChR deficiency are mitigated by persistent expression of gamma-AChR, changes in the release of transmitter quanta and appearance of multiple endplate regions on the muscle fiber.

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  352. End plate acetylcholine receptor deficiency due to nonsense mutations in the epsilon subunit

    Engel AG, Ohno K, Bouzat C, Sine SM, Griggs RC

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY   Vol. 40 ( 5 ) page: 810-817   1996.11

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  353. End plate acetylcholine receptor deficiency due to nonsense mutations in the epsilon subunit Reviewed

    AG Engel, K Ohno, C Bouzat, SM Sine, RC Griggs

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY   Vol. 40 ( 5 ) page: 810 - 817   1996.11

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    We describe a congenital myasthenic syndrome associated with severe end-plate (EP) acetylcholine receptor (AChR) deficiency not associated with an EP myopathy, and with evidence of immature AChR, containing the gamma instead of the epsilon subunit (gamma-AChR) at the EPs. Molecular genetic analysis of AChR-subunit genes revealed two mutations in the epsilon-subunit gene: insertion of a thymine after epsilon nucleotide 1101 (epsilon 1101insT) that generates a nonsense codon directly, and insertion of a guanine after epsilon nucleotide 1233 (epsilon 1293insG) that generates three missense codons followed by a nonsense codon. Each mutation predicts truncation of the epsilon subunit at the level of the long cytoplasmic loop, between the third (M3) and fourth (M4) membrane spanning domains. The propositus' asymptomatic son carries epsilon 1293G, indicating that the two mutations are heteroallelic. Expression of AChR harboring either mutation in human embryonic kidney (HEK) fibroblasts was markedly reduced. Single-channel activity recorded from HEK cells expressing epsilon 1101insT-AChR was infrequent but resembled activity of wild-type AChR channels in amplitude and open duration. No channel activity could be recorded from HEK cells expressing epsilon 1293insG-AChR. Expression of gamma-AChR at the EPs may serve as the means of phenotypic rescue from potentially fatal nonsense mutations in the epsilon-subunit gene.

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  354. Genetic profiles of three inbred strains derived from wild rats (Rattus norvegicus) trapped in Japan

    Kondo Y, Ohno K, Oda S, Serikawa T

    EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS   Vol. 45 ( 4 ) page: 405 - 409   1996.10

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  355. New mutations in acetylcholine receptor subunit genes reveal heterogeneity in the slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome

    Engel AG, Ohno K, Milone M, Wang HL, Nakano S, Bouzat C, Pruitt JN, Hutchinson DO, Brengman JM, Bren N, Sieb JP, Sine SM

    HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS   Vol. 5 ( 9 ) page: 1217-1227   1996.9

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  356. Congenital myasthenic syndrome caused by decreased agonist binding affinity due to a mutation in the acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit

    Ohno K, Wang HL, Milone M, Bren N, Brengman JM, Nakano S, Quiram P, Pruitt JN, Sine SM, Engel AG

    NEURON   Vol. 17 ( 1 ) page: 157-170   1996.7

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  357. MELAS- and Kearns-Sayre-type commutation with myopathy and autoimmune polyendocrinopathy

    Ohno K, Yamamoto M, Engel AG, Harper CM, Roberts LR, Tan GH, Fatourechi V

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY   Vol. 39 ( 6 ) page: 761-766   1996.6

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  358. Mitochondrial DNA mutations associated with the 11778 mutation in Leber's disease

    Sawano T, Tanaka M, Ohno K, Yoneda M, Ota Y, Terasaki H, Awaya S, Ozawa T

    BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY INTERNATIONAL   Vol. 38 ( 4 ) page: 693 - 700   1996.4

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  359. Congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) caused by decreased agonist affinity due to mutation in a ligand binding domain of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) epsilon subunit.

    Ohno K, Wang HT, Milone M, Nakano S, Bren N, Pruitt NJ, Engel AG, Sine SM

    BIOPHYSICAL JOURNAL   Vol. 70 ( 2 ) page: WAMB7-WAMB7   1996.2

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  360. Mapping of the dilute-opisthotonus (dop) gene on chromosome 8 of the rat

    Ohno K, Kanou Y, Oda S, Wakasugi N, Inouye M, Yamamura H

    EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS   Vol. 45 ( 1 ) page: 71 - 75   1996.1

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  361. MUTATION OF THE ACETYLCHOLINE-RECEPTOR ALPHA-SUBUNIT CAUSES A SLOW-CHANNEL MYASTHENIC SYNDROME BY ENHANCING AGONIST BINDING-AFFINITY

    SINE SM, OHNO K, BOUZAT C, AUERBACH A, MILONE M, PRUITT JN, ENGEL AG

    NEURON   Vol. 15 ( 1 ) page: 229-239   1995.7

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  362. CONGENITAL MYASTHENIC SYNDROME CAUSED BY PROLONGED ACETYLCHOLINE-RECEPTOR CHANNEL OPENINGS DUE TO A MUTATION IN THE M2 DOMAIN OF THE EPSILON-SUBUNIT

    OHNO K, HUTCHINSON DO, MILONE M, BRENGMAN JM, BOUZAT C, SINE SM, ENGEL AG

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA   Vol. 92 ( 3 ) page: 758-762   1995.1

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  363. MOLECULAR AND GENETIC ANALYSES OF 2 PATIENTS WITH PEARSON MARROW-PANCREAS SYNDROME

    SANO T, BAN K, ICHIKI T, KOBAYASHI M, TANAKA M, OHNO K, OZAWA T

    PEDIATRIC RESEARCH   Vol. 34 ( 1 ) page: 105 - 110   1993.7

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  364. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF 2-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM CONTROLLER AND ITS APPLICATION TO VIBRATION SUPPRESSION CONTROL

    OGAWA T, SUZUKI T, MATSUMOTO K, OKUMA S, KAMIYAMA K, OHNO K

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE IECON 93 - INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, CONTROL, AND INSTRUMENTATION, VOLS 1-3     page: 2138 - 2143   1993

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  365. INCREASED MITOCHONDRIAL-DNA DELETIONS IN THE SKELETAL-MUSCLE OF MYOTONIC-DYSTROPHY

    SAHASHI K, TANAKA M, TASHIRO M, OHNO K, IBI T, TAKAHASHI A, OZAWA T

    GERONTOLOGY   Vol. 38 ( 1-2 ) page: 18 - 29   1992

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  366. DETECTION OF PLATELET MITOCHONDRIAL-DNA DELETIONS IN KEARNS-SAYRE SYNDROME

    OTA Y, TANAKA M, SATO W, OHNO K, YAMAMOTO T, MAEHARA M, NEGORO T, WATANABE K, AWAYA S, OZAWA T

    INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE   Vol. 32 ( 10 ) page: 2667 - 2675   1991.9

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  367. DIRECT DNA SEQUENCING FROM COLONY - ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE DELETIONS OF MITOCHONDRIAL GENOME

    OHNO K, TANAKA M, INO H, SUZUKI H, TASHIRO M, IBI T, SAHASHI K, TAKAHASHI A, OZAWA T

    BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA   Vol. 1090 ( 1 ) page: 9 - 16   1991.8

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  368. IDENTIFICATION OF A POSSIBLE CONTROL ELEMENT, MT5, IN THE MAJOR NONCODING REGION OF MITOCHONDRIAL-DNA BY INTRASPECIFIC NUCLEOTIDE CONSERVATION

    OHNO K, TANAKA M, SUZUKI H, OHBAYASHI T, IKEBE S, INO H, KUMAR S, TAKAHASHI A, OZAWA T

    BIOCHEMISTRY INTERNATIONAL   Vol. 24 ( 2 ) page: 263 - 272   1991.5

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  369. MITOCHONDRIAL-DNA DELETIONS IN INHERITED RECURRENT MYOGLOBINURIA

    OHNO K, TANAKA M, SAHASHI K, IBI T, SATO W, YAMAMOTO T, TAKAHASHI A, OZAWA T

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY   Vol. 29 ( 4 ) page: 364 - 369   1991.4

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  370. MITOCHONDRIAL-DNA MUTATIONS IN MITOCHONDRIAL MYOPATHY, ENCEPHALOPATHY, LACTIC-ACIDOSIS, AND STROKE-LIKE EPISODES (MELAS)

    TANAKA M, INO H, OHNO K, OHBAYASHI T, IKEBE S, SANO T, ICHIKI T, KOBAYASHI M, WADA Y, OZAWA T

    BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS   Vol. 174 ( 2 ) page: 861 - 868   1991.1

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  371. MITOCHONDRIAL LEUCINE TRANSFER-RNA MUTATION IN A MITOCHONDRIAL ENCEPHALOMYOPATHY

    INO H, TANAKA M, OHNO K, HATTORI K, IKEBE S, SANO T, OZAWA T, ICHIKI T, KOBAYASHI M, WADA Y

    LANCET   Vol. 337 ( 8735 ) page: 234 - 235   1991.1

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  372. MITOCHONDRIAL-DNA MUTATIONS - TYPES, MECHANISM AND EXPRESSION

    OZAWA T, TANAKA M, HAYAKAWA M, SUGIYAMA S, SATO W, OHNO K, IKEBE S, YONEDA M

    MITOCHONDRIAL ENCEPHALOMYOPATHIES   Vol. 7   page: 141 - 151   1991

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  373. MITOCHONDRIAL-DNA MUTATIONS IN IDIOPATHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY AND IN PRESBYCARDIA

    TANAKA M, HATTORI K, INO H, OHBAYASHI T, OHNO K, SATO W, SUGIYAMA S, OZAWA T

    MITOCHONDRIAL ENCEPHALOMYOPATHIES   Vol. 7   page: 225 - 236   1991

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  374. MITOCHONDRIAL MUTATION IN FATAL INFANTILE CARDIOMYOPATHY

    TANAKA M, INO H, OHNO K, HATTORI K, SATO W, OZAWA T, TANAKA T, ITOYAMA S

    LANCET   Vol. 336 ( 8728 ) page: 1452 - 1452   1990.12

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  375. CYTOPLASMIC BODY AND MITOCHONDRIAL-DNA DELETION

    SAHASHI K, OHNO K, TANAKA M, IBI T, YAMAMOTO T, TASHIRO M, SATO W, TAKAHASHI A, OZAWA T

    JOURNAL OF THE NEUROLOGICAL SCIENCES   Vol. 99 ( 2-3 ) page: 291 - 300   1990.11

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  376. QUANTITATIVE-DETERMINATION OF DELETED MITOCHONDRIAL-DNA RELATIVE TO NORMAL DNA IN PARKINSONIAN STRIATUM BY A KINETIC PCR ANALYSIS

    OZAWA T, TANAKA M, IKEBE S, OHNO K, KONDO T, MIZUNO Y

    BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS   Vol. 172 ( 2 ) page: 483 - 489   1990.10

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  377. INCREASE OF DELETED MITOCHONDRIAL-DNA IN THE STRIATUM IN PARKINSONS-DISEASE AND SENESCENCE

    IKEBE S, TANAKA M, OHNO K, SATO W, HATTORI K, KONDO T, MIZUNO Y, OZAWA T

    BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS   Vol. 170 ( 3 ) page: 1044 - 1048   1990.8

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  378. SPECIFIC AMPLIFICATION OF DELETED MITOCHONDRIAL-DNA FROM A MYOPATHIC PATIENT AND ANALYSIS OF DELETED REGION WITH S1 NUCLEASE

    TANAKAYAMAMOTO T, TANAKA M, OHNO K, SATO W, HORAI S, OZAWA T

    BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA   Vol. 1009 ( 2 ) page: 151 - 155   1989.11

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  379. DIRECT SEQUENCING OF DELETED MITOCHONDRIAL-DNA IN MYOPATHIC PATIENTS

    TANAKA M, SATO W, OHNO K, YAMAMOTO T, OZAWA T

    BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS   Vol. 164 ( 1 ) page: 156 - 163   1989.10

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  380. MULTIPLE POPULATIONS OF DELETED MITOCHONDRIAL-DNA DETECTED BY A NOVEL GENE AMPLIFICATION METHOD

    SATO W, TANAKA M, OHNO K, YAMAMOTO T, TAKADA G, OZAWA T

    BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS   Vol. 162 ( 2 ) page: 664 - 672   1989.7

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  381. CRYOPRESERVATION OF STRAINS AND MUTANT-GENES IN MICE

    YOSHIKI A, OHNO K, WAKASUGI N

    EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS   Vol. 36 ( 4 ) page: 379 - 386   1987.10

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Books 47

  1. Decoding abnormal splicing code in human diseases

    Rahman MA, Nasrin F, Masuda A, Ohno K. ( Role: Joint author)

    J Invest Genomics   2015 

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    Language:English

  2. Intestinal dysbiosis and lowered serum lipopolysaccharide-binding protein in Parkinson's disease

    Hasegawa S, Goto S, Tsuji H, Okuno T, Asahara T, Nomoto K, Shibata